Changes in protein architecture and subpicosecond protein dynamics impact the reaction catalyzed by lactate dehydrogenase.
ABSTRACT: We have previously established the importance of a promoting vibration, a subpicosecond protein motion that propagates through a specific axis of residues, in the reaction coordinate of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). To test the effect that perturbation of this motion would have on the enzymatic reaction, we employ transition path sampling to obtain transition path ensembles for four independent LDH enzymatic systems: the wild type enzyme, a version of the enzyme expressing heavy isotopic substitution, and two enzymes with mutations in the promoting vibration axis. We show that even slight changes in the promoting vibration of LDH result in dramatic changes in enzymatic chemistry. In the "heavy" version of the enzyme, we find that the dampening of the subpicosecond dynamics from heavy isotopic substitution leads to a drastic increase in the time of barrier crossing. Furthermore, we see that mutation of the promoting vibration axis causes a decrease in the variability of transition paths available to the enzymatic reaction. The combined results reveal the importance of the protein architecture of LDH in enzymatic catalysis by establishing how the promoting vibration is finely tuned to facilitate chemistry.
Project description:We present a new type of allosteric modulation in which a molecule bound outside the active site modifies the chemistry of an enzymatic reaction through rapid protein dynamics. As a test case for this type of allostery, we chose an enzyme with a well-characterized rate-promoting vibration, lactate dehydrogenase; identified a suitable small molecule for binding; and used transition path sampling to obtain ensembles of reactive trajectories. We found that the small molecule significantly affected the reaction by changing the position of the transition state and, through applying committor distribution analysis, showed that it removed the protein component from the reaction coordinate. The ability of a small-molecule to disrupt enzymatic reactions through alteration of subpicosecond protein motion opens the door for new experimental studies on protein motion coupled to enzymatic reactions and possibly the design of drugs to target these enzymes.
Project description:We present new findings about how primary and secondary structure affects the role of fast protein motions in the reaction coordinates of enzymatic reactions. Using transition path sampling and committor distribution analysis, we examined the difference in the role of these fast protein motions in the reaction coordinate of lactate dehydrogenases (LDHs) of Apicomplexa organisms Plasmodium falciparum and Cryptosporidium parvum. Having evolved separately from a common malate dehydrogenase ancestor, the two enzymes exhibit several important structural differences, notably a five-amino acid insertion in the active site loop of P. falciparum LDH. We find that these active site differences between the two organisms' LDHs likely cause a decrease in the contribution of the previously determined LDH rate-promoting vibration to the reaction coordinate of P. falciparum LDH compared to that of C. parvum LDH, specifically in the coupling of the rate-promoting vibration and the hydride transfer. This effect, while subtle, directly shows how changes in structure near the active site of LDH alter catalytically important motions. Insights provided by studying these alterations would prove to be useful in identifying LDH inhibitors that specifically target the isozymes of these parasitic organisms.
Project description:Transition path sampling simulations have proposed that human heart lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) employs protein promoting vibrations (PPVs) on the femtosecond (fs) to picosecond (ps) time scale to promote crossing of the chemical barrier. This chemical barrier involves both hydride and proton transfers to pyruvate to form l-lactate, using reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) as the cofactor. Here we report experimental evidence from three types of isotope effect experiments that support coupling of the promoting vibrations to barrier crossing and the coincidence of hydride and proton transfer. We prepared the native (light) LDH and a heavy LDH labeled with 13C, 15N, and nonexchangeable 2H (D) to perturb the predicted PPVs. Heavy LDH has slowed chemistry in single turnover experiments, supporting a contribution of PPVs to transition state formation. Both the [4-2H]NADH (NADD) kinetic isotope effect and the D2O solvent isotope effect were increased in dual-label experiments combining both NADD and D2O, a pattern maintained with both light and heavy LDHs. These isotope effects support concerted hydride and proton transfer for both light and heavy LDHs. Although the transition state barrier-crossing probability is reduced in heavy LDH, the concerted mechanism of the hydride-proton transfer reaction is not altered. This study takes advantage of triple isotope effects to resolve the chemical mechanism of LDH and establish the coupling of fs-ps protein dynamics to barrier crossing.
