Genetic variation in four maturity genes affects photoperiod insensitivity and PHYA-regulated post-flowering responses of soybean.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Absence of or low sensitivity to photoperiod is necessary for short-day crops, such as rice and soybean, to adapt to high latitudes. Photoperiod insensitivity in soybeans is controlled by two genetic systems and involves three important maturity genes: E1, a repressor for two soybean orthologs of Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS T (GmFT2a and GmFT5a), and E3 and E4, which are phytochrome A genes. To elucidate the diverse mechanisms underlying photoperiod insensitivity in soybean, we assessed the genotypes of four maturity genes (E1 through E4) in early-flowering photoperiod-insensitive cultivars and their association with post-flowering responses. RESULTS: We found two novel dysfunctional alleles in accessions originally considered to have a dominant E3 allele according to known DNA markers. The E3 locus, together with E1 and E4, contained multiple dysfunctional alleles. We identified 15 multi-locus genotypes, which we subdivided into 6 genotypic groups by classifying their alleles by function. Of these, the e1-as/e3/E4 genotypic group required an additional novel gene (different from E1, E3, and E4) to condition photoperiod insensitivity. Despite their common pre-flowering photoperiod insensitivity, accessions with different multi-locus genotypes responded differently to the post-flowering photoperiod. Cultivars carrying E3 or E4 were sensitive to photoperiod for post-flowering characteristics, such as reproductive period and stem growth after flowering. The phytochrome A-regulated expression of the determinate growth habit gene Dt1, an ortholog of Arabidopsis TERMINAL FLOWER1, was involved in the persistence of the vegetative activity at the stem apical meristem of flower-induced plants under long-day conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Diverse genetic mechanisms underlie photoperiod insensitivity in soybean. At least three multi-locus genotypes consisting of various allelic combinations at E1, E3, and E4 conferred pre-flowering photoperiod insensitivity to soybean cultivars but led to different responses to photoperiod during post-flowering vegetative and reproductive development. The phyA genes E3 and E4 are major controllers underlying not only pre-flowering but also post-flowering photoperiod responses. The current findings improve our understanding of genetic diversity in pre-flowering photoperiod insensitivity and mechanisms of post-flowering photoperiod responses in soybean.
Project description:Photoperiod response of flowering determines plant adaptation to different latitudes. Soybean, a short-day plant, has gained the ability to flower under long-day conditions during the growing season at higher latitudes, mainly through dysfunction of phytochrome A genes (E3 and E4) and the floral repressor E1. In this study, we identified a novel molecular genetic basis of photoperiod insensitivity in Far-Eastern Russian soybean cultivars. By testcrossing these cultivars with a Canadian cultivar Harosoy near-isogenic line for a recessive e3 allele, followed by association tests and fine mapping, we determined that the insensitivity was inherited as a single recessive gene located in an 842-kb interval in the pericentromeric region of chromosome 4, where E1-Like b (E1Lb), a homoeolog of E1, is located. Sequencing analysis detected a single-nucleotide deletion in the coding sequence of the gene in insensitive cultivars, which generated a premature stop codon. Near-isogenic lines (NILs) for the loss-of-function allele (designated e1lb) exhibited upregulated expression of soybean FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) orthologs, FT2a and FT5a, and flowered earlier than those for E1Lb under long-day conditions in both the e3/E4 and E3/E4 genetic backgrounds. These NILs further lacked the inhibitory effect on flowering by far-red light-enriched long-day conditions, which is mediated by E4, but not that of red-light-enriched long-day conditions, which is mediated by E3. These findings suggest that E1Lb retards flowering under long-day conditions by repressing the expression of FT2a and FT5a independently of E1. This loss-of-function allele can be used as a new resource in breeding of photoperiod-insensitive cultivars, and may improve our understanding of the function of the E1 family genes in the photoperiod responses of flowering in soybean.
