Dose-dependent induction of murine Th1/Th2 responses to sheep red blood cells occurs in two steps: antigen presentation during second encounter is decisive.
ABSTRACT: The differentiation of CD4 T cells into Th1 and Th2 cells in vivo is difficult to analyze since it is influenced by many factors such as genetic background of the mice, nature of antigen, and adjuvant. In this study, we used a well-established model, which allows inducing Th1 or Th2 cells simply by low (LD, 10(5)) or high dose (HD, 10(9)) injection of sheep red blood cells (SRBC) into C57BL/6 mice. Signature cytokine mRNA expression was determined in specific splenic compartments after isolation by laser-microdissection. LD immunization with SRBC induced T cell proliferation in the splenic T cell zone but no Th1 differentiation. A second administration of SRBC into the skin rapidly generated Th1 cells. In contrast, HD immunization with SRBC induced both T cell proliferation and immediate Th2 differentiation. In addition, splenic marginal zone and B cell zone were activated indicating B cells as antigen presenting cells. Interestingly, disruption of the splenic architecture, in particular of the marginal zone, abolished Th2 differentiation and led to the generation of Th1 cells, confirming that antigen presentation by B cells directs Th2 polarization. Only in its absence Th1 cells develop. Therefore, B cells might be promising targets in order to therapeutically modulate the T cell response.
Project description:Alkylglycerols (AKGs) are ether-linked glycerols derived from shark liver oil and found in small amounts in human milk. Previous studies showed that oral AKGs administration significantly increased the immune response in mice. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro immunomodulatory effect of AKGs on stimulating splenic lymphocyte responses. C57BL/6 mice were immunized with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Splenic B cells were purified and stimulated with anti-BCR and anti-CD38. Meanwhile, splenic CD4+ T cells were purified and stimulated with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28. For antigen specific stimulation, the purified CD4+ T cells were cocultured with HBsAg -pulsed dendritic cells. The stimulated lymphocytes were treated with different concentrations of AKGs. The cell proliferation was assessed by [3H]-thymidine incorporation assay. The maturation of B cells was assessed by examining the germline (GL) transcription of IgG (?1) mRNA expression, and the surface expressions of CD80/CD86 markers were examined by flow cytometry analysis. Th1/Th2 polarity was assessed by T-BET (Th1)/GATA-3 (Th2) flow cytometry assay and by characteristic cytokines ELISA assay (TNF-? and IFN-? for Th1; IL-4 and IL-10 for Th2). It was found that AKGs significantly increased the BCR/CD38 -stimulated B cell proliferation. The T cell proliferation in response to CD3/CD28 or specific antigen stimulation was also increased by AKGs. The transcriptional level of IgG (?1) and the expressions of CD80/CD86 molecules were markedly increased by AKGs in BCR/CD38 -stimulated B cells. Meanwhile, the results showed that AKGs increased the expression of T-BET transcriptional factor and the production of Th1 cytokines (TNF-? and IFN-?) upon CD3/CD28 stimulation; whereas, levels of Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10) were decreased by AKGs. Our study demonstrated that AKGs can modulate immune responses by boosting the proliferation and maturation of murine lymphocytes in vitro.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Inappropriately sustained inflammation is a hallmark of chronic ischemic heart failure (HF); however, the pathophysiological role of T lymphocytes is unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS:Permanent coronary ligation was performed in adult C57BL/6 mice. When compared with sham-operated mice, mice with HF (8 weeks after ligation) exhibited the following features: (1) significant (P<0.05) expansion of circulating CD3+CD8+ cytotoxic and CD3+CD4+ helper (Th) T lymphocytes, together with increased Th1, Th2, Th17, and regulatory T-cell (Treg) CD4+ subsets; (2) significant expansion of CD8+ and CD4+ T cells in failing myocardium, with increased Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg CD4+ subsets, marked reduction of the Th1/Th2 ratio, augmentation of the Th17/Treg ratio, and upregulation of Th2 cytokines; and (3) significantly increased Th1, Th2, Th17 cells, and Tregs, in the spleen and mediastinal lymph nodes, with expansion of splenic antigen-experienced effector and memory CD4+ T cells. Antibody-mediated CD4+ T-cell depletion in HF mice (starting 4 weeks after ligation) reduced cardiac infiltration of CD4+ T cells and prevented progressive left ventricular dilatation and hypertrophy, whereas adoptive transfer of splenic CD4+ T cells (and, to a lesser extent, cardiac CD3+ T cells) from donor mice with HF induced long-term left ventricular dysfunction, fibrosis, and hypertrophy in naive recipient mice. CONCLUSIONS:CD4+ T lymphocytes are globally expanded and activated in chronic ischemic HF, with Th2 (versus Th1) and Th17 (versus Treg) predominance in failing hearts, and with expansion of memory T cells in the spleen. Cardiac and splenic T cells in HF are primed to induce cardiac injury and remodeling, and retain this memory on adoptive transfer.