Project description:The role of protein dynamics on different time scales in enzyme catalysis remains an area of active debate. The connection between enzyme dynamics on the femtosecond time scale and transition state formation has been demonstrated in human purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) through the study of a mass-altered enzyme. Isotopic substitution in human PNP (heavy PNP) decreased the rate of on-enzyme chemistry but did not alter either the transition state structure or steady-state kinetic parameters. Here we investigate the underlying atomic motions associated with altered barrier crossing probability for heavy PNP. Transition path sampling was employed to illuminate the molecular differences between barrier crossing in light and heavy enzymes. The mass effect is apparent in promoting vibrations that polarize the N-ribosidic bond, and that promote the stability of the purine leaving group. These motions facilitate barrier crossing.
Project description:We examine whether the rate-promoting vibration of lactate dehydrogenase is a preferred axis of thermal energy transfer. While it seems plausible that such a mechanistically important motion is also a favored direction of energy transfer, none of the previous studies of rate-promoting vibrations in enzymatic catalysis have addressed this question. It is equally likely that the promoting vibration, though catalytically important, has no different properties than any other axis in the protein. Resolution of this issue is important for two reasons: First, if energy is transferred along this axis in a preferred fashion, it shows that the protein is engineered in a way that transfers thermal energy into a motion that is coupled to the chemical step. Second, the discovery of a preferred direction of thermal transfer provides a potential route to experimental verification of the promoting vibration concept. Our computational experiments are specifically designed to mimic potential laser experiment with the deposition of thermal energy in an active-site chromophore with subsequent measurement of temperature at various points in the protein. Our results indicate that the promoting vibration is indeed a preferred channel of energy transfer. In addition, we study the vibrational structure of the protein via the dynamical structure factor to show preferred vibrational motion along the promoting vibration axis is an inherent property of the protein structure via thermal fluctuations.
Project description:Heavy-enzyme isotope effects (15N-, 13C-, and 2H-labeled protein) explore mass-dependent vibrational modes linked to catalysis. Transition path-sampling (TPS) calculations have predicted femtosecond dynamic coupling at the catalytic site of human purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP). Coupling is observed in heavy PNPs, where slowed barrier crossing caused a normal heavy-enzyme isotope effect (kchemlight/kchemheavy > 1.0). We used TPS to design mutant F159Y PNP, predicted to improve barrier crossing for heavy F159Y PNP, an attempt to generate a rare inverse heavy-enzyme isotope effect (kchemlight/kchemheavy < 1.0). Steady-state kinetic comparison of light and heavy native PNPs to light and heavy F159Y PNPs revealed similar kinetic properties. Pre-steady-state chemistry was slowed 32-fold in F159Y PNP. Pre-steady-state chemistry compared heavy and light native and F159Y PNPs and found a normal heavy-enzyme isotope effect of 1.31 for native PNP and an inverse effect of 0.75 for F159Y PNP. Increased isotopic mass in F159Y PNP causes more efficient transition state formation. Independent validation of the inverse isotope effect for heavy F159Y PNP came from commitment to catalysis experiments. Most heavy enzymes demonstrate normal heavy-enzyme isotope effects, and F159Y PNP is a rare example of an inverse effect. Crystal structures and TPS dynamics of native and F159Y PNPs explore the catalytic-site geometry associated with these catalytic changes. Experimental validation of TPS predictions for barrier crossing establishes the connection of rapid protein dynamics and vibrational coupling to enzymatic transition state passage.
