Tweaking the cholesterol efflux capacity of reconstituted HDL.
ABSTRACT: Mechanisms to increase plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) or to promote egress of cholesterol from cholesterol-loaded cells (e.g., foam cells from atherosclerotic lesions) remain an important target to regress heart disease. Reconstituted HDL (rHDL) serves as a valuable vehicle to promote cellular cholesterol efflux in vitro and in vivo. rHDL were prepared with wild type apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and the rare variant, apoA-I Milano (M), and each apolipoprotein was reconstituted with phosphatidylcholine (PC) or sphingomyelin (SM). The four distinct rHDL generated were incubated with CHO cells, J774 macrophages, and BHK cells in cellular cholesterol efflux assays. In each cell type, apoA-I(M) SM-rHDL promoted the greatest cholesterol efflux. In BHK cells, the cholesterol efflux capacities of all four distinct rHDL were greatly enhanced by increased expression of ABCG1. Efflux to PC-containing rHDL was stimulated by transfection of a nonfunctional ABCA1 mutant (W590S), suggesting that binding to ABCA1 represents a competing interaction. This interpretation was confirmed by binding experiments. The data show that cholesterol efflux activity is dependent upon the apoA-I protein employed, as well as the phospholipid constituent of the rHDL. Future studies designed to optimize the efflux capacity of therapeutic rHDL may improve the value of this emerging intervention strategy.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Infusion of reconstituted HDL (rHDL) leads to changes in HDL metabolism as well as to an increased capacity of plasma to support cholesterol efflux providing an opportunity to investigate mechanisms linking cholesterol efflux to changes in plasma HDL. METHODS AND RESULTS:Patient plasmas after infusion of rHDL were tested ex vivo for their capacity to stimulate cholesterol efflux. Reconstituted HDL enhanced mobilization of cholesterol from tissues in vivo as shown by rising HDL cholesterol concentrations over the infusion period. Infusion of rHDL in vivo led to increased cholesterol efflux ex vivo; surprisingly, removing apoB-containing lipoproteins while preserving all HDL subfractions eliminated this increase. Infusion of rHDL led to the remodelling of plasma HDL; however, the capacity of plasma to support cholesterol efflux did not correlate with changes in the concentrations of any of HDL subfractions. Unmodified rHDL accounted for only a proportion of the increment in cholesterol efflux capacity. Furthermore, studies using HeLa and BHK cells overexpressing ABCA1, ABCG1, and SR-B1 showed that the contribution of these cellular mediators of cholesterol efflux to the enhanced capacity of plasma for the efflux was minimal. CONCLUSION:Enhanced cholesterol efflux from tissues requires the presence of apoB-containing lipoproteins and may involve enhanced flow of cholesterol through multiple components of the reverse cholesterol transport pathway rather than being determined by a specific HDL subfraction.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The apolipoprotein (apo)A-I mimetic peptide 5A is highly specific for ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABC)A1-mediated cholesterol efflux. We investigated whether the 5A peptide shares other beneficial features of apoA-I, such as protection against inflammation and oxidation. Methods- New Zealand white rabbits received an infusion of apoA-I, reconstituted high-density lipoprotein (HDL) containing apoA-I ([A-I]rHDL), or the 5A peptide complexed with phospholipids (1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl phosphatidylcholine [PLPC]), before inserting a collar around the carotid artery. Human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) were incubated with (A-I)rHDL or 5A/PLPC before stimulation with tumor necrosis factor alpha. Results- ApoA-I, (A-I)rHDL, and 5A/PLPC reduced the collar-mediated increase in (1) endothelial expression of cell adhesion molecules vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1; (2) production, as well as the expression of the Nox4 catalytic subunits of the NADPH oxidase; and (3) infiltration of circulating neutrophils into the carotid intima-media. In HCAECs, both 5A/PLPC and (A-I)rHDL inhibited tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression, as well as the nuclear factor kappaB signaling cascade and production. The effects of the 5A/PLPC complex were no longer apparent in HCAECs knocked down for ABCA1. CONCLUSIONS:Like apoA-I, the 5A peptide inhibits acute inflammation and oxidative stress in rabbit carotids and HCAECs. In vitro, the 5A peptide exerts these beneficial effects through interaction with ABCA1.