Project description:Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) has recently been recognized to regulate adaptive immunity through Th17 differentiation, Treg functions, and TFH responses. However, its role in adaptive immunity and autoimmune disease is still not clear, possibly due to sexual differences. Here, we investigated in vitro treatment study with the PPAR? agonist pioglitazone to compare Th1, Th2, and Th17 differentiation in male and female mouse splenic T cells. Pioglitazone treatment significantly inhibited various effector T cell differentiations including Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells from female naïve T cells, but it selectively reduced IL-17 production in male Th17 differentiation. Interestingly, pioglitazone and estradiol (E2) co-treatment of T cells in males inhibited differentiation of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells, suggesting a mechanism for the greater sensitivity of PPAR? to ligand treatment in the regulation of effector T cell differentiation in females. Collectively, these results demonstrate that PPAR? selectively inhibits Th17 differentiation only in male T cells and modulates Th1, Th2, and Th17 differentiation in female T cells based on different level of estrogen exposure. Accordingly, PPAR? could be an important immune regulator of sexual differences in adaptive immunity.
Project description:Antigen-specific IgG antibodies, passively administered together with large particulate antigens such as erythrocytes, can completely suppress the antigen-specific antibody response. The mechanism behind has been elusive. Herein, we made the surprising observation that mice immunized with IgG anti-sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and SRBC, in spite of a severely suppressed anti-SRBC response, have a strong germinal center (GC) response. This occurred regardless of whether the passively administered IgG was of the same allotype as that of the recipient or not. Six days after immunization, the GC size and the number of GC B cells were higher in mice immunized with SRBC alone than in mice immunized with IgG and SRBC, but at the other time points these parameters were similar. GCs in the IgG-groups had a slight shift toward dark zone B cells 6?days after immunization and toward light zone B cells 10?days after immunization. The proportions of T follicular helper cells (TFH) and T follicular regulatory cells (TFR) were similar in the two groups. Interestingly, mice immunized with allogeneic IgG anti-SRBC together with SRBC mounted a vigorous antibody response against the passively administered suppressive IgG. Thus, although their anti-SRBC response was almost completely suppressed, an antibody response against allogeneic, and probably also syngeneic, IgG developed. This most likely explains the development of GCs in the absence of an anti-SRBC antibody response.
Project description:Previous epidemiological studies in humans and experimental studies in animals indicate that survivors of severe sepsis exhibit deficiencies in the activation and effector function of immune cells. In particular, CD4+ T lymphocytes can exhibit reduced proliferative capacity and improper cytokine responses following sepsis. To further investigate the cell-intrinsic defects of CD4+ T cells following sepsis, splenic CD4+ T cells from sham surgery and post-septic mice were transferred into lymphopenic mice. These recipient mice were then subjected to both TH1-(purified protein derivative) and TH2-(Schistosoma mansoni egg antigen) driven models of granulomatous lung inflammation. Post-septic CD4+ T cells mediated smaller TH1 and larger TH2 lung granulomas as compared to mice receiving CD4+ T cells from sham surgery donors. However, cytokine production by lymph node cells in antigen restimulation assays indicated increased pan-specific cytokine expression by post-septic CD4+ T cell recipient mice in both TH1 and TH2 granuloma models. These include increased production of T(H)2 cytokines in TH1 inflammation, and increased production of T(H)1 cytokines in TH2 inflammation. These results suggest that cell-intrinsic defects in CD4+ T cell effector function can have deleterious effects on inflammatory processes post-sepsis, due to a defect in the proper regulation of TH-specific cytokine expression.
Project description:Recent studies have highlighted the importance of peripheral induction of Foxp3-expressing regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the dominant control of immunological tolerance. However, Foxp3(+) Treg differentiation from naïve CD4(+) T cells occurs only under selective conditions, whereas the classical T helper (Th) 1 and 2 effector development often dominate T cell immune responses to antigen stimulation in the periphery. The reason for such disparity remains poorly understood. Here we report that Th1/Th2-polarizing cytokines can potently inhibit Foxp3(+) Treg differentiation from naïve CD4(+) precursors induced by TGF-beta. Furthermore, antigen receptor-primed CD4(+) T cells are resistant to Treg induction because of autocrine production of IFNgamma and/or IL-4, whereas neutralizing IFNgamma and IL-4 not only can potentiate TGF-beta-mediated Foxp3 induction in vitro but can also enhance antigen-specific Foxp3(+) Treg differentiation in vivo. Mechanistically, inhibition of Foxp3(+) Treg development by Th1/Th2-polarizing cytokines involves the activation of Th1/Th2 lineage transcription factors T-bet and GATA-3 through the canonical Stat1-, Stat4-, and Stat6-dependent pathways. Using IFNgamma and IL-4 knockouts and retrovirus-mediated transduction of T-bet and GATA-3, we further demonstrate that enforced expression of the Th1/Th2 lineage-specific transcription factors is sufficient to block Foxp3 induction and Treg differentiation independent of the polarizing/effector cytokines. Thus, our study has unraveled a previously unrecognized mechanism of negative cross-regulation of Foxp3(+) Treg fate choice by Th1/Th2 lineage activities. In addition, these findings also provide an attainable explanation for the general paucity of antigen-triggered de novo generation of Foxp3(+) Tregs in the periphery.
