Igf Signaling is Required for Cardiomyocyte Proliferation during Zebrafish Heart Development and Regeneration.
ABSTRACT: Unlike its mammalian counterpart, the adult zebrafish heart is able to fully regenerate after severe injury. One of the most important events during the regeneration process is cardiomyocyte proliferation, which results in the replacement of lost myocardium. Growth factors that induce cardiomyocyte proliferation during zebrafish heart regeneration remain to be identified. Signaling pathways important for heart development might be reutilized during heart regeneration. IGF2 was recently shown to be important for cardiomyocyte proliferation and heart growth during mid-gestation heart development in mice, although its role in heart regeneration is unknown. We found that expression of igf2b was upregulated during zebrafish heart regeneration. Following resection of the ventricle apex, igf2b expression was detected in the wound, endocardium and epicardium at a time that coincides with cardiomyocyte proliferation. Transgenic zebrafish embryos expressing a dominant negative form of Igf1 receptor (dn-Igf1r) had fewer cardiomyocytes and impaired heart development, as did embryos treated with an Igf1r inhibitor. Moreover, inhibition of Igf1r signaling blocked cardiomyocyte proliferation during heart development and regeneration. We found that Igf signaling is required for a subpopulation of cardiomyocytes marked by gata4:EGFP to contribute to the regenerating area. Our findings suggest that Igf signaling is important for heart development and myocardial regeneration in zebrafish.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The embryonic day E10-13 period of mouse heart development is characterized by robust cardiomyocyte proliferation that creates the compact zone of thickened ventricular wall myocardium. This process is initiated by the formation of the epicardium on the outer heart surface, which releases insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) as the primary cardiomyocyte mitogen. Two receptors mediate IGF2 signaling, the IGF1R and the insulin receptor (INSR). RESULTS:In this study, we addressed the relative roles of the two IGF2 receptors in mouse heart development. We find that both receptors are expressed in the mouse heart during the E10-13 period, although IGF1R is much more prominently activated by IGF2 than INSR. Genetic manipulation indicates that only Igf1r is required for embryonic ventricular wall morphogenesis. INSR is not hyperactivated in the absence of IGF1R, and INSR does not compensate functionally for IGF1R in the absence of the latter. CONCLUSIONS:These results define the molecular components that are responsible for a major burst of cardiomyocyte proliferation during heart development. These results may also be relevant to understanding the efficiency of regeneration of the mammalian heart after neonatal and adult injury.
Project description:Adult mammalian cardiomyocytes have little capacity to proliferate in response to injury, a deficiency that underlies the poor regenerative ability of human hearts after myocardial infarction. By contrast, zebrafish regenerate heart muscle after trauma by inducing proliferation of spared cardiomyocytes, providing a model for identifying manipulations that block or enhance these events. Although direct genetic or chemical screens of heart regeneration in adult zebrafish present several challenges, zebrafish embryos are ideal for high-throughput screening. Here, to visualize cardiomyocyte proliferation events in live zebrafish embryos, we generated transgenic zebrafish lines that employ fluorescent ubiquitylation-based cell cycle indicator (FUCCI) technology. We then performed a chemical screen and identified several small molecules that increase or reduce cardiomyocyte proliferation during heart development. These compounds act via Hedgehog, Insulin-like growth factor or Transforming growth factor β signaling pathways. Direct examination of heart regeneration after mechanical or genetic ablation injuries indicated that these pathways are activated in regenerating cardiomyocytes and that they can be pharmacologically manipulated to inhibit or enhance cardiomyocyte proliferation during adult heart regeneration. Our findings describe a new screening system that identifies molecules and pathways with the potential to modify heart regeneration.
