MtnBD is a multifunctional fusion enzyme in the methionine salvage pathway of Tetrahymena thermophila.
ABSTRACT: To recycle reduced sulfur to methionine in the methionine salvage pathway (MSP), 5-methylthioribulose-1-phosphate is converted to 2-keto-4-methylthiobutyrate, the methionine precursor, by four steps; dehydratase, enolase, phosphatase, and dioxygenase reactions (catalyzed by MtnB, MtnW, MtnX and MtnD, respectively, in Bacillus subtilis). It has been proposed that the MtnBD fusion enzyme in Tetrahymena thermophila catalyzes four sequential reactions from the dehydratase to dioxygenase steps, based on the results of molecular biological analyses of mutant yeast strains with knocked-out MSP genes, suggesting that new catalytic function can be acquired by fusion of enzymes. This result raises the question of how the MtnBD fusion enzyme can catalyze four very different reactions, especially since there are no homologous domains for enolase and phosphatase (MtnW and MtnX, respectively, in B. subtilis) in the peptide. Here, we tried to identify the domains responsible for catalyzing the four reactions using recombinant proteins of full-length MtnBD and each domain alone. UV-visible and ¹H-NMR spectral analyses of reaction products revealed that the MtnB domain catalyzes dehydration and enolization and the MtnD domain catalyzes dioxygenation. Contrary to a previous report, conversion of 5-methylthioribulose-1-phosphate to 2-keto-4-methylthiobutyrate was dependent on addition of an exogenous phosphatase from B. subtilis. This was observed for both the MtnB domain and full-length MtnBD, suggesting that MtnBD does not catalyze the phosphatase reaction. Our results suggest that the MtnB domain of T. thermophila MtnBD acquired the new function to catalyze both the dehydratase and enolase reactions through evolutionary gene mutations, rather than fusion of MSP genes.
Project description:The methionine salvage pathway is widely distributed among some eubacteria, yeast, plants and animals and recycles the sulfur-containing metabolite 5-methylthioadenosine (MTA) to methionine. In eukaryotic cells, the methionine salvage pathway takes place in the cytosol and usually involves six enzymatic activities: MTA phosphorylase (MTAP, EC 126.96.36.199), 5'-methylthioribose-1-phosphate isomerase (mtnA, EC 188.8.131.52), 5'-methylthioribulose-1-phosphate dehydratase (mtnB, EC: 184.108.40.206), 2,3-dioxomethiopentane-1-phosphate enolase/phosphatase (mtnC, EC 220.127.116.11), aci-reductone dioxygenase (mtnD, EC 18.104.22.168) and 4-methylthio-2-oxo-butanoate (MTOB) transaminase (EC 2.6.1.-). The aim of this study was to complete the available information on the methionine salvage pathway in human by identifying the enzyme responsible for the dehydratase step. Using a bioinformatics approach, we propose that a protein called APIP could perform this role. The involvement of this protein in the methionine salvage pathway was investigated directly in HeLa cells by transient and stable short hairpin RNA interference. We show that APIP depletion specifically impaired the capacity of cells to grow in media where methionine is replaced by MTA. Using a Shigella mutant auxotroph for methionine, we confirm that the knockdown of APIP specifically affects the recycling of methionine. We also show that mutation of three potential phosphorylation sites does not affect APIP activity whereas mutation of the potential zinc binding site completely abrogates it. Finally, we show that the N-terminal region of APIP that is missing in the short isoform is required for activity. Together, these results confirm the involvement of APIP in the methionine salvage pathway, which plays a key role in many biological functions like cancer, apoptosis, microbial proliferation and inflammation.
Project description:The methionine salvage pathway is responsible for regenerating methionine from its derivative, methylthioadenosine. The complete set of enzymes of the methionine pathway has been previously described in bacteria. Despite its importance, the pathway has only been fully described in one eukaryotic organism, yeast. Here we use a computational approach to identify the enzymes of the methionine salvage pathway in another eukaryote, Tetrahymena thermophila. In this organism, the pathway has two fused genes, MTNAK and MTNBD. Each of these fusions involves two different genes whose products catalyze two different single steps of the pathway in other organisms. One of the fusion proteins, mtnBD, is formed by enzymes that catalyze non-consecutive steps in the pathway, mtnB and mtnD. Interestingly the gene that codes for the intervening enzyme in the pathway, mtnC, is missing from the genome of Tetrahymena. We used complementation tests in yeast to show that the fusion of mtnB and mtnD from Tetrahymena is able to do in one step what yeast does in three, since it can rescue yeast knockouts of mtnB, mtnC, or mtnD. Fusion genes have proved to be very useful in aiding phylogenetic reconstructions and in the functional characterization of genes. Our results highlight another characteristic of fusion proteins, namely that these proteins can serve as biochemical shortcuts, allowing organisms to completely bypass steps in biochemical pathways.
