The EWAS Classification of Scapholunate Tears: An Anatomical Arthroscopic Study.
ABSTRACT: Treatment of scapho-lunate (SL) injuries is still a challenge for the surgeon, especially in chronic cases. The aim of the study isto experimentally cut, specific portions of scapholunate ligament and extrinsic ligaments and check their corresponding arthroscopic finding in order to understand the pathogenesis and develop a new classification system which is an evolution of the present arthroscopic classifications. Materials and Methods Thirteen cadaver wrists were studied under arthroscopy. Different portions of the scapho-lunate ligament were subsequently sectioned. In group A the sectioning sequence was: anterior SLIOL, RSC, LRL, SLIOL's proximal and posterior, DIC, DRC ligament and ST ligaments (8 cases). In group B it was: SLIOL's posterior and proximal, DIC, SLIOL's anterior, LRL, RSCL, DRC, ST ligaments (5 cases). The anatomo-pathological findings after each sectioning were correlated to the classification system proposed (Table 1). Results In group A, stage 3A was obtained when SL ligament's volar and intermediate portion and/ or SC/LRL ligaments were sectioned. A stage 3C was obtained when section of posterior SLIOL was sectioned as well. A stage IV when the DIC was also sectioned. In group B a stage 3B was obtained by cutting intermediate, posterior portion of the SLIOL ligament and DIC. A stage 3C was obtained when the anterior part of the SLIOL was also sectioned. In all cases, sectioning of the SLIOL lead to a stage 3C only if associated with sectioning of at least one of the extrinsic stabilizers (DIC or SC/LRL). Sectioning of DIC and SC ligament, in addition to SLIOL led to an arthroscopic stage IV. When ST, DRC and TH ligaments were also sectioned significant radiological signs appeared (stage V). Conclusions This study helps us to understand the anatomo-pathological scapho-lunate lesions in their different stages of partial lesions. Commonly called scapho-lunate lesions are complex, involving also extrinsic ligaments.
Project description:This study aimed to analyze the spatial developmental changes of rat cruciate ligaments by three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction using episcopic fluorescence image capture (EFIC). Cruciate ligaments of Wister rat embryos between embryonic day (E) 16 and E20 were analyzed. Samples were sectioned and visualized using EFIC. 3D reconstructions were generated using Amira software. The length of the cruciate ligaments, distances between attachment points to femur and tibia, angles of the cruciate ligaments and the cross angle of the cruciate ligaments were measured. The shape of cruciate ligaments was clearly visible at E17. The lengths of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) increased gradually from E17 to E19 and drastically at E20. Distances between attachment points to the femur and tibia gradually increased. The ACL angle and PCL angle gradually decreased. The cross angle of the cruciate ligaments changed in three planes. The primordium of the 3D structure of rat cruciate ligaments was constructed from the early stage, with the completion of the development of the structures occurring just before birth.
Project description:Background:The lateral ankle ligament complex consisting of the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL), the calcaneofibular ligament (CFL) and the posterior talofibular ligament (PTFL) is known to provide stability against ankle joint inversion. As injuries of the ankle joint have been reported at a wide range of plantarflexion/dorsiflexion angles, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the stabilizing function of these ligaments depending on the sagittal plane positioning of the ankle joint. Methods:Eight fresh-frozen specimens were tested on a custom-built ankle deflection tester allowing the application of inversion torques in various plantarflexion/dorsiflexion positions. A motion capture system recorded kinematic data from the talus, calcaneus and fibula with bone-pin markers during inversion movements at 10° of dorsiflexion, at neutral position and at plantarflexion 10°. ATFL, CFL and PTFL were separately but sequentially sectioned in order to assess the contribution of the individual ligament with regard to ankle joint stability. Results:Joint- and position-specific modulations could be observed when the ligaments were cut. Cutting the ATFL did not lead to any observable alterations in ankle inversion angle at a given torque. But subsequently cutting the CFL increased the inversion angle of the talocrural joint in the 10° plantarflexed position, and significantly increased the inversion angle of the subtalar joint in the 10° dorsiflexed position. Sectioning of the PTFL led to minor increases of inversion angles in both joints. Conclusions:The CFL is the primary ligamentous stabilizer of the ankle joint against a forced inversion. Its functioning depends greatly on the plantar-/dorsiflexion position of the ankle joint complex, as it provides the stability of the talocrural joint primarily during plantarflexion and the stability of the subtalar joint primarily during dorsiflexion.
Project description:Scapholunate (SL) ligament injury is among the most common injuries of the intrinsic ligaments of the carpus. Arthroscopic treatment in complete and nonacute injuries has had poor results. These cases have typically been treated using open surgical techniques that require a broad dorsal approach and produce soft tissue impairment, which leads to reduced wrist mobility. The development of wrist arthroscopy techniques has allowed the treatment of complete and nonacute injuries of the SL ligament, without the disadvantages of open surgery, respecting the soft tissues and avoiding injury of the posterior interosseous nerve, in an attempt to preserve the proprioception of the wrist and the secondary dorsal stabilizers. This arthroscopically assisted technique reconstructs the SL ligament using a tendon graft placed between the scaphoid and lunate and complemented by the reconstruction of the dorsal portion of the SL ligament, with the aim of creating an axial and dorsal tendinous ligamentoplasty between both bones.