Project description:The goal of this study was to understand how the reconstituted HDL (rHDL) phospholipid (PL) composition affects its cholesterol efflux and anti-inflammatory properties. An ApoA-I mimetic peptide, 5A, was combined with either SM or POPC. Both lipid formulations exhibited similar in vitro cholesterol efflux by ABCA1, but 5A-SM exhibited higher ABCG1- and SR-BI-mediated efflux relative to 5A-POPC (P < 0.05). Injection of both rHDLs in rats resulted in mobilization of plasma cholesterol, although the relative potency was 3-fold higher for the same doses of 5A-SM than for 5A-POPC. Formation of pre? HDL was observed following incubation of rHDLs with both human and rat plasma in vitro, with 5A-SM inducing a higher extent of pre? formation relative to 5A-POPC. Both rHDLs exhibited anti-inflammatory properties, but 5A-SM showed higher inhibition of TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-1? release than did 5A-POPC (P < 0.05). Both 5A-SM and 5A-POPC showed reduction in total plaque area in ApoE(-/-) mice, but only 5A-SM showed a statistically significant reduction over placebo control and baseline (P < 0.01). The type of PL used to reconstitute peptide has significant influence on rHDL's anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerosis properties.
Project description:Apolipoprotein (apo) A-I is the major protein component of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and plays key roles in the Reverse Cholesterol Transport pathway. In the past decade, reconstituted HDL (rHDL) has been employed as a therapeutic agent for treatment of atherosclerosis. The ability of rHDL to promote cholesterol efflux from peripheral cells has been documented to reduce the size of atherosclerotic plaque lesions. However, development of apoA-I rHDL-based therapeutics for human use requires a cost effective process to generate an apoA-I product that meets "Good Manufacturing Practice" standards. Methods available for production and isolation of unmodified recombinant human apoA-I at scale are cumbersome, laborious and complex. To overcome this obstacle, a streamlined two-step procedure has been devised for isolation of recombinant untagged human apoA-I from E. coli that takes advantage of its ability to re-fold to a native conformation following denaturation. Heat treatment of a sonicated E. coli supernatant fraction induced precipitation of a large proportion of host cell proteins (HCP), yielding apoA-I as the major soluble protein. Reversed-phase HPLC of this material permitted recovery of apoA-I largely free of HCP and endotoxin. Purified apoA-I possessed ?-helix secondary structure, formed rHDL upon incubation with phospholipid and efficiently promoted cholesterol efflux from cholesterol loaded J774 macrophages.
Project description:Reconstituted high-density lipoprotein (rHDL) is of interest as a potential novel therapy for atherosclerosis because of its ability to promote free cholesterol (FC) mobilization after intravenous administration. We performed studies to identify the underlying molecular mechanisms by which rHDL promote FC mobilization from whole body in vivo and macrophages in vitro.Wild-type (WT), SR-BI knockout (KO), ABCA1 KO, and ABCG1 KO mice received either rHDL or phosphate-buffered saline intravenously. Blood was drawn before and at several time points after injection for apolipoprotein A-I, phosphatidylcholine, and FC measurement. In WT mice, serum FC peaked at 20 minutes and rapidly returned toward baseline levels by 24 hours. Unexpectedly, ABCA1 KO and ABCG1 KO mice did not differ from WT mice regarding the kinetics of FC mobilization. In contrast, in SR-BI KO mice the increase in FC level at 20 minutes was only 10% of that in control mice (P<0.01). Bone marrow-derived macrophages from WT, SR-BI O, ABCA1 KO, and ABCG1 KO mice were incubated in vitro with rHDL and cholesterol efflux was determined. Efflux from SR-BI KO and ABCA1 KO macrophages was not different from WT macrophages. In contrast, efflux from ABCG1 KO macrophages was approximately 50% lower as compared with WT macrophages (P<0.001).The bulk mobilization of FC observed in circulation after rHDL administration is primarily mediated by SR-BI. However, cholesterol mobilization from macrophages to rHDL is primarily mediated by ABCG1.