Project description:Recent reports suggested that Delta1, 4 and Jagged1, 2 possessed the ability to instruct CD4(+) T cell into selection of Th1 or Th2 fates, respectively, although the underlying mechanism endowing the cleaved Notch receptor with memory of ligand involved in its activation remains elusive. To examine this, we prepared artificial antigen-presenting cells expressing either DLL1 or Jag1. Although both ligands were efficient in inducing Notch2 cleavage and activation in CD4(+) T or reporter cells, the presence of Lunatic Fringe in CD4(+) T cells inhibited Jag1 activation of Notch1 receptor. Neither ligand could induce Th1 or Th2 fate choice independently of cytokines or redirect cytokine-driven Th1 or Th2 development. Instead, we find that Notch ligands only augment cytokine production during T cell differentiation in the presence of polarizing IL-12 and IL-4. Moreover, the differentiation choices of naïve CD4(+) T cells lacking gamma-secretase, RBP-J, or both in response to polarizing cytokines revealed that neither presenilin proteins nor RBP-J were required for cytokine-induced Th1/Th2 fate selection. However, presenilins facilitate cellular proliferation and cytokine secretion in an RBP-J (and thus, Notch) independent manner. The controversies surrounding the role of Notch and presenilins in Th1/Th2 polarization may reflect their role as genetic modifiers of T-helper cells differentiation.
Project description:T helper 1 (Th1)-Th2 cell balance is key to host defense and its dysregulation has pathophysiological consequences. Basophils are important in Th2 cell differentiation. However, the factors controlling the onset and extent of basophil-mediated Th2 cell differentiation are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that Lyn kinase dampened basophil expression of the transcription factor GATA-3 and the initiation and extent of Th2 cell differentiation. Lyn-deficient mice had a marked basophilia, a constitutive Th2 cell skewing that was exacerbated upon in vivo challenge of basophils, produced antibodies to a normally inert antigen, and failed to appropriately respond to a Th1 cell-inducing pathogen. The Th2 cell skewing was dependent on basophils, immunoglobulin E, and interleukin-4, but was independent of mast cells. Our findings demonstrate that basophil-expressed Lyn kinase exerts regulatory control on Th2 cell differentiation and function.
Project description:In acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), naive donor CD4(+) T cells recognize alloantigens on host antigen-presenting cells and differentiate into T helper (Th) subsets (Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells), but the role of Th subsets in GVHD pathogenesis is incompletely characterized. Here we report that, in an MHC-mismatched model of C57BL/6 donor to BALB/c recipient, WT donor CD4(+) T cells predominantly differentiated into Th1 cells and preferentially mediated GVHD tissue damage in gut and liver. However, absence of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in CD4(+) T cells resulted in augmented Th2 and Th17 differentiation and exacerbated tissue damage in lung and skin; absence of both IL-4 and IFN-gamma resulted in augmented Th17 differentiation and preferential, although not exclusive, tissue damage in skin; and absence of both IFN-gamma and IL-17 led to further augmentation of Th2 differentiation and idiopathic pneumonia. The tissue-specific GVHD mediated by Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells was in part associated with their tissue-specific migration mediated by differential expression of chemokine receptors. Furthermore, lack of tissue expression of the IFN-gamma-inducible B7-H1 played a critical role in augmenting the Th2-mediated idiopathic pneumonia. These results indicate donor CD4(+) T cells can reciprocally differentiate into Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells that mediate organ-specific GVHD.
Project description:Polymicrobial sepsis alters the adaptive immune response and induces T cell suppression and Th2 immune polarization. We identify a GR-1(+)CD11b(+) population whose numbers dramatically increase and remain elevated in the spleen, lymph nodes, and bone marrow during polymicrobial sepsis. Phenotypically, these cells are heterogeneous, immature, predominantly myeloid progenitors that express interleukin 10 and several other cytokines and chemokines. Splenic GR-1(+) cells effectively suppress antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell interferon (IFN) gamma production but only modestly suppress antigen-specific and nonspecific CD4(+) T cell proliferation. GR-1(+) cell depletion in vivo prevents both the sepsis-induced augmentation of Th2 cell-dependent and depression of Th1 cell-dependent antibody production. Signaling through MyD88, but not Toll-like receptor 4, TIR domain-containing adaptor-inducing IFN-beta, or the IFN-alpha/beta receptor, is required for complete GR-1(+)CD11b(+) expansion. GR-1(+)CD11b(+) cells contribute to sepsis-induced T cell suppression and preferential Th2 polarization.