Adenoma detection in patients undergoing a comprehensive colonoscopy screening.
ABSTRACT: Measures shown to improve the adenoma detection during colonoscopy (excellent bowel preparation, cecal intubation, cap fitted colonoscope to examine behind folds, patient position change to optimize colon distention, trained endoscopy team focusing on detection of subtle flat lesions, and incorporation of optimum endoscopic examination with adequate withdrawal time) are applicable to clinical practice and, if incorporated are projected to facilitate comprehensive colonoscopy screening program for colon cancer prevention. To determine adenoma and serrated polyp detection rate under conditions designed to optimize quality parameters for comprehensive screening colonoscopy. Retrospective analysis of data obtained from a comprehensive colon cancer screening program designed to optimize quality parameters. Academic medical center. Three hundred and forty-three patients between the ages of 50 years and 75 years who underwent first screening colonoscopy between 2009 and 2011 among 535 consecutive patients undergoing colonoscopy. Comprehensive colonoscopy screening program was utilized to screen all patients. Cecal intubation was successful in 98.8% of patients. The Boston Bowel Preparation Scale for quality of colonoscopy was 8.97 (95% confidence interval [CI]; 8.94, 9.00). The rate of adenoma detection was 60% and serrated lesion (defined as serrated adenomas or hyperplastic polyps proximal to the splenic flexure) detection was 23%. The rate of precancerous lesion detection (adenomas and serrated lesions) was 66%. The mean number of adenomas per screening procedure was 1.4 (1.2, 1.6) and the mean number of precancerous lesions (adenomas or serrated lesions) per screening procedure was 1.6 (1.4, 1.8). Retrospective study and single endoscopist experience. A comprehensive colonoscopy screening program results in high-quality screening with high detection of adenomas, advanced adenomas, serrated adenomas, and multiple adenomas.
Project description:To analyse the clinical features of patients with the serrated lesions in the upper gastrointestinal tract (UPGI) tract.Patients who underwent routine esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) at the Digestive Endoscopy Centre of General Hospital, Tianjin Medical University between January 2011 and December 2015 were consecutively recruited. Patients with UPGI serrated lesions were consecutively identified. The patients' demographics and histopathology were recorded. The colorectal findings for patients who underwent colonoscopy simultaneously or within six months were also extracted from the colonoscopy database. In addition, we analysed differences in colorectal neoplasia detection between the study patients and randomly selected patients matched for age and gender who did not exhibit serrated lesions and who also underwent colonoscopy in the same period.A total of 21 patients out of 98746 patients (0.02%) who underwent EGD were confirmed to have serrated lesions with predominantly crenated, sawtooth-like configurations. The mean age of the 21 patients was (55.3 ± 17.2) years, and 11 patients were male (52.4%). In terms of the locations of the serrated lesions, 17 were found in the stomach (including 3 in the cardia, 9 in the corpus and 5 in the antrum), 3 were found in the duodenum, and 1 was found in the esophagus. Serrated lesions were found in different mucosal lesions, with 14 lesions were detected in polyps (8 hyperplastic polyps and 6 serrated adenomas with low grade dysplasia), 3 detected in Ménétrier gastropathy, 3 detected in an area of inflammation or ulcer, and 1 detected in the intramucosal carcinoma of the duodenum. In addition, colonoscopy data were available for 18 patients, and a significantly higher colorectal adenoma detection rate was observed in the UPGI serrated lesions group than in the randomly selected age- and gender-matched group without serrated lesions who also underwent colonoscopy in the same period (38.9% vs 11.1%, OR = 5.091, 95%CI: 1.534-16.890, P = 0.010). The detection rate of advanced adenoma was also higher in the UPGI serrated lesions group (22.2% vs 4.2%, OR = 6.571, 95%CI: 1.322-32.660, P = 0.028).Serrated lesions in the UPGI were detected in various mucosal lesions with different pathological morphologies. Moreover colonoscopy is recommended for the detection of concurrent colorectal adenoma for these patients.
