Characterisation of enterovirus 71 replication kinetics in human colorectal cell line, HT29.
ABSTRACT: Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD), a contagious viral disease that commonly affects infants and children with blisters and flu like symptoms, is caused by a group of enteroviruses such as Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16). However some HFMD caused by EV71 may further develop into severe neurological complications such as encephalitis and meningitis. The route of transmission was postulated that the virus transmit from one person to another through direct contact of vesicular fluid or droplet from the infected or via faecal-oral route. To this end, this study utilised a human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (HT29) with epithelioid morphology as an in vitro model for the investigation of EV71 replication kinetics. Using qPCR, viral RNA was first detected in HT29 cells as early as 12 h post infection (hpi) while viral protein was first detected at 48 hpi. A significant change in HT29 cells' morphology was also observed after 48 hpi. Furthermore HT29 cell viability also significantly decreased at 72 hpi. Together, data from this study demonstrated that co-culture of HT29 with EV71 is a useful in vitro model to study the pathogenesis of EV71.
Project description:Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) are the predominant etiological agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and both belong to the human enterovirus A species of the Picornaviridae family. These viruses share similar genetic homology, although the clinical manifestations of HFMD caused by the two viruses have some discrepancies. Furthermore, the underlying mechanisms leading to these differences remain unclear. microRNAs (miRNAs) participate in numerous biological or pathological processes, including host responses to viral infections, by targeting messenger RNAs (mRNAs) for translational repression or degradation. Here, we focused on differences in miRNA expression patterns in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of rhesus monkeys infected with EV71 or CA16 at different time points using high-throughput sequencing technology. For the first time, this study demonstrated that EV71 and CA16 infection result in specific miRNA expression patterns in PBMCs. Overall design: The EV71 virus strain (sub-genotype C4, GenBank: EU812515.1) that originated from an epidemic in Fuyang, China in 2008 and the CA16 virus G20 strain (sub-genotype B, GenBank: JN590244.1), which originated from an HFMD patient in Guangxi in 2010, were propagated in PBMCs at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 1 the following day. Cells were infected in triplicate and collected at 0, 24 and 48 hours post infection (hpi). Cells infected with EV71 and CA16 for 0 hpi were used as controls. We defined the different experimental groups as EV71-0h, EV71-24h, EV71-48h, CA16-0h, CA16-24h and CA16-48h.
Project description:Enterovirus type 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A 16 (CA16) are the major pathogens of human hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). In our previous study, intramuscular immunization with the inactivated EV71 vaccine elicited effective immunity, while immunization with the inactivated CA16 vaccine did not. In this report, we focused on innate immune responses elicited by inactivated EV71 and CA16 antigens administered intradermally or intramuscularly. The distributions of the EV71 and CA16 antigens administered intradermally or intramuscularly were not obviously different, but the antigens were detected for a shorter period of time when administered intradermally. The expression levels of NF-?B pathway signaling molecules, which were identified as being capable of activating DCs, ILCs, and T cells, were higher in the intradermal group than in the intramuscular group. Antibodies for the EV71 and CA16 antigens colocalized with ILCs and DCs in skin and muscle tissues under fluorescence microscopy. Interestingly, ILC colocalization decreased over time, while DC colocalization increased over time. ELISpot analysis showed that coordination between DCs and ILCs contributed to successful adaptive immunity against vaccine antigens in the skin. EV71 and/or CA16 antigen immunization via the intradermal route was more capable of significantly increasing neutralizing antibody titers and activating specific T cell responses than immunization via the intramuscular route. Furthermore, neonatal mice born to mothers immunized with the EV71 and CA16 antigens were 100% protected against wild-type EV71 or CA16 viral challenge. Together, our results provide new insights into the development of vaccines for HFMD.