Project description:Background The dorsal capsuloligamentous scapholunate septum (DCSS) is a confluence of the dorsal capsule, the dorsal intercarpal ligament (DIC), and the scapholunate interosseous ligament (SLIOL). It appears to play a role in the stability of the scapholunate articulation. The purpose of this study was to describe the anatomical basis for this structure and to investigate its role in scapholunate instability through sectioning of this structure followed by an arthroscopic and fluoroscopic analysis. Material and Methods In the anatomical part of the study we dissected 3 fresh cadaver wrists to examine the anatomy of the DCSS. In the arthroscopic part of the study we assessed the EWAS grade of SL instability before and after sectioning the DCSS and measured the scapholunate and radiolunate angles fluoroscopically. Results Sectioning the DCSS increased the EWAS grade of SL instability but did not affect the scapholunate gap, the scapholunate angle or radiolunate angle. Conclusion We have demonstrated that there is a distinct structure that is separate from the dorsal capsule, which we have labeled the Dorsal Capsuloligamentous Scapholunate Septum. We believe that the DCSS is a previously unreported secondary stabilizer of the SL joint which may have therapeutic and prognostic implications.
Project description:Carpal instabilities continue to be a controversial topic in hand surgery. Accurate diagnosis of the ligament injuries is usually difficult without an arthroscopic evaluation. Few studies have focused on the diagnosis and proper management of simultaneous scapholunate (SL) and lunotriquetral (LT) ligament tears. This is an uncommon injury that leads to marked disability and chronic wrist pain. This is essentially a "floating lunate" and indicates a severe ligamentous lesion. Thirteen patients (six female and seven male) with complete SL and LT tears and with gross arthroscopic dynamic carpal instability were included in the present study. None of the patients showed radiographic evidence of lunate dislocation. One patient presented acutely and was operated on 3 days after the injury. The average time from the initial injury to the arthroscopy for the other 12 patients was 13.5 months (range 1.5-84 months). All patients underwent arthroscopic debridement of the SL and LT ligaments coupled with percutaneous pinning (two 0.045-in. Kirschner wires) in both joints. At the final follow-up, the average range of motion was 50 degrees of flexion, 54 degrees of extension, 77 degrees of pronation, 80 degrees of supination, 25 degrees of ulnar deviation, and 15 degrees of radial deviation. The average final grip strength was 67% from the non-affected side. All patients had negative shifting tests at final follow-up. Furthermore, there was no evidence of any static or dynamic instability in all the patients except for one patient who developed a volar intercalated segment instability 8 months after the surgery. At the final follow-up, ten patients had no pain, one had mild pain, and two experienced moderate pain.
Project description:Trapeziometacarpal (TMC) arthritis of the thumb is a common source of hand pain and disability. TMC ligamentous instability may play a role in TMC degeneration. However, the relative importance of the TMC ligaments in the etiology of degeneration and the use of surgery to treat instability in early-stage arthritis are unclear.In this review, we addressed several questions: (1) What are the primary ligamentous stabilizers of the thumb TMC joint? (2) What is the evidence for ligament reconstruction or ligament imbrication in the treatment of thumb TMC joint osteoarthritis? And (3) what is the evidence for thumb metacarpal osteotomy in the treatment of thumb TMC joint osteoarthritis?We performed a systematic review of the literature using PubMed (MEDLINE(®)) and Scopus(®) (EMBASE(®)) for peer-reviewed articles published until November 2012. Fifty-two studies fit the inclusion criteria. Twenty-four studies were anatomic, biomechanical, or histopathologic studies on TMC joint ligamentous anatomy, 16 studies were clinical studies concerning ligament reconstruction, and 12 studies were clinical studies on thumb metacarpal osteotomy.Over the past two decades, increasing evidence suggests the dorsoradial ligament is the most important stabilizer of the TMC joint. Other ligaments consistently identified are the superficial anterior oblique, deep anterior oblique, intermetacarpal, ulnar collateral, and posterior oblique ligaments. Ligament reconstruction and metacarpal osteotomy relieve pain and improve grip strength based on Level IV studies.The dorsal ligaments are the primary stabilizers of the TMC joint. Ligament reconstruction and metacarpal osteotomy ameliorate ligamentous laxity and relieve pain based on Level IV studies.