Project description:Psychological stress is one of the factors associated with human cardiovascular disease. Here, we demonstrate that acute perceived stress impairs the natural capacity of heart regeneration in zebrafish. Beside physical and chemical disturbances, intermittent crowding triggered an increase in cortisol secretion and blocked the replacement of fibrotic tissue with new myocardium. Pharmacological simulation of stress by pulse treatment with dexamethasone/adrenaline reproduced the regeneration failure, while inhibition of the stress response with anxiolytic drugs partially rescued the regenerative process. Impaired heart regeneration in stressed animals was associated with a reduced cardiomyocyte proliferation and with the downregulation of several genes, includingigfbp1b, a modulator of IGF signalling. Notably, daily stress induced a decrease in Igf1r phosphorylation. As cardiomyocyte proliferation was decreased in response to IGF-1 receptor inhibition, we propose that the stress-induced cardiac regenerative failure is partially caused by the attenuation of IGF signalling. These findings indicate that the natural regenerative ability of the zebrafish heart is vulnerable to the systemic paracrine stress response.
Project description:Heart regeneration offers a novel therapeutic strategy for heart failure. Unlike mammals, lower vertebrates such as zebrafish mount a strong regenerative response following cardiac injury. Heart regeneration in zebrafish occurs by cardiomyocyte proliferation and reactivation of a cardiac developmental program, as evidenced by induction of gata4 regulatory sequences in regenerating cardiomyocytes. Although many of the cellular determinants of heart regeneration have been elucidated, how injury triggers a regenerative program through dedifferentiation and epicardial activation is a critical outstanding question. Here, we show that NF-κB signaling is induced in cardiomyocytes following injury. Myocardial inhibition of NF-κB activity blocks heart regeneration with pleiotropic effects, decreasing both cardiomyocyte proliferation and epicardial responses. Activation of gata4 regulatory sequences is also prevented by NF-κB signaling antagonism, suggesting an underlying defect in cardiomyocyte dedifferentiation. Our results implicate NF-κB signaling as a key node between cardiac injury and tissue regeneration.
Project description:Zebrafish regenerate cardiac muscle after severe injuries through the activation and proliferation of spared cardiomyocytes. Little is known about factors that control these events. Here we investigated the extent to which miRNAs regulate zebrafish heart regeneration. Microarray analysis identified many miRNAs with increased or reduced levels during regeneration. miR-133, a miRNA with known roles in cardiac development and disease, showed diminished expression during regeneration. Induced transgenic elevation of miR-133 levels after injury inhibited myocardial regeneration, while transgenic miR-133 depletion enhanced cardiomyocyte proliferation. Expression analyses indicated that cell cycle factors mps1, cdc37, and PA2G4, and cell junction components cx43 and cldn5, are miR-133 targets during regeneration. Using pharmacological inhibition and EGFP sensor interaction studies, we found that cx43 is a new miR-133 target and regeneration gene. Our results reveal dynamic regulation of miRNAs during heart regeneration, and indicate that miR-133 restricts injury-induced cardiomyocyte proliferation.
Project description:Previous studies demonstrate that the regenerative zebrafish heart responds to injury by upregulating Notch receptors in the endocardium and epicardium. Moreover, global suppression of Notch activity following injury impairs cardiomyocyte proliferation and induces scarring. However, the lineage-specific requirements for Notch signaling and full array of downstream targets remain unidentified. Here, we demonstrate that inhibition of endocardial Notch signaling following ventricular amputation compromises cardiomyocyte proliferation and stimulates fibrosis. RNA sequencing uncovered reduced levels of two transcripts encoding secreted Wnt antagonists, Wif1 and Notum1b, in Notch-suppressed hearts. Like Notch receptors, wif1 and notum1b are induced following injury in the endocardium and epicardium. Small-molecule-mediated activation of Wnt signaling is sufficient to impair cardiomyocyte proliferation and induce scarring. Last, Wnt pathway suppression partially restored cardiomyocyte proliferation in hearts experiencing endocardial Notch inhibition. Taken together, our data demonstrate that Notch signaling supports cardiomyocyte proliferation by dampening myocardial Wnt activity during zebrafish heart regeneration.