Project description:APIP, Apaf-1 interacting protein, has been known to inhibit two main types of programmed cell death, apoptosis and pyroptosis, and was recently found to be associated with cancers and inflammatory diseases. Distinct from its inhibitory role in cell death, APIP was also shown to act as a 5-methylthioribulose-1-phosphate dehydratase, or MtnB, in the methionine salvage pathway. Here we report the structural and enzymatic characterization of human APIP as an MtnB enzyme with a Km of 9.32 μM and a Vmax of 1.39 μmol min(-1) mg(-1). The crystal structure was determined at 2.0-Å resolution, revealing an overall fold similar to members of the zinc-dependent class II aldolase family. APIP/MtnB exists as a tetramer in solution and exhibits an assembly with C4 symmetry in the crystal lattice. The pocket-shaped active site is located at the end of a long cleft between two adjacent subunits. We propose an enzymatic reaction mechanism involving Glu139* as a catalytic acid/base, as supported by enzymatic assay, substrate-docking study, and sequence conservation analysis. We explored the relationship between two distinct functions of APIP/MtnB, cell death inhibition, and methionine salvage, by measuring the ability of enzymatic mutants to inhibit cell death, and determined that APIP/MtnB functions as a cell death inhibitor independently of its MtnB enzyme activity for apoptosis induced by either hypoxia or etoposide, but dependently for caspase-1-induced pyroptosis. Our results establish the structural and biochemical groundwork for future mechanistic studies of the role of APIP/MtnB in modulating cell death and inflammation and in the development of related diseases.
Project description:The methionine salvage pathway (MSP) plays a crucial role in recycling a sulphahydryl derivative of the nucleoside. Recently, the genes and reactions in MSP from Bacillus subtilis have been identified, where 5-methylthioribose 1-phosphate isomerase (M1Pi) catalyzes a conversion of 5-methylthioribose 1-phosphate (MTR-1-P) to 5-methylthioribulose 1-phosphate (MTRu-1-P). Herein, we report the crystal structures of B. subtilis M1Pi (Bs-M1Pi) in complex with its product MTRu-1-P, and a sulfate at 2.4 and 2.7 A resolution, respectively. The electron density clearly shows the presence of each compound in the active site. The structural comparison with other homologous proteins explains how the substrate uptake of Bs-M1Pi may be induced by an open/closed transition of the active site. The highly conserved residues at the active site, namely, Cys160 and Asp240 are most likely to be involved in catalysis. The structural analysis sheds light on its catalytic mechanism of M1Pi.
Project description:Apaf-1-interacting protein (APIP) is known to inhibit two different types of cell death: caspase-1-dependent pyroptosis and caspase-9-dependent apoptosis. APIP is also involved in the methionine-salvage pathway, where it is called 5-methylthioribulose-1-phosphate dehydratase (MtnB). The enzyme activity seems to be essential for inhibition of pyroptosis by APIP, but not for inhibition of apoptosis. In this study, human APIP was overproduced in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. An X-ray diffraction data set was collected to 2.40?Å resolution and the crystals belonged to space group C222(1), with unit-cell parameters a=106.61, b=107.50, c=189.76?Å. Given that four APIP molecules exist in the asymmetric unit, the Matthews coefficient is 2.70?Å3?Da(-1) and the corresponding solvent content is 54.4%.
Project description:Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) catalyzes the assimilation of atmospheric CO(2) into organic matter and is thus central to the existence of life on earth. The beginning of the 2000s was marked by the discovery of a new family of proteins, the RubisCO-like proteins (RLPs), which are structural homologs of RubisCO. RLPs are unable to catalyze CO(2) fixation. The RLPs from Chlorobaculum tepidum, Bacillus subtilis, Geobacillus kaustophilus, and Microcystis aeruginosa have been shown to participate in sulfur metabolism. Whereas the precise function of C. tepidum RLP is unknown, the B. subtilis, G. kaustophilus, and M. aeruginosa RLPs function as tautomerases/enolases in a methionine salvage pathway (MSP). Here, we show that the form II RubisCO enzyme from the nonsulfur purple bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum is also able to function as an enolase in vivo as part of an MSP, but only under anaerobic conditions. However, unlike B. subtilis RLP, R. rubrum RLP does not catalyze the enolization of 2,3-diketo-5-methylthiopentyl-1-phosphate. Instead, under aerobic growth conditions, R. rubrum RLP employs another intermediate of the MSP, 5-methylthioribulose-1-phosphate, as a substrate, resulting in the formation of different products. To further determine the interrelationship between RubisCOs and RLPs (and the potential integration of cellular carbon and sulfur metabolism), the functional roles of both RubisCO and RLP have been examined in vivo via the use of specific knockout strains and complementation studies of R. rubrum. The presence of functional, yet separate, MSPs in R. rubrum under both aerobic (chemoheterotrophic) and anaerobic (photoheterotrophic) growth conditions has not been observed previously in any organism. Moreover, the aerobic and anaerobic sulfur salvage pathways appear to be differentially controlled, with novel and previously undescribed steps apparent for sulfur salvage in this organism.