Project description:The time to flowering and maturity are ecologically and agronomically important traits for soybean landrace and cultivar adaptation. As a typical short-day crop, long day conditions in the high-latitude regions require soybean cultivars with photoperiod insensitivity that can mature before frost. Although the molecular basis of four major E loci (E1 to E4) have been deciphered, it is not quite clear whether, or to what degree, genetic variation and the expression level of the four E genes are associated with the time to flowering and maturity of soybean cultivars. In this study, we genotyped 180 cultivars at E1 to E4 genes, meanwhile, the time to flowering and maturity of those cultivars were investigated at six geographic locations in China from 2011 to 2012 and further confirmed in 2013. The percentages of recessive alleles at E1, E2, E3 and E4 loci were 38.34%, 84.45%, 36.33%, and 7.20%, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that allelic variations at each of four loci had a significant effect on flowering time as well as maturity. We classified the 180 cultivars into eight genotypic groups based on allelic variations of the four major E loci. The genetic group of e1-nf representing dysfunctional alleles at the E1 locus flowered earliest in all the geographic locations. In contrast, cultivars in the E1E2E3E4 group originated from the southern areas flowered very late or did not flower before frost at high latitude locations. The transcriptional abundance of functional E1 gene was significantly associated with flowering time. However, the ranges of time to flowering and maturity were quite large within some genotypic groups, implying the presence of some other unknown genetic factors that are involved in control of flowering time or maturity. Known genes (e.g. E3 and E4) and other unknown factors may function, at least partially, through regulation of the expression of the E1 gene.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The timing of flowering has a direct impact on successful seed production in plants. Flowering of soybean (Glycine max) is controlled by several E loci, and previous studies identified the genes responsible for the flowering loci E1, E2, E3 and E4. However, natural variation in these genes has not been fully elucidated. The aims of this study were the identification of new alleles, establishment of allele diagnoses, examination of allelic combinations for adaptability, and analysis of the integrated effect of these loci on flowering. METHODS: The sequences of these genes and their flanking regions were determined for 39 accessions by primer walking. Systematic discrimination among alleles was performed using DNA markers. Genotypes at the E1-E4 loci were determined for 63 accessions covering several ecological types using DNA markers and sequencing, and flowering times of these accessions at three sowing times were recorded. KEY RESULTS: A new allele with an insertion of a long interspersed nuclear element (LINE) at the promoter of the E1 locus (e1-re) was identified. Insertion and deletion of 36 bases in the eighth intron (E2-in and E2-dl) were observed at the E2 locus. Systematic discrimination among the alleles at the E1-E3 loci was achieved using PCR-based markers. Allelic combinations at the E1-E4 loci were found to be associated with ecological types, and about 62-66 % of variation of flowering time could be attributed to these loci. CONCLUSIONS: The study advances understanding of the combined roles of the E1-E4 loci in flowering and geographic adaptation, and suggests the existence of unidentified genes for flowering in soybean.
Project description:Appropriate flowering and maturity time are important for soybean production. Four maturity genes E1, E2, E3 and E4 have been molecularly identified and found to play major roles in the control of flowering and maturity of soybean. Here, to further investigate the effect of different allele combinations of E1-E4, we performed Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR (KASP) assays based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at these four E loci, and genotyped E1-E4 genes across 308 Chinese cultivars with a wide range of maturity groups. In total, twenty-one allele combinations for E1-E4 genes were identified across these Chinese cultivars. Various combinations of mutations at four E loci gave rise to the diversity of flowering and maturity time, which were associated with the adaptation of soybean cultivars to diverse geographic regions and farming systems. In particular, the cultivars with mutations at all four E loci reached flowering and maturity very early, and adapted to high-latitude cold regions. The allele combinations e1-as/e2-ns/e3-tr/E4, E1/e2-ns/E3/E4 and E1/E2/E3/E4 played important roles in the Northeast China, Huang-Huai-Hai (HHH) Rivers Valley and South China regions, respectively. Notably, E1 and E2, especially E2, affected flowering and maturity time of soybean significantly. Our study will be beneficial for germplasm evaluation, cultivar improvement and regionalization of cultivation in soybean production.