Project description:Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) of high density lipoproteins (HDLs) is essential for the transportation of cholesterol between peripheral tissues and the liver. However, specific mutations in ApoA-I of HDLs are responsible for a late-onset systemic amyloidosis, the pathological accumulation of protein fibrils in tissues and organs. Carriers of these mutations do not exhibit increased cardiovascular disease risk despite displaying reduced levels of ApoA-I/HDL cholesterol. To explain this paradox, we show that the HDL particle profiles of patients carrying either L75P or L174S ApoA-I amyloidogenic variants show a higher relative abundance of the 8.4-nm versus 9.6-nm particles and that serum from patients, as well as reconstituted 8.4- and 9.6-nm HDL particles (rHDL), possess increased capacity to catalyze cholesterol efflux from macrophages. Synchrotron radiation circular dichroism and hydrogen-deuterium exchange revealed that the variants in 8.4-nm rHDL have altered secondary structure composition and display a more flexible binding to lipids than their native counterpart. The reduced HDL cholesterol levels of patients carrying ApoA-I amyloidogenic variants are thus balanced by higher proportion of small, dense HDL particles, and better cholesterol efflux due to altered, region-specific protein structure dynamics.
Project description:During the acute-phase reaction, SAA (serum amyloid A) replaces apoA-I (apolipoprotein A-I) as the major HDL (high-density lipoprotein)-associated apolipoprotein. A remarkable portion of SAA exists in a lipid-free/lipid-poor form and promotes ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1)-dependent cellular cholesterol efflux. In contrast with lipid-free apoA-I and apoE, lipid-free SAA was recently reported to mobilize SR-BI (scavenger receptor class B, type I)-dependent cellular cholesterol efflux [Van der Westhuyzen, Cai, de Beer and de Beer (2005) J. Biol. Chem. 280, 35890-35895]. This unique property could strongly affect cellular cholesterol mobilization during inflammation. However, in the present study, we show that overexpression of SR-BI in HEK-293 cells (human embryonic kidney cells) (devoid of ABCA1) failed to mobilize cholesterol to lipid-free or lipid-poor SAA. Only reconstituted vesicles containing phospholipids and SAA promoted SR-BI-mediated cholesterol efflux. Cholesterol efflux from HEK-293 and HEK-293[SR-BI] cells to lipid-free and lipid-poor SAA was minimal, while efficient efflux was observed from fibroblasts and CHO cells (Chinese-hamster ovary cells) both expressing functional ABCA1. Overexpression of SR-BI in CHO cells strongly attenuated cholesterol efflux to lipid-free SAA even in the presence of an SR-BI-blocking IgG. This implies that SR-BI attenuates ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux in a way that is not dependent on SR-BI-mediated re-uptake of cholesterol. The present in vitro experiments demonstrate that the lipidation status of SAA is a critical factor governing cholesterol acceptor properties of this amphipathic apolipoprotein. In addition, we demonstrate that SAA mediates cellular cholesterol efflux via the ABCA1 and/or SR-BI pathway in a similar way to apoA-I.