Project description:Background:A low adenoma detection rate (ADR) increases risks of interval cancers (ICs). Proximal colon flat polyps, e.g. serrated lesions (SLs), are difficult to find. Missed proximal colon flat lesions likely contribute to IC. Aims:We compared chromoendoscopy with water exchange (CWE), water exchange (WE) and air insufflation (AI) in detecting adenomas in screening colonoscopy. Methods:After split-dose preparation, 480 veterans were randomized to AI, WE and CWE. Results:Primary outcome of proximal ADR (55.6% vs 53.4% vs 52.2%, respectively) were similar in all groups. Adenoma per colonoscopy (APC) and adenoma per positive colonoscopy (APPC) were comparable. Detection rate of proximal colon SLs was significantly higher for CWE and WE than AI (26.3%, 23.6% and 11.3%, respectively, p?=?0.002). Limitations: single operator; SLs only surrogate markers of but not IC. Conclusions:When an endoscopist achieves high-quality AI examinations with overall ADR twice (61.6%) the recommended standard (30%), use of WE and CWE does not produce further improvement in proximal or overall ADR. Comparable APC and APPC confirm equivalent withdrawal inspection techniques. WE alone is sufficient to significantly improve detection of proximal SLs. The impact of increased detection of proximal SLs by WE on prevention of IC deserves to be studied. This study is registered at ClinicalTrial.gov (NCT#01607255).
Project description:<b>Background and study aims?</b> Serrated lesions are precursors of approximately one-third of colorectal cancers (CRCs). Information on their detection rate was lacking as an important reference for CRC screening. This study was a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the overall detection rate for serrated lesions and their subtypes in average-risk populations undergoing CRC screening with colonoscopy. <b>Patient and methods?</b> MEDLINE and Embase were searched to identify population-based studies that reported the detection rate for serrated lesions. Studies on average-risk populations using colonoscopy as a screening tool were included. Metaprop was applied to model within-study variability by binomial distribution, and Freeman-Tukey Double Arcsine Transformation was adopted to stabilise the variances. The detection rate was presented in proportions using random-effects models. <b>Results?</b> In total, 17 studies involving 129,001 average-risk individuals were included. The overall detection rates for serrated lesions (19.0?%, 95?% CI?=?15.3?%-23.0?%), sessile serrated polyps (2.5?%, 95?% CI?=?1.5?%-3.8?%), and traditional serrated adenomas (0.3?%, 95?% CI?=?0.1?%-0.8?%) were estimated. Subgroup analysis indicated a higher detection rate for serrated lesions among males (22.0?%) than females (14.0?%), and Caucasians (25.9?%) than Asians (14.6?%). The detection rate for sessile serrated polyps was also higher among Caucasians (2.9?%) than Asians (0.7?%). <b>Conclusions?</b> This study determined the overall detection rate for serrated lesions and their different subtypes. The pooled detection rate estimates can be used as a reference for establishing CRC screening programs. Future studies may evaluate the independent factors associated with the presence of serrated lesions during colonoscopy to enhance their rate of detection.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To improve patients' comprehension of bowel preparation instructions before colonoscopy, enhanced patient education (EPE) such as cartoon pictures or other visual aids, phone calls, mobile apps, multimedia education and social media apps have been proposed. However, it is uncertain whether EPE can increase the detection rate of colonic polyps and adenomas. OBJECTIVE:This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the efficacy of EPE in detecting colonic polyps and adenomas. METHODS:We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from their inception to June 2019 for the identification of trials comparing the EPE with standard patient education for outpatients undergoing colonoscopy. We used a random effects model to calculate summary estimates of the polyp detection rate (defined as the number of patients with at least one polyp divided by the total number of patients undergoing selective colonoscopy), adenoma detection rate (defined as the number of patients with at least one adenoma divided by the total number of patients undergoing selective colonoscopy), advanced adenoma detection rate (defined as the number of patients with at least one advanced adenoma divided by the total number of patients undergoing selective colonoscopy), sessile serrated adenoma detection rate (defined as the number of patients with at least one sessile serrated adenoma divided by the total number of patients undergoing selective colonoscopy), cancer detection