Project description:Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) are the two most common etiological agents responsible for the epidemics of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), a childhood illness with occasional severe neurological complications. A number of vaccine candidates against EV71 or CA16 have been reported; however, no vaccine is currently available for clinical use. Here, we generated a secreted version of EV71 and CA16 virus-like particles (VLPs) using a baculovirus-insect cell expression system and reconstructed the three-dimensional (3D) structures of both VLPs by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) single-particle analysis at 5.2-? and 5.5-? resolutions, respectively. The reconstruction results showed that the cryo-EM structures of EV71 and CA16 VLPs highly resemble the recently published crystal structures for EV71 natural empty particles and CA16 135S-like expanded particles, respectively. Our cryo-EM analysis also revealed that the majority of previously identified linear neutralizing epitopes are well preserved on the surface of EV71 and CA16 VLPs. In addition, both VLPs were able to induce efficiently neutralizing antibodies against various strains of EV71 and CA16 viruses in mouse immunization. These studies provide a structural basis for the development of insect cell-expressed VLP vaccines and for a potential bivalent VLP vaccine against both EV71- and CA16-associated HFMD.The recent outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in the Asia Pacific region spurred the search for effective vaccines against EV71 and CA16 viruses, the two most common etiological agents responsible for HFMD. In this paper, we show that secreted versions of EV71 and CA16 VLPs generated in the baculovirus-insect cell expression system highly resemble the crystal structures of their viral conterparts and that the majority of previously identified linear neutralizing epitopes are well preserved on the VLP surfaces. In addition, the generated VLPs can efficiently induce neutralizing antibodies against various strains of EV71 and CA16 viruses in mouse immunization. These studies provide a structural basis for the development of insect cell-expressed VLP vaccines and for a potential bivalent VLP vaccine against both EV71- and CA16-associated HFMD.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) were responsible for 43.3% (235 123/543 243) and 24.8% (134 607/543 243) of all laboratory-confirmed hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) cases during 2010-2015 in China. Three monovalent EV71 vaccines have been licensed in China while bivalent EV71/CA16 vaccines are under development. A comparative cost-effectiveness analysis of bivalent EV71/CA16 versus monovalent EV71 vaccination would be useful for informing the additional value of bivalent HFMD vaccines in China. METHODS:We used a static model parameterized with the national HFMD surveillance data during 2010-2013, virological HFMD surveillance records from all 31 provinces in mainland China during 2010-2013 and caregiver survey data of costs and health quality of life during 2012-2013. We estimated the threshold vaccine cost (TVC), defined as the maximum additional cost that could be paid for a cost-effective bivalent EV71/CA16 vaccine over a monovalent EV71 vaccine, as the outcome. The base case analysis was performed from a societal perspective. Several sensitivity analyses were conducted by varying assumptions governing HFMD risk, costs, discounting and vaccine efficacy. RESULTS:In the base case, choosing the bivalent EV71/CA16 over monovalent EV71 vaccination would be cost-effective only if the additional cost of the bivalent EV71/CA16 compared with the monovalent EV71 vaccine is less than €4.7 (95% CI 4.2-5.2). Compared with the TVC in the base case, TVC increased by up to €8.9 if all the test-negative cases were CA16-HFMD; decreased by €1.1 with an annual discount rate of 6% and exclusion of the productivity loss; and increased by €0.14 and €0.3 with every 1% increase in bivalent vaccine efficacy against CA16-HFMD and differential vaccine efficacy against EV71-HFMD, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Bivalent EV71/CA16 vaccines can be cost-effective compared with monovalent EV71 vaccines, if suitably priced. Our study provides further evidence for determining the optimal use of HFMD vaccines in routine paediatric vaccination programme in China.
