Human iPSC-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells can myelinate and rescue a mouse model of congenital hypomyelination.
ABSTRACT: Neonatal engraftment by oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) permits the myelination of the congenitally dysmyelinated brain. To establish a potential autologous source of these cells, we developed a strategy by which to differentiate human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) into OPCs. From three hiPSC lines, as well as from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), we generated highly enriched OLIG2(+)/PDGFR?(+)/NKX2.2(+)/SOX10(+) human OPCs, which could be further purified using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. hiPSC OPCs efficiently differentiated into both myelinogenic oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, in vitro and in vivo. Neonatally engrafted hiPSC OPCs robustly myelinated the brains of myelin-deficient shiverer mice and substantially increased their survival. The speed and efficiency of myelination by hiPSC OPCs was higher than that previously observed using fetal-tissue-derived OPCs, and no tumors from these grafts were noted as long as 9 months after transplant. These results suggest the potential utility of hiPSC-derived OPCs in treating disorders of myelin loss.
Project description:Human oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) specification and differentiation occurs slowly and limits the potential for cell-based treatment of demyelinating disease. In this study, using FACS-based isolation and microarray analysis, we identified a set of transcription factors expressed by human primary CD140a(+)O4(+) OPCs relative to CD133(+)CD140a(-) neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs). Among these, lentiviral overexpression of transcription factors ASCL1, SOX10, and NKX2.2 in NPCs was sufficient to induce Sox10 enhancer activity, OPC mRNA, and protein expression consistent with OPC fate; however, unlike ASCL1 and NKX2.2, only the transcriptome of SOX10-infected NPCs was induced to a human OPC gene expression signature. Furthermore, only SOX10 promoted oligodendrocyte commitment, and did so at quantitatively equivalent levels to native OPCs. In xenografts of shiverer/rag2 animals, SOX10 increased the rate of mature oligodendrocyte differentiation and axon ensheathment. Thus, SOX10 appears to be the principle and rate-limiting regulator of myelinogenic fate from human NPCs.
Project description:Experimental animals with myelin disorders can be treated by transplanting oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) into the affected brain or spinal cord. OPCs have been isolated by their expression of gangliosides recognized by mAb A2B5, but this marker also identifies lineage-restricted astrocytes and immature neurons. To establish a more efficient means of isolating myelinogenic OPCs, we sorted fetal human forebrain cells for CD140a, an epitope of platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR)?, which is differentially expressed by OPCs. CD140a(+) cells were isolated as mitotic bipotential progenitors that initially expressed neither mature neuronal nor astrocytic phenotypic markers, yet could be instructed to either oligodendrocyte or astrocyte fate in vitro. Transplanted CD140a(+) cells were highly migratory and robustly myelinated the hypomyelinated shiverer mouse brain more rapidly and efficiently than did A2B5(+)cells. Microarray analysis of CD140a(+) cells revealed overexpression of the oligodendroglial marker CD9, suggesting that CD9(+)/CD140a(+) cells may constitute an even more highly enriched population of myelinogenic progenitor cells.