rate (defined as the number of patients with at least one cancer divided by the total number of patients undergoing selective colonoscopy), or adenoma detection rate - plus (defined as the number of additional adenomas found after the first adenoma per colonoscopy). Moreover, we conducted trial sequential analysis (TSA) to determine the robustness of summary estimates of all primary outcomes. RESULTS:We included 10 randomized controlled trials enrolling 4560 participants for analysis. The meta-analysis suggested that EPE was associated with an increased polyp detection rate (9 trials; 3781 participants; risk ratio [RR] 1.19, 95% CI 1.05-1.35; P<.05; I2=42%) and adenoma detection rate (5 trials; 2133 participants; RR 1.37, 95% CI 1.15-1.64; P<.001; I2=0%), which were established by TSA. Pooled result from the inverse-variance model illustrated an increase in the sessile serrated adenoma detection rate (3 trials; 1248 participants; odds ratio 1.76, 95% CI 1.22-2.53; P<.05; I2=0%). One trial suggested an increase in the adenoma detection rate - plus (RR 4.39, 95% CI 2.91-6.61; P<.001). Pooled estimates from 3 (1649 participants) and 2 trials (1375 participants) generated no evidence of statistical difference for the advanced adenoma detection rate and cancer detection rate, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:The current evidence indicates that EPE should be recommended to instruct bowel preparation in patients undergoing colonoscopy because it can increase the polyp detection rate, adenoma detection rate, and sessile serrated adenoma detection rate. However, further trials are warranted to determine the efficacy of EPE for advanced adenoma detection rate, adenoma detection rate - plus, and cancer detection rate because of limited data.
Project description:<h4>Background & aims</h4>Endoscopic screening reduces incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer (CRC) because precursor lesions, such as conventional adenomas or serrated polyps, are removed. Individuals with polypectomies are advised to undergo colonoscopy surveillance to prevent CRC. However, guidelines for surveillance intervals after diagnosis of a precursor lesion, particularly for individuals with serrated polyps, vary widely, and lack sufficient supporting evidence. Consequently, some high-risk patients do not receive enough surveillance and lower-risk subjects receive excessive surveillance.<h4>Methods</h4>We examined the association between findings from first endoscopy and CRC risk among 122,899 participants who underwent flexible sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy in the Nurses' Health Study 1 (1990-2012), Nurses' Health Study 2 (1989-2013), or the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1990-2012). Endoscopic findings were categorized as no polyp, conventional adenoma, or serrated polyp (hyperplastic polyp, traditional serrated adenoma, or sessile serrated adenoma, with or without cytological dysplasia). Conventional adenomas were classified as advanced (?10 mm, high-grade dysplasia, or tubulovillous or villous histology) or nonadvanced, and serrated polyps were assigned to categories of large (?10 mm) or small (<10 mm). We used a Cox proportional hazards regression model to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) of CRC incidence, after adjusting for various potential risk factors.<h4>Results</h4>After a median follow-up period of 10 years, we documented 491 incident cases of CRC: 51 occurred in 6161 participants with conventional adenomas, 24 in 5918 participants with serrated polyps, and 427 in 112,107 participants with no polyp. Compared with participants with no polyp detected during initial endoscopy, the multivariable HR for incident CRC in individuals with an advanced adenoma was 4.07 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.89-5.72) and the HR for CRC in individuals with a large serrated polyp was 3.35 (95% CI 1.37-8.15). In contrast, there was no significant increase in risk of CRC in patients with nonadvanced adenomas (HR 1.21; 95% CI 0.68-2.16, P = .52) or small serrated polyps (HR 1.25; 95% CI 0.76-2.08; P = .38).<h4>Conclusions</h4>These findings provide support for guidelines that recommend repeat lower endoscopy within 3 years of a diagnosis of advanced adenoma and large serrated polyps. In contrast, patients with nonadvanced adenoma or small serrated polyps may not require more intensive surveillance than patients without polyps.