Project description:A set of 90 Indian soybean landraces were analysed for polymorphism at 43 SSRs and five allele specific markers of four major genes involved in regulating flowering and photoperiod response. A total of 42 polymorphic SSRs had amplified 126 alleles which served as raw data for estimation of genetic relationship and population structure among 90 accessions. Rare alleles of four and three SSRs were detected in accessions IC18768 and IC15089, respectively. Gene diversity in the population ranges from 0.065 to 0.717 with a mean value of 0.411. The polymorphism information content of 42 SSRs varied from 0.063 to 0.668. Hierarchical clustering based on neighbour-joining method identified three major clusters among 90 soybean accessions. Model based population structure analysis divided the 90 soybean accessions into four populations (K?=?4). Mean value of Fst for different populations ranged between 0.4143 and 0.7239. Genotyping of 90 accessions with allele specific markers had identified accession IC15089 as triple recessive mutant of flowering genes E1, E2 and photoperiod sensitivity gene E3. The triple mutant IC15089 (e1, e3, e3) had been characterized phenotypically and identified as early maturing (88 days) and photoperiod insensitive genotype under extended photoperiod. The present study characterized genetic relationship among 90 Indian soybean landraces and had identified a few diverse and unique genotypes for utilization in soybean breeding programmes targeting development of short duration and photoperiod insensitive varieties through marker assisted selection.
Project description:Soybean time of flowering and maturity are genetically controlled by E genes. Different allelic combinations of these genes determine soybean adaptation to a specific latitude. The paper describes the first attempt to assess adaptation of soybean genotypes developed and realized at Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad, Serbia [Novi Sad (NS) varieties and breeding lines] based on E gene variation, as well as to comparatively assess E gene variation in North-American (NA), Chinese, and European genotypes, as most of the studies published so far deal with North-American and Chinese cultivars and breeding material. Allelic variation and distribution of the major maturity genes (E1, E2, E3, and E4) has been determined in 445 genotypes from soybean collections of NA ancestral lines, Chinese germplasm, and European varieties, as well as NS varieties and breeding lines. The study showed that allelic combinations of E1-E4 genes significantly determined the adaptation of varieties to different geographical regions, although they have different impacts on maturity. In general, each collection had one major E genotype haplogroup, comprising over 50% of the lines. The exceptions were European varieties that had two predominant haplogroups and NA ancestral lines distributed almost evenly among several haplogroups. As e1-as/e2/E3/E4 was the most common genotype in NS population, present in the best-performing genotypes in terms of yield, this specific allele combination was proposed as the optimal combination for the environments of Central-Eastern Europe.
Project description:The photoperiod-insensitivity allele e1 is known to be essential for the extremely low photoperiod sensitivity of rice, and thereby enabled rice cultivation in high latitudes (42-53° north (N)). The E1 locus regulating photoperiod-sensitivity was identified on chromosome 7 using a cross between T65 and its near-isogenic line T65w. Sequence analyses confirmed that the E1 and the Ghd7 are the same locus, and haplotype analysis showed that the e1/ghd7-0a is a pioneer allele that enabled rice production in Hokkaido (42-45° N). Further, we detected two novel alleles, e1-ret/ghd7-0ret and E1-r/Ghd7-r, each harboring mutations in the promoter region. These mutant alleles alter the respective expression profiles, leading to marked alteration of flowering time. Moreover, e1-ret/ghd7-0ret, as well as e1/ghd7-0a, was found to have contributed to the establishment of Hokkaido varieties through the marked reduction effect on photoperiod sensitivity, whereas E1-r/Ghd7-r showed a higher expression than the E1/Ghd7 due to the nucleotide substitutions in the cis elements. The haplotype analysis showed that two photoperiod-insensitivity alleles e1/ghd7-0a and e1-ret/ghd7-0ret, originated independently from two sources. These results indicate that naturally occurring allelic variation at the E1/Ghd7 locus allowed expansion of the rice cultivation area through diversification and fine-tuning of flowering time.