Project description:The dysmyelinated axons of shiverer mice exhibit impaired conduction characteristics, similar to early postnatal axons before myelination, whereas the patterns of neuronal activity and connectivity are relatively comparable with those of wild-type myelinated axons. This unique dysmyelination pattern is exploited in the present study to determine the role of compact myelin in the loss and recovery of function following traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). We applied in vivo diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and post-mortem immunohistochemistry analysis to examine changes in myelin and axonal integrity, and evaluated these changes in concert with the analysis of locomotor function from 1 to 4 weeks following a mid-thoracic contusion injury in homozygous shiverer and heterozygous littermate mice. The DTI biomarkers, axial and radial diffusivities, are noninvasive indicators of axon and myelin integrity in response to SCI of both myelinated and dysmyelinated spinal cord. We show that myelin is critical for normal hind limb function in open field locomotion. However, when the functional outcome is limited during chronic SCI, the extent of recovery is associated with residual axonal integrity and independent of the extent of intact myelin at the lesion epicenter.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: Remyelination in multiple sclerosis has been attributed to the presence of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) in brain parenchyma. However, the precise identity of these progenitors is poorly defined. Here, we characterized populations of OPCs in the adult human brain and examined their myelination capacity and profile of miRNAs. Comparisons were made with fetal OPCs and mature oligodendrocytes. METHODS: We isolated human adult and fetal (early-to-mid second trimester) OPCs from surgically resected brain tissues using O4-, A2B5-, and MOG-directed fluorescence activated cell sorting and transplanted them into dysmyelinated shiverer slices to examine their myelination capacity. We used qRT-PCR to analyze expression of selective miRNAs implicated in OPC biology. RESULTS: Three subsets of putative OPCs were identified in adult brains: (1) A2B5(+), (2) O4(low), and (3) A2B5(+)O4(high)MOG(+) progenitors. In comparison, fetal brains contained (1) A2B5(+), (2) O4(+), and (3) A2B5(+)O4(+) progenitors, but no MOG(+) cells. We demonstrate that like fetal OPCs, adult OPCs have the capacity to ensheathe cerebellar axons. However, adult OPCs exhibit low to undetectable expression of miRNAs that were highly expressed in O4-expressing fetal OPCs. Adult OPCs also express different miRNAs compared to mature oligodendrocytes. INTERPRETATION: We conclude that phenotypically distinct subsets of OPCs are present in adult human brain and these OPCs show differential miRNA expression compared to fetal OPCs and mature oligodendrocytes. These suggest that remyelination in adult brain may involve multiple populations of progenitors within the brain and that OPC differentiation in adulthood may be differentially regulated compared to development.
Project description:Recent studies have suggested that Nkx6.2/Gtx and Nkx2.2 homeodomain transcription factors are involved in the regulation of oligodendrocyte maturation and/or myelination which occur predominantly in postnatal stages. However, their cellular specificity in postnatal central nervous system has not been characterized and their dynamic expressional relationship during oligodendrocyte lineage progression has not been determined. Here we report that both Nkx2.2 and Nkx6.2 are selectively expressed in Olig2+ cells of oligodendrocyte lineage in postnatal spinal cords. Although Nkx6.2 is specifically expressed in the APC+ mature oligodendrocytes, Nkx2.2 is initially expressed in differentiating oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) but quickly down-regulated as OPCs undergo terminal differentiation. Intriguingly, Nkx2.2 expression is up-regulated in mature myelinating oligodendrocytes at later stages. The co-expression of Nkx2.2 and Nkx6.2 transcription factors in myelinating oligodendrocytes suggests their functional interactions in the regulation of myelin sheath formation and/or maintenance.
Project description:Nucleoporins (Nups) are involved in neural development, and alterations in Nup genes are linked to human neurological diseases. However, physiological functions of specific Nups and the underlying mechanisms involved in these processes remain elusive. Here, we show that tissue-specific depletion of the nucleoporin Seh1 causes dramatic myelination defects in the CNS. Although proliferation is not altered in Seh1-deficient oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), they fail to differentiate into mature oligodendrocytes, which impairs myelin production and remyelination after demyelinating injury. Genome-wide analyses show that Seh1 regulates a core myelinogenic regulatory network and establishes an accessible chromatin landscape. Mechanistically, Seh1 regulates OPCs differentiation by assembling Olig2 and Brd7 into a transcription complex at nuclear periphery. Together, our results reveal that Seh1 is required for oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination by promoting assembly of an Olig2-dependent transcription complex and define a nucleoporin as a key player in the CNS.