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Surveillance guidelines for serrated polyps (SPs) are based on limited data on longitudinal outcomes of patients. We used the New Hampshire Colonoscopy Registry to evaluate risk of clinically important metachronous lesions associated with SPs detected during index colonoscopies. METHODS:We collected data from a population-based colonoscopy registry that has been collecting and analyzing data on colonoscopies across the state of New Hampshire since 2004, including rates of adenoma and SP detection. Patients completed a questionnaire to determine demographic characteristics, health history, and risk factors for colorectal cancer, and were followed from index colonoscopy through all subsequent surveillance colonoscopies. Our analyses included 5433 participants (median age, 61 years; 49.7% male) with 2 colonoscopies (median time to surveillance, 4.9 years). We used multivariable logistic regression models to assess effects of index SPs (n = 1016), high-risk adenomas (HRA, n = 817), low-risk adenomas (n = 1418), and no adenomas (n = 3198) on subsequent HRA or large SPs (>1 cm) on surveillance colonoscopy (metachronous lesions). Synchronous SPs, within each index risk group, were assessed for size and by histology. SPs comprise hyperplastic polyps, sessile serrated adenomas/polyps (SSA/Ps), and traditional serrated adenomas. In this study, SSA/Ps and traditional serrated adenomas are referred to collectively as STSAs. RESULTS:HRA and synchronous large SP (odds ratio [OR], 5.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.72-18.28), HRA with synchronous STSA (OR, 16.04; 95% CI, 6.95-37.00), and HRA alone (OR, 3.86; 95% CI, 2.77-5.39) at index colonoscopy significantly increased the risk of metachronous HRA compared to the reference group (no index adenomas or SPs). Large index SPs alone (OR, 14.34; 95% CI, 5.03-40.86) or index STSA alone (OR, 9.70; 95% CI, 3.63-25.92) significantly increased the risk of a large metachronous SP. CONCLUSIONS:In an analysis of data from a population-based colonoscopy registry, we found index large SP or index STSA with no index HRA increased risk of metachronous large SPs but not metachronous HRA. HRA and synchronous SPs at index colonoscopy significantly increased risk of metachronous HRA. Individuals with HRA and synchronous large SP or any STSA could therefore benefit from close surveillance.
Project description:Adenoma miss rates in colonoscopy are unacceptably high, especially for sessile serrated adenomas / polyps (SSA/Ps) and in high-risk populations, such as patients with Lynch syndrome. Detection rates may be improved by fluorescence molecular endoscopy (FME), which allows morphological visualization of lesions with high-definition white-light imaging as well as fluorescence-guided identification of lesions with a specific molecular marker. In a clinical proof-of-principal study, we investigated FME for colorectal adenoma detection, using a fluorescently labelled antibody (bevacizumab-800CW) against vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), which is highly upregulated in colorectal adenomas. Methods: Patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (n = 17), received an intravenous injection with 4.5, 10 or 25 mg of bevacizumab-800CW. Three days later, they received NIR-FME. Results: VEGFA-targeted NIR-FME detected colorectal adenomas at all doses. Best results were achieved in the highest (25 mg) cohort, which even detected small adenomas (<3 mm). Spectroscopy analyses of freshly excised specimen demonstrated the highest adenoma-to-normal ratio of 1.84 for the 25 mg cohort, with a calculated median tracer concentration in adenomas of 6.43 nmol/mL. Ex vivo signal analyses demonstrated NIR fluorescence within the dysplastic areas of the adenomas. Conclusion: These results suggest that NIR-FME is clinically feasible as a real-time, red-flag technique for detection of colorectal adenomas.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Low adenoma detection rates (ADR) are linked to increased postcolonoscopy colorectal cancer rates and reduced cancer survival. Devices to enhance mucosal visualisation such as Endocuff Vision (EV) may improve ADR. This multicentre randomised controlled trial compared ADR between EV-assisted colonoscopy (EAC) and standard colonoscopy (SC). DESIGN:Patients referred because of symptoms, surveillance or following a positive faecal occult blood test (FOBt) as part of the Bowel Cancer Screening Programme were recruited from seven hospitals. ADR, mean adenomas per procedure, size and location of adenomas, sessile serrated polyps, EV removal rate, caecal intubation rate, procedural time, patient experience, effect of EV on workload and adverse events were measured. RESULTS:1772 patients (57% male, mean age 62 years) were recruited over 16 months with 45% recruited through screening. EAC increased ADR globally from 36.2% to 40.9% (P=0.02). The increase was driven by a 10.8% increase in FOBt-positive screening patients (50.9% SC vs 61.7% EAC, P<0.001). EV patients had higher detection of mean adenomas per procedure, sessile serrated polyps, left-sided, diminutive, small adenomas and cancers (cancer 4.1% vs 2.3%, P=0.02). EV removal rate was 4.1%. Median intubation was a minute quicker with EAC (P=0.001), with no difference in caecal intubation rate or withdrawal time. EAC was well tolerated but caused a minor increase in discomfort on anal intubation in patients undergoing colonoscopy with no or minimal sedation. There were no significant EV adverse events. CONCLUSION:EV significantly improved ADR in bowel cancer screening patients and should be used to improve colonoscopic detection. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT02552017, Results; ISRCTN11821044, Results.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Endoscopists do not routinely follow guidelines to survey individuals with low-risk adenomas (LRAs; 1-2 small tubular adenomas, < 1 cm) every 5-10 years for colorectal cancer; many recommend shorter surveillance intervals for these individuals. We aimed to identify the reasons that endoscopists recommend shorter surveillance intervals for some individuals with LRAs and determine whether timing affects outcomes at follow-up examinations. METHODS:We collected data from 1560 individuals (45-75 years old) who participated in a prospective chemoprevention trial (of vitamin D and calcium) from 2004 through 2008. Participants in the trial had at least 1 adenoma, detected at their index colonoscopy, and were recommended to receive follow-up colonoscopy examinations at 3 or 5 years after adenoma identification, as recommended by the endoscopist. For this analysis we collected data from only participants with LRAs. These data included characteristics of participants and endoscopists and findings from index and follow-up colonoscopies. Primary endpoints were frequency of recommending shorter (3-year) vs longer (5-year) surveillance intervals, factors associated with these recommendations, and effect on outcome, determined at the follow-up colonoscopy. RESULTS:A 3-year surveillance interval was recommended for 594 of the subjects (38.1%). Factors most significantly associated with recommendation of 3-year vs a 5-year surveillance interval included African American race (relative risk [RR] to white, 1.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14-1.75), Asian/Pacific Islander ethnicity (RR to white, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.22-2.43), detection of 2 adenomas at the index examination (RR vs 1 adenoma, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.27-1.71), more than 3 serrated polyps at the index examination (RR=2.16, 95% CI, 1.59-2.93), or index examination with fair or poor quality bowel preparation (RR vs excellent quality, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.66-2.83). Other factors that had a significant association with recommendation for a 3-year surveillance interval included family history of colorectal cancer and detection of 1-2 serrated polyps at the index examination. In comparisons of outcomes, we found no significant differences between the 3-year vs 5-year recommendation groups in proportions of subjects found to have 1 or more adenomas (38.8% vs 41.7% respectively; P = .27), advanced adenomas (7.7% vs 8.2%; P = .73) or clinically significant serrated polyps (10.0% vs 10.3%; P = .82) at the follow-up colonoscopy. CONCLUSIONS:Possibly influenced by patients' family history, race, quality of bowel preparation, or number or size of polyps, endoscopists frequently recommend 3-year surveillance intervals instead of guideline-recommended intervals of 5 years or longer for individuals with LRAs. However, at the follow-up colonoscopy, similar proportions of participants have 1 or more adenomas, advanced adenomas, or serrated polyps. These findings support the current guideline recommendations of performing follow-up examinations of individuals with LRAs at least 5 years after the index colonoscopy.
Project description:Postpolypectomy surveillance has become a major indication for colonoscopy as a result of increased use of screening colonoscopy in Korea. In this report, a careful analytic approach was used to address all available evidences to delineate the predictors for advanced neoplasia at surveillance colonoscopy and we elucidated the high risk findings of the index colonoscopy as follows: 3 or more adenomas, any adenoma larger than 10 mm, any tubulovillous or villous adenoma, any adenoma with high-grade dysplasia, and any serrated polyps larger than 10 mm. Surveillance colonoscopy should be performed five years after the index colonoscopy for those without any high-risk findings and three years after the index colonoscopy for those with one or more high risk findings. However, the surveillance interval can be shortened considering the quality of the index colonoscopy, the completeness of polypectomy, the patient's general condition, and family and medical history.