Project description:Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common pediatric illness mainly caused by infection with enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16). The frequent HFMD outbreaks have become a serious public health problem. Currently, no vaccine or antiviral drug for EV71/CA16 infections has been approved. In this study, a two-step screening platform consisting of reporter virus-based assays and cell viability?based assays was developed to identify potential inhibitors of EV71/CA16 infection. Two types of reporter viruses, a pseudovirus containing luciferase-encoding RNA replicons encapsidated by viral capsid proteins and a full-length reporter virus containing enhanced green fluorescent protein, were used for primary screening of 400 highly purified natural compounds. Thereafter, a cell viability-based secondary screen was performed for the identified hits to confirm their antiviral activities. Three compounds (luteolin, galangin, and quercetin) were identified, among which luteolin exhibited the most potent inhibition of viral infection. In the cell viability assay and plaque reduction assay, luteolin showed similar 50% effective concentration (EC50) values of about 10 ?M. Luteolin targeted the post-attachment stage of EV71 and CA16 infection by inhibiting viral RNA replication. This study suggests that luteolin may serve as a lead compound to develop potent anti-EV71 and CA16 drugs.
Project description:Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common infectious disease caused by multiple enteroviruses (EVs) in China. To better define the etiologic agents and clinical characteristics of HFMD, we conducted this study in Yunnan, China.In this study, 1280 stool specimens were collected from pediatric patients hospitalized for treatment of HFMD in 2010. EV was detected with nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and directly genotyped by gene sequencing of the viral protein 1 (VP1) region. Phylogenetic analysis was performed based on the VP1 partial gene and the clinical characteristics were analyzed using SPSS Software.Of 1280 specimens, 1115 (87.1%) tested positive for EV. Seventeen different EV serotypes were detected. Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) was the most frequently detected serotype (615/1115 cases, 55.1%), followed by enterovirus 71 (EV71; 392/1115, 35.2%), CA10 (45/1115, 4.0%), and CA4 (23/1115, 2.1%). Among the 709 severe cases, CA16, EV71, CA10, and CA4 accounted for 48.0%, 42.0%, 3.5%, and 2.3%, respectively. Of the 26 critical cases, 13 were caused by EV71, 9 by CA16, 2 by CA4, and 1 each were the result of CA10 and E9, respectively. All EV71, CA16, CA10, and CA4 isolates were highly homologous to the strains isolated from mainland China, and belonged to the C4a, B1a, G, and C genotypes, respectively.Our study showed that EV71 and CA16 were the main causative agents for severe and critical HFMD, but other serotypes can also cause severe and critical cases.
Project description:Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) are the major etiological agents of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and are often associated with neurological complications. Currently, several vaccine types are being developed for EV71 and CA16. In this study, we constructed a bivalent chimeric virus-like particle (VLP) presenting the VP1 (aa208-222) and VP2 (aa141-155) epitopes of EV71 using hepatitis B virus core protein (HBc) as a carrier, designated HBc-E1/2. Immunization with the chimeric VLPs HBc-E1/2 induced higher IgG titers and neutralization titers against EV71 and CA16 in vitro than immunization with only one epitope incorporated into HBc. Importantly, passive immunization with the recombinant HBc-E2 particles protected neonatal mice against lethal EV71 and CA16 infections. We demonstrate that anti-VP2 (aa141-155) sera bound authentic CA16 viral particles, whereas anti-VP1 (aa208-222) sera could not. Moreover, the anti-VP2 (aa141-155) antibodies inhibited the binding of human serum to virions, which demonstrated that the VP2 epitope is immunodominant between EV71 and CA16. These results illustrated that the chimeric VLP HBc-E1/2 is a promising candidate for a broad-spectrum HFMD vaccine, and also reveals mechanisms of protection by the neighboring linear epitopes of the VP1 GH and VP2 EF loops.