Project description:The transcriptional program that controls oligodendrocyte maturation and central nervous system (CNS) myelination has not been fully characterized. In this study, we use high-throughput RNA sequencing to analyze how the loss of a key transcription factor, zinc finger protein 191 (ZFP191), results in oligodendrocyte development abnormalities and CNS hypomyelination. Using a previously described mutant mouse that is deficient in ZFP191 protein expression (Zfp191(null)), we demonstrate that key transcripts are reduced in the whole brain as well as within oligodendrocyte lineage cells cultured in vitro To determine whether the loss of myelin seen in Zfp191(null) mice contributes indirectly to these perturbations, we also examined the transcriptome of a well-characterized mouse model of hypomyelination, in which the myelin structural protein myelin basic protein (MBP) is deficient. Interestingly, Mbp(shi) (shiverer) mice had far fewer transcripts perturbed with the loss of myelin alone. This study demonstrates that the loss of ZFP191 disrupts expression of genes involved in oligodendrocyte maturation and myelination, largely independent from the loss of myelin. Nevertheless, hypomyelination in both mouse mutants results in the perturbation of lipid synthesis pathways, suggesting that oligodendrocytes have a feedback system that allows them to regulate myelin lipid synthesis depending on their myelinating state. The data presented are of potential clinical relevance as the human orthologs of the Zfp191 and MBP genes reside on a region of Chromosome 18 that is deleted in childhood leukodystrophies.
Project description:Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) have been differentiated into oligodendroglial progenitor cells (OPCs), providing promising cell replacement therapies for many central nervous system disorders. Studies from rodents have shown that brain OPCs express a variety of ion channels, and that a subset of brain OPCs express voltage-gated sodium channel (NaV ), mediating the spiking properties of OPCs. However, it is unclear whether PSC-derived OPCs exhibit electrophysiological properties similar to brain OPCs and the role of NaV in the functional maturation of OPCs is unknown. Here, using a mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) green fluorescent protein (GFP)-Olig2 knockin reporter line, we demonstrated that unlike brain OPCs, all the GFP(+) /Olig2(+) mESC-derived OPCs (mESC-OPCs) did not express functional NaV and failed to generate spikes (hence termed "nonspiking mESC-OPCs"), while expressing the delayed rectifier and inactivating potassium currents. By ectopically expressing NaV 1.2 ? subunit via viral transduction, we successfully generated mESC-OPCs with spiking properties (termed "spiking mESC-OPCs"). After transplantation into the spinal cord and brain of myelin-deficient shiverer mice, the spiking mESC-OPCs demonstrated better capability in differentiating into myelin basic protein expressing oligodendrocytes and in myelinating axons in vivo than the nonspiking mESC-OPCs. Thus, by generating spiking and nonspiking mESC-OPCs, this study reveals a novel function of NaV in OPCs in their functional maturation and myelination, and sheds new light on ways to effectively develop PSC-derived OPCs for future clinical applications.
Project description:Periventricular white matter injury (PWMI) is the most common cause of brain injury in preterm infants. It is believed that loss of late oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) and disrupted maturation of oligodendrocytes contributes to defective myelination in PWMI. At present, no clinically approved drugs are available for treating PWMI. Previously, we found that diazoxide promotes myelination and attenuates brain injury in the chronic sublethal hypoxia model of PWMI. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms by which diazoxide promotes myelination. We observed that diazoxide increases the ratio of differentiated oligodendrocytes in the cerebral white matter, promotes the expression of differentiation-associated transcriptional factors Nkx2.2 and Sox10, and increases the expression of myelin genes CNP and MBP. These results show that diazoxide promotes oligodendrocyte differentiation in the developing brain.
Project description:In the central nervous system (CNS), oligodendrocyte maturation and axonal myelination occur on a predictable schedule, but the underlying timing mechanisms are largely unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that Nkx2.2 homeodomain transcription factor is a key regulator for the timing of oligodendrocyte differentiation during development. Whereas induced expression of Nkx2.2 in early oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) causes precocious differentiation of oligodendrocytes, conditional ablation of Nkx2.2 temporally delays oligodendrocyte maturation. Moreover, Nkx2.2 can directly bind to the promoter of platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (Pdgfra) and repress its gene expression. Genetic ablation of Pdgfra mimics the effect of Nkx2.2 overexpression in accelerating OPC differentiation in the developing spinal cord. Together, our findings strongly suggest that Nkx2.2 functions as a major 'switch' to turn off Pdgfra signaling in OPCs and initiate the intrinsic program for oligodendrocyte differentiation.