Project description:In order to identify candidate genes that are involved in soybean flowering transition in response to photoperiods, we performed RNA sequencing analysis under different photoperiod treatments. We identified genes exhibiting daily oscillation patterns under different photoperiod treatments, genes under control of maturity loci (E1, E2, E3 and E5), and genes that constitute the soybean flowering gene network. Overall design: RNA sequencing analysis was performed using Williams 82, Clark and four NILs in Clark that are polymorphic for E loci (E1, E2, E3 and E5), as well as the wild soybean Glycine soja, under different photoperiod treatments.
Project description:Soybean is still a minor crop in Kazakhstan despite an increase in planting area from 4,500 to 11,400 km2 between 2006 and 2014. However, the Government's recently accepted crop diversification policy projects the expansion of soybean cultivation area to more than 40,000 km2 by 2020. The policy is targeting significant expansion of soybean production in South-eastern, Eastern, and Northern regions of Kazakhstan. Successful realization of this policy requires a comprehensive characterization of plant growth parameters to identify optimal genotypes with appropriate adaptive phenotypic traits. In this study 120 soybean accessions from different parts of the World, including 18 accessions from Kazakhstan, were field tested in South-eastern, Eastern, and Northern regions of the country. These studies revealed positive correlation of yield with flowering time in Northern Kazakhstan, with seed maturity time in Eastern Kazakhstan, and with both these growth stages in South-eastern Kazakhstan. It was determined that in South-eastern, Eastern and Northern regions of Kazakhstan the majority of productive genotypes were in maturity groups MGI, MG0, and MG00, respectively. The accessions were genotyped for four major maturity genes (E1, E2, E3, and E4) in order to assess the relationship between E loci and agronomic traits. The allele composition of the majority of accessions was e1-as/e2/E3/E4 (specific frequencies 57.5%, 91.6%, 65.0%, and 63.3%, respectively). Accessions with dominant alleles in either E3 or E4 genes showed higher yield in all three regions, although the specific genotype associated with greatest productivity was different for each site. Genotype-environment interaction studies based on yield performances suggest that South-east and East regions formed one mega-environment, which was well separated from North Kazakhstan where significantly earlier time to maturation is required. The results provide important insights into the relationship between genetic and phenotypic patterns in new soybean growing territories in Kazakhstan.
Project description:BACKGROUND: With the migration of human beings, advances of agricultural sciences, evolution of planting patterns and global warming, soybeans have expanded to both tropical and high-latitude cold regions (HCRs). Unlike other regions, HCRs have much more significant and diverse photoperiods and temperature conditions over seasons or across latitudes, and HCR soybeans released there show rich diversity in maturity traits. However, HCR soybeans have not been as well classified into maturity groups (MGs) as other places. Therefore, it is necessary to identify MGs in HCRs and to genotype the maturity loci. METHODS: Local varieties were collected from the northern part of Northeast China and the far-eastern region of Russia. Maturity group reference (MGR) soybeans of MGs MG000, MG00, and MG0 were used as references during field experiments. Both local varieties and MGR soybeans were planted for two years (2010-2011) in Heihe (N 50°15', E 127°27', H 168.5 m), China. The days to VE (emergence), R1 (beginning bloom) and R7 (beginning maturity) were recorded and statistically analyzed. Furthermore, some varieties were further genotyped at four molecularly-identified maturity loci E1, E2, E3 and E4. RESULTS: The HCR varieties were classified into MG0 or even more early-maturing. In Heihe, some varieties matured much earlier than MG000, which is the most early-maturing known MG, and clustered into a separate group. We designated the group as MG0000, following the convention of MGs. HCR soybeans had relatively stable days to beginning bloom from emergence. The HCR varieties diversified into genotypes of E1, E2, E3 and E4. These loci had different effects on maturity. CONCLUSION: HCRs diversify early-maturing MGs of soybean. MG0000, a new MG that matures much earlier than known MGs, was developed. HCR soybean breeding should focus more on shortening post-flowering reproductive growth. E1, E2, E3, and E4 function differentially.