Project description:Sporadic HFMD (hand foot and mouth disease, HFMD) cases and outbreaks caused by etiologic agents other than EV71 and CA16 have increased globally. We conducted this study to investigate the prevalence and genetic characteristics of enteroviruses, especially the non-EV71 and non-CA16 enteroviruses, causing HFMD in Shanghai. Clinical specimens were collected from patients with a diagnosis of HFMD. A partial length of VP1 was amplified with RT-PCR and subjected to direct sequencing. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using MEGA 5.0. The ages of the HFMD cases ranged from 3 to 96 months, and the male/female ratio was 1.41. The median hospital stay was 2.96 days. Up to 18.0% of patients had neurologic system complications such as encephalitis, meningoencephalitis or meningitis. Of the 480 samples, 417 were positive for enterovirus (86.9%) with RT-PCR. A total of 13 enterovirus genotypes were identified. The most frequent genotypes were CA6 (31.9%), EV71 (30.6%), CA16 (8.8%) and CA10 (7.5%). Infections with CA6, EV71, CA16 and CA10 were prevalent throughout the years of study, while the proportion of CA6 notably increased from Sep. 2012 to Dec. 2013. Phylogenetic analyses showed that EV71 strains belonged to the C4a subgenogroup and CA16 was identified as B1b subgenogroup. The CA6 strains were assigned to genogroup F, whereas the CA10 strains were assigned to genogroup D. Patients infected with CA6 were typically younger, had a shorter hospital stay and had a lower incidence of neurologic system complications when compared to patients infected with EV71. Our study demonstrates that the enterovirus genotypes causing HFMD were diversified, and there was an increasing prevalence of the non-EV71 and non-CA16 enteroviruses from 2012 to 2013. CA6 was the most predominant pathogen causing HFMD from Sep. 2012 to Dec. 2013, and it often caused relatively mild HFMD symptoms. Most severe HFMD cases were associated with EV71 infection.
Project description:The recent, ongoing epidemic of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), which is caused by enterovirus infection, has affected millions of children and resulted in thousands of deaths in China. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackie A16 (CA16) are the two major distinct pathogens for HFMD. However, EV71 is more commonly associated with neurologic complications and even fatalities. Therefore, simultaneously detecting and differentiating EV71 and CA16 specifically from other enteroviruses for diagnosing HFMD is important. Here, we developed a one-step, triplex, real-time RT-PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of EV71, CA16, and pan-enterovirus (EVs) in a single tube with an internal amplification control. The detection results for the serially diluted viruses indicate that the lower limit of detection for this assay is 0.001-0.04 TCID50/ml, 0.02 TCID50/ml, and 0.001 TCID50/ml for EVs, EV71, and CA16, respectively. After evaluating known HFMD virus stocks of 17 strains of 16 different serotypes, this assay showed a favorable detection spectrum and no obvious cross-reactivity. The results for 141 clinical throat swabs from HFMD-suspected patients demonstrated sensitivities of 98.4%, 98.7%, and 100% for EVs, EV71, and CA16, respectively, and 100% specificity for each virus. The application of this one-step, triplex, real-time RT-PCR assay in clinical units will contribute to HFMD surveillance and help to identify causative pathogen in patients with suspected HFMD.
Project description:Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is an important public health problem that has emerged over the past several years. HFMD predominantly infects children under seven years old and occasionally causes severe disease in adults. Among the enteroviruses, enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus 16 (CA16) are the major causative agents of HFMD. In addition, adenovirus cocirculates with enterovirus and has become a possible additional pathogenic factor for HFMD in some cases. Here, we have investigated the neutralizing antibody responses to both enterovirus and adenovirus in adults, with the aim of exploring the prevalence trends of these viruses and the nature of protective immunity in humans to these viral infections. Sera from 391 healthy adults from 21 provinces and cities in China were tested for the presence of antibodies against EV71, CA16, adenovirus human serotype 5 (AdHu5) and chimpanzee adenovirus pan7 (AdC7) using neutralization tests. High seroprevalence rates of EV71, CA16 and AdHu5 were found in the population (85.7%, 58.8% and 74.2%, respectively). The coseropositivity rate of these three viruses was 39.4% (154 of 391), with median neutralizing antibody titers of 80, 40 and 640, respectively, and the neutralizing antibody titer for EV71 was found to be correlated with those of CA16 and AdHu5. AdC7 was found to be a rare adenovirus serotype in the human population, with a seropositivity rate of 11.8%, suggesting that it could be a good choice for a vaccine carrier that could be used in vaccine development.