Project description:The adult zebrafish is capable of regenerating heart muscle, resolving collagen tissue, and fully restoring heart function throughout its life. In this study, we show that the highly upregulated, epicardium-enriched microRNA let-7i functions in wound closure and cardiomyocyte proliferation. RNA sequencing experiments identified upregulated expression of members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling pathway in the absence of let-7. Importantly, co-suppression of TNF and let-7 activity rescued epicardium migration and cardiomyocyte proliferation defects induced by depletion of let-7 alone. Sensitizing animals to low levels of TNF activity before injury culminated in repressed cardiomyocyte proliferation and wound closure defects, suggesting that levels of inflammation at the onset of injury are critical for heart regeneration. Our studies indicate that injury-induced reduction in TNF signaling by let-7 in the epicardium creates a pro-regenerative environment for cardiomyocyte proliferation during adult heart regeneration.
Project description:While the heart regenerates poorly in mammals, efficient heart regeneration occurs in zebrafish. Studies in zebrafish have resulted in a model in which preexisting cardiomyocytes dedifferentiate and reinitiate proliferation to replace the lost myocardium. To identify which processes occur in proliferating cardiomyocytes we have used a single-cell RNA-sequencing approach. We uncovered that proliferating border zone cardiomyocytes have very distinct transcriptomes compared to the nonproliferating remote cardiomyocytes and that they resemble embryonic cardiomyocytes. Moreover, these cells have reduced expression of mitochondrial genes and reduced mitochondrial activity, while glycolysis gene expression and glucose uptake are increased, indicative for metabolic reprogramming. Furthermore, we find that the metabolic reprogramming of border zone cardiomyocytes is induced by Nrg1/ErbB2 signaling and is important for their proliferation. This mechanism is conserved in murine hearts in which cardiomyocyte proliferation is induced by activating ErbB2 signaling. Together these results demonstrate that glycolysis regulates cardiomyocyte proliferation during heart regeneration.
Project description:Certain lower vertebrates like zebrafish activate proliferation of spared cardiomyocytes after cardiac injury to regenerate lost heart muscle. Here, we used translating ribosome affinity purification to profile translating RNAs in zebrafish cardiomyocytes during heart regeneration. We identified dynamic induction of several Jak1/Stat3 pathway members following trauma, events accompanied by cytokine production. Transgenic Stat3 inhibition in cardiomyocytes restricted injury-induced proliferation and regeneration, but did not reduce cardiogenesis during animal growth. The secreted protein Rln3a was induced in a Stat3-dependent manner by injury, and exogenous Rln3 delivery during Stat3 inhibition stimulated cardiomyocyte proliferation. Our results identify an injury-specific cardiomyocyte program essential for heart regeneration.
Project description:The human heart's failure to replace ischemia-damaged myocardium with regenerated muscle contributes significantly to the worldwide morbidity and mortality associated with coronary artery disease. Remarkably, certain vertebrate species, including the zebrafish, achieve complete regeneration of amputated or injured myocardium through the proliferation of spared cardiomyocytes. Nonetheless, the genetic and cellular determinants of natural cardiac regeneration remain incompletely characterized. Here, we report that cardiac regeneration in zebrafish relies on Notch signaling. Following amputation of the zebrafish ventricular apex, Notch receptor expression becomes activated specifically in the endocardium and epicardium, but not the myocardium. Using a dominant negative approach, we discovered that suppression of Notch signaling profoundly impairs cardiac regeneration and induces scar formation at the amputation site. We ruled out defects in endocardial activation, epicardial activation, and dedifferentiation of compact myocardial cells as causative for the regenerative failure. Furthermore, coronary endothelial tubes, which we lineage traced from preexisting endothelium in wild-type hearts, formed in the wound despite the myocardial regenerative failure. Quantification of myocardial proliferation in Notch-suppressed hearts revealed a significant decrease in cycling cardiomyocytes, an observation consistent with a noncell autonomous requirement for Notch signaling in cardiomyocyte proliferation. Unexpectedly, hyperactivation of Notch signaling also suppressed cardiomyocyte proliferation and heart regeneration. Taken together, our data uncover the exquisite sensitivity of regenerative cardiomyocyte proliferation to perturbations in Notch signaling.