Project description:Magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) has become the preferred modality for imaging patients with internal derangement of the wrist. However, several aspects of MRA use need to be clarified before a standardized approach to the imaging of internal derangement of the wrist can be developed. The objective of the study is to evaluate the efficiency of different magnetic resonance (MR) sequences in the detection of lesions of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) and scapholunate and lunotriquetral ligaments on direct MRA. Thirty-one consecutive direct magnetic resonance arthrographic examinations of the wrist using a wrist surface coil were performed for the assessment of the TFCC and intrinsic ligaments on a 1.5-T MR imaging system (Signa; 16 channel, Excite, GE Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI, USA). All patients had wrist pain, and in six cases, there was associated clinical carpal instability. The presence, location, and extent of TFCC, scapholunate ligament (SLL), and lunotriquetral ligament (LTL) lesions on T1 fat-saturated, multiplanar gradient recalled (MPGR) and short tau inversion recovery (STIR) images were identified, compared, and analyzed. Forty-one lesions of the TFCC, SLL, and LTL were visualized on contrast-sensitive (T1 fat-saturated) images in 23/31 (74.2%) patients. Twenty-one lesions of the TFCC and intrinsic ligaments were visualized on noncontrast-sensitive (MPGR and STIR) images (15 tears of the TFCC and six tears of the SLL and LTL). All of these lesions were seen on T1 fat-saturated images; 48.8% (20/41) lesions seen on T1 fat-saturated images (eight tears of TFCC and 12 tears of SLL and LTT) were not seen on MPGR and/or STIR images. Superior contrast resolution, joint distention, and the flow of contrast facilitate the diagnosis of lesions of the TFCC and intrinsic ligaments on contrast-sensitive sequences making MRA the preferred modality for imaging internal derangements of the wrist. Little agreement exists regarding the value and location of perforations of the intrinsic ligaments given that both traumatic and degenerative perforations may be symptomatic. Noncommunicating defects of the ulnar attachments of the triangular fibrocartilage (TFC), tears of the dorsal segment of the SLL, and defects at the lunate attachment of the SLL have a higher likelihood of being symptomatic and caused by trauma rather than by degenerative perforation. Although no consensus exists, it would appear that most arthrographies should be started with a radiocarpal injection. Injection into the distal radioulnar joint should be added if no communicational defects are visualized following radiocarpal injection in patients with ulnar-sided wrist pain.
Project description:Purpose We propose to identify and correlate arthroscopic internal ligaments with external ligaments, providing an accurate roadmap for arthroscopic ligament and joint anatomy. Ligamentous laxity is considered an important risk factor in developing the common basilar arthritis of the thumb. Controversy exists as to the precise ligamentous anatomy of the thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) joint (CMC-I); description of the internal arthroscopic anatomy is limited. Methods We performed CMC-I joint arthroscopy using the 1-Ulnar (1U) and thenar portals in five cadavers, seeking to identify the following seven ligaments arthroscopically: the superficial anterior oblique ligament (sAOL), deep anterior oblique ligament (dAOL), ulnar collateral ligament (UCL), dorsal trapeziometacarpal ligament (DTM-1), posterior oblique ligament (POL), dorsal central ligament (DCL), and dorsal radial ligament (DRL). After grading articular changes of the trapezium, we passed Kirschner wires (K-wires) (0.028) outside-in to mark the arthroscopic insertion of each ligament on the trapezium. Gross dissection was performed to confirm the wire placement; the anatomic identity and position of joint stabilizing ligaments, and the location of frequently used portals. Results The volar ligaments-the sAOL, dAOL, and UCL-were highly variable in their arthroscopic appearance and precise location. The sAOL is a thin veil of membranous tissue that variably drapes across the anterior joint capsule. The reported dAOL and UCL, in our study, correlated to a thickened portion of this veil around the volar beak and was not consistently identified with gross dissection. In contrast, the arthroscopic appearance and location of the dorsal ligaments-DTM-I, POL, DCL, and DRL-were consistent in all specimens. Conclusion Our study further defines and correlates the arthroscopic and external ligamentous anatomy of the CMC-I joint.
Project description:Microfluidic devices utilizing spheroids play important roles in in vitro experimental systems to closely simulate morphological and biochemical characteristics of the in vivo tumor microenvironment. For the observation and analysis of the inner structure of spheroids, sectioning is an efficient approach. However, conventional microfluidic devices are difficult for sectioning, and therefore, spheroids inside the microfluidic channels have not been sliced well. We proposed a microfluidic device created from embedding resin for sectioning. Spheroids were cultured, embedded by resin, and sectioned in the microfluidic device. Slices of the sectioned spheroids yielded clear images at the cellular level. According to morphological and immunohistochemical analyses of the slices of the spheroid, specific protein distribution was observed.
Project description:Background The transverse carpal ligament is well known for its involvement in carpal tunnel syndrome, and sectioning of this ligament remains the definite treatment for this pathology. Some authors believe that the transverse carpal ligament is an important stabilizer of the carpal arch, whereas others do not consider it to be significant. Several studies have been performed, both in vivo and in in vitro. Sectioning of the transverse carpal ligament does not seem to have any effect on the width of the carpal arch in the unloaded condition. However, patients will load the arch during their activities of daily living. Materials and Methods A cadaveric study was done with distraction of the carpal bones before and after sectioning the transverse carpal ligament. Results With the transverse carpal ligament intact, the carpal arch is mobile, with distraction leading up to 50% widening of the arch. Sectioning of the transverse carpal ligament resulted in a significant widening of the carpal arch by a further 30%. Conclusions Loading of the carpal arch after sectioning of the transeverse carapal ligament leads to a significant increase in intracarpal mobility. This will inevitably influence carpal kinematics in the patient and might be responsible for some complications after simple carpal tunnel releases, such as pillar pain, palmar tenderness, and loss of grip strength.