Project description:We measured efflux from macrophages to apolipoprotein B-depleted serum from 263 specimens and found instances in which serum having similar high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) differed in their efflux capacity. Thus, we wanted to elucidate why efflux capacity could be independent of total HDL-C or apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I).To understand why sera with similar HDL-C or apoA-I could differ in total efflux capacity, we assessed their ability to promote efflux via the pathways expressed in cAMP-treated J774 macrophages. Briefly, macrophages were preincubated with probucol to block ABCA1, with BLT-1 to block SR-BI, and with both inhibitors to measure residual efflux. ABCG1 efflux was measured with transfected BHK-1 cells. We used apolipoprotein B-depleted serum from specimens with similar HDL-C values at the 25(th) and 75(th) percentiles. Specimens in each group were classified as having high or low efflux based on total efflux being above or below the group average. We found that independently of HDL-C, sera with higher efflux capacity had a significant increase in ABCA1-mediated efflux, which was significantly correlated to the concentration of pre beta-1 HDL. The same result was obtained when these sera were similarly analyzed based on similar apoA-I.Sera with similar HDL-C or apoA-I differ in their ability to promote macrophage efflux because of differences in the concentration of pre beta-1 HDL.
Project description:ABCA1 plays a major role in HDL metabolism. Cholesterol secretion by ABCA1 is dependent on the presence of extracellular acceptors, such as lipid-free apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I). However, the importance of the direct interaction between apoA-I and ABCA1 in HDL formation remains unclear. In contrast, ABCB4 mediates the secretion of phospholipids and cholesterol in the presence of sodium taurocholate (NaTC) but not in the presence of apoA-I. In this study, we analyzed apoA-I binding and NaTC-dependent lipid efflux by ABCA1. ABCA1 mediated the efflux of cholesterol and phospholipids in the presence of NaTC as well as in the presence of apoA-I in an ATP-dependent manner. The Tangier disease mutation W590S, which resides in the extracellular domain and impairs apoA-I-dependent lipid efflux, greatly decreased NaTC-dependent cholesterol and phospholipid efflux. However, the W590S mutation did not impair apoA-I binding and, conversely, retarded the dissociation of apoA-I from ABCA1. These results suggest that the W590S mutation impairs ATP-dependent lipid translocation and that lipid translocation or possibly lipid loading, facilitates apoA-I dissociation from ABCA1. NaTC is a good tool for analyzing ABCA1-mediated lipid efflux and allows dissection of the steps of HDL formation by ABCA1.
Project description:Increasing evidence has highlighted the pivotal role that intimal macrophage (iMΦ) plays in the pathophysiology of atherosclerotic plaques, which represents an attractive target for atherosclerosis treatment. In this work, to address the insufficient specificity of conventional reconstituted high-density lipoprotein (rHDL) for iMΦ and its limited cholesterol efflux ability, we designed a hyaluronan (HA)-anchored core-shell rHDL. This nanoparticle achieved efficient iMΦ-targeted drug delivery via a multistage-targeting approach, and excellent cellular cholesterol removal. It contained a biodegradable poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) core within a lipid bilayer, and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) absorbing on the lipid bilayer was covalently decorated with HA. The covalent HA coating with superior stability and greater shielding was favorable for not only minimizing the liver uptake but also facilitating the accumulation of nanoparticles at leaky endothelium overexpressing CD44 receptors in atherosclerotic plaques. The ultimate iMΦ homing was achieved via apoA-I after HA coating degraded by hyaluronidase (HAase) (abundant in atherosclerotic plaque). The multistage-targeting mechanism was revealed on the established injured endothelium-macrophage co-culture dynamic system. Upon treatment with HAase in vitro, the nanoparticle HA-(C)-PLGA-rHDL exhibited a greater cholesterol efflux capacity compared with conventional rHDL (2.43-fold). Better targeting efficiency toward iMΦ and attenuated liver accumulation were further proved by results from ex vivo imaging and iMΦ-specific fluorescence localization. Ultimately, HA-(C)-PLGA-rHDL loaded with simvastatin realized the most potent anti-atherogenic efficacies in model animals over other preparations. Thus, the HAase-responsive HDL-mimetic nanoparticle was shown in this study to be a promising nanocarrier for anti-atherogenic therapy, in the light of efficient iMΦ-targeted drug delivery and excellent function of mediating cellular cholesterol efflux.