Project description:Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain-containing transcription factors are known for their roles in regulating various plant growth and developmental processes. Previously, we showed that MdbHLH3 from apple (Malus domestica) has multiple functions, modulating both anthocyanin biosynthesis and cell acidification. Here, we show that MdbHLH3 also regulates ethylene biosynthesis and leaf senescence by promoting the expression of dehydratase-enolase-phosphatase complex 1 (MdDEP1). Therefore, we propose a model whereby MdbHLH3 acts as a crucial factor that modulates anthocyanin biosynthesis and cell acidification in addition to fruit ripening and leaf senescence by regulating distinct target genes.
Project description:'Metal-responsive transcription factor-1' (MTF-1), a zinc finger protein, is conserved from mammals to insects. In the mouse, it activates metallothionein genes and other target genes in response to several cell stress conditions, notably heavy metal load. The knockout of MTF-1 in the mouse has an embryonic lethal phenotype accompanied by liver degeneration. Here we describe the targeted disruption of the MTF-1 gene in Drosophila by homologous recombination. Unlike the situation in the mouse, knockout of MTF-1 in Drosophila is not lethal. Flies survive well under laboratory conditions but are sensitive to elevated concentrations of copper, cadmium and zinc. Basal and metal-induced expression of Drosophila metallothionein genes MtnA (Mtn) and MtnB (Mto), and of two new metallothionein genes described here, MtnC and MtnD, is abolished in MTF-1 mutants. Unexpectedly, MTF-1 mutant larvae are sensitive not only to copper load but also to copper depletion. In MTF-1 mutants, copper depletion prevents metamorphosis and dramatically extends larval development/lifespan from normally 4-5 days to as many as 32 days, possibly reflecting the effects of impaired oxygen metabolism. These findings expand the roles of MTF-1 in the control of heavy metal homeostasis.
Project description:The sequences classified as genes for various ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO)-like proteins (RLPs) are widely distributed among bacteria, archaea, and eukaryota. In the phylogenic tree constructed with these sequences, RuBisCOs and RLPs are grouped into four separate clades, forms I-IV. In RuBisCO enzymes encoded by form I, II, and III sequences, 19 conserved amino acid residues are essential for CO(2) fixation; however, 1-11 of these 19 residues are substituted with other amino acids in form IV RLPs. Among form IV RLPs, the only enzymatic activity detected to date is a 2,3-diketo-5-methylthiopentyl 1-phosphate (DK-MTP-1-P) enolase reaction catalyzed by Bacillus subtilis, Microcystis aeruginosa, and Geobacillus kaustophilus form IV RLPs. RLPs from Rhodospirillum rubrum, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, Chlorobium tepidum, and Bordetella bronchiseptica were inactive in the enolase reaction. DK-MTP-1-P enolase activity of B. subtilis RLP required Mg(2+) for catalysis and, like RuBisCO, was stimulated by CO(2). Four residues that are essential for the enolization reaction of RuBisCO, Lys(175), Lys(201), Asp(203), and Glu(204), were conserved in RLPs and were essential for DK-MTP-1-P enolase catalysis. Lys(123), the residue conserved in DK-MTP-1-P enolases, was also essential for B. subtilis RLP enolase activity. Similarities between the active site structures of RuBisCO and B. subtilis RLP were examined by analyzing the effects of structural analogs of RuBP on DK-MTP-1-P enolase activity. A transition state analog for the RuBP carboxylation of RuBisCO was a competitive inhibitor in the DK-MTP-1-P enolase reaction with a K(i) value of 103 mum. RuBP and d-phosphoglyceric acid, the substrate and product, respectively, of RuBisCO, were weaker competitive inhibitors. These results suggest that the amino acid residues utilized in the B. subtilis RLP enolase reaction are the same as those utilized in the RuBisCO RuBP enolization reaction.
Project description:Borrelia burgdorferi, a tick-borne bacterial pathogen, causes a disseminated infection involving multiple organs known as Lyme disease. Surface proteins can directly participate in microbial virulence by facilitating pathogen dissemination via interaction with host factors. We show here that a fraction of the B. burgdorferi chromosomal gene product BB0337, annotated as enolase or phosphopyruvate dehydratase, is associated with spirochete outer membrane and is surface exposed. B. burgdorferi enolase, either in a recombinant form or as a membrane-bound native antigen, displays enzymatic activities intrinsic to the glycolytic pathway. However, the protein also interacts with host plasminogen, potentially leading to its activation and resulting in B. burgdorferi-induced fibrinolysis. As expected, enolase displayed consistent expression in vivo, however, with a variable temporal and spatial expression during spirochete infection in mice and ticks. Despite an extracellular exposure of the antigen and a potential role in host-pathogen interaction, active immunization of mice with recombinant enolase failed to evoke protective immunity against subsequent B. burgdorferi infection. In contrast, enolase immunization of murine hosts significantly reduced the acquisition of spirochetes by feeding ticks, suggesting that the protein could have a stage-specific role in B. burgdorferi survival in the feeding vector. Strategies to interfere with the function of surface enolase could contribute to the development of novel preventive measures to interrupt the spirochete infection cycle and reduce the incidences of Lyme disease.