Project description:Enzymes are the most efficient chemical catalysts known, but the exact nature of chemical barrier crossing in enzymes is not fully understood. Application of transition state theory to enzymatic reactions indicates that the rates of all possible reaction paths, weighted by their relative probabilities, must be considered in order to achieve an accurate calculation of the overall rate. Previous studies in our group have shown a single mechanism for enzymatic barrier passage in human heart lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). To ensure that this result was not due to our methodology insufficiently sampling reactive phase space, we implement high-perturbation transition path sampling in both microcanonical and canonical regimes for the reaction catalyzed by human heart LDH. We find that, although multiple, distinct paths through reactive phase space are possible for this enzymatic reaction, one specific reaction path is dominant. Since the frequency of these paths in a canonical ensemble is inversely proportional to the free energy barriers separating them from other regions of phase space, we conclude that the rarer reaction paths are likely to have a negligible contribution. Furthermore, the non-dominate reaction paths correspond to altered reactive conformations and only occur after multiple steps of high perturbation, suggesting that these paths may be the result of non-biologically significant changes to the structure of the enzymatic active site.
Project description:Morphinone reductase (MR) is an important model system for studying the contribution of protein motions to H-transfer reactions. In this research, we used quantum mechanical/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) simulation together with transition path sampling (TPS) simulation to study two important topics of current research on MR: the existence of multiple catalytic reaction pathways and the involvement of fast protein motions in the catalytic process. We have discovered two reaction pathways for the wild type and three reaction pathways for the N189A mutant. With the committor distribution analysis method, we found reaction coordinates for all five reaction pathways. Only one wild-type reaction pathway has a rate-promoting vibration from His186, while all of the other four pathways do not involve any protein motions in their catalytic process through the transition state. The rate-promoting vibration in the wild-type MR, which comes from a direction perpendicular to the donor-acceptor axis, functions to decrease the donor-acceptor distance by causing a subtle "out-of-plane" motion of a donor atom. By comparing reaction pathways between the two enzymes, we concluded that the major effect of the N189A point mutation is to increase the active site volume by altering the active site backbone and eliminating the Asn189 side chain. This effect causes a different NADH geometry at the reactant state, which very well explains the different reaction mechanisms between the two enzymes, as well as the disappearance of the His186 rate-promoting vibrations in the N189A mutant. The unfavorable geometry of the NADH pyridine ring induced by the N189A point mutation is the potential cause of multiple reaction pathways in N189A mutants.
Project description:Transition path sampling is a well-known technique that generates reactive paths ensembles. Due to the atomic detail of these reactive paths, information about chemical mechanisms can be obtained. We present here a comparative study of Bacillus stearothermophilus and human heart homologues of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). A comparison of the transition path ensemble of both enzymes revealed that small differences in the active site reverses the order of the particle transfer of the chemical step. Whereas the hydride transfer preceded the proton transfer in the human heart LDH, the order is reversed in the Bacillus stearothermophilis homologue (in the direction of pyruvate to lactate). In addition, transition state analysis revealed that the dividing region that separates reactants and products, the separatrix, is likely wider for B. stearothermophilis LDH as compared to human heart LDH. This would indicate a more variable transition process in the Bacillus enzyme.
Project description:The relevance of sub-picosecond protein motions to the catalytic event remains a topic of debate. Heavy enzymes (isotopically substituted) provide an experimental tool for bond-vibrational links to enzyme catalysis. A recent transition path sampling study with heavy purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) characterized the experimentally observed mass-dependent slowing of barrier crossing (Antoniou, D.; Ge, X.; Schramm, V. L.; Schwartz, S. D. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2012, 3, 3538). Here we computationally identify second-sphere amino acid residues predicted to influence the freedom of the catalytic site vibrational modes linked to heavy enzyme effects in PNP. We mutated heavy and light PNPs to increase the catalytic site vibrational freedom. Enzymatic barrier-crossing rates were converted from mass-dependent to mass-independent as a result of the mutations. The mutagenic uncoupling of femtosecond motions between catalytic site groups and reactants decreased transition state barrier crossing by 2 orders of magnitude, an indication of the femtosecond dynamic contributions to catalysis.