MRI predicts efficacy of constraint-induced movement therapy in children with brain injury.
ABSTRACT: Using resting state (RS) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), we identified the predictors of clinical improvement following constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) in pediatric patients with chronic hemiplegia.From 14 children with congenital or acquired brain injury and 10 sex- and age-matched healthy controls, brain dual-echo, DTI and RS fMRI sequences were acquired before CIMT. The Quality of Upper Extremities Skills Test and the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) were administered at baseline, at the end of CIMT (10 weeks), and after 6 months. Mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy (FA) were measured in the lesion responsible for the clinical symptomatology, the affected and unaffected corticospinal tract (CST), motor transcallosal fibers, and uncinate fasciculus (as an internal control). Independent component analysis was used to identify the sensorimotor RS network. The ability of baseline MRI variables to predict clinical changes over time was assessed using multivariate linear models. At baseline, patients had increased mean diffusivity in the symptomatic lesion and decreased FA in the symptomatic lesion, affected corticospinal tract, and motor transcallosal fibers. A reduced RS functional connectivity was found in the bilateral cerebellum, left precentral gyrus, and right secondary sensorimotor cortex. At follow up, Quality of Upper Extremities Skills Test and GMFM scales improved significantly. Baseline average lesion FA predicted clinical improvement at week 10, and baseline functional connectivity of the right secondary sensorimotor cortex and cerebellum predicted GMFM improvement at month 6. DTI and RS fMRI offer promising and objective markers to predict clinical outcomes following CIMT in pediatric patients with congenital or acquired hemiplegia.
Project description:Electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies suggest that the integrity of ipsilesional and inter-hemispheric motor circuits is important for motor recovery after stroke. However, the extent to which each of these tracts contributes to the variance in outcome remains unclear. We examined whether diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-derived measures of corticospinal and transcallosal tracts predict motor improvement in an experimental neurorehabilitation trial. 15 chronic stroke patients received bihemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation and simultaneous physical/occupational therapy for five consecutive days. Motor impairment was assessed prior to and after the intervention. At baseline, the patients underwent DTI; probabilistic fiber tracking was used to reconstruct the pyramidal tract (PT), alternate descending motor fibers (aMF), and transcallosal fibers connecting primary motor cortices (M1-M1). Ipsilesional corticospinal tracts (PT, aMF) and M1-M1 showed significantly decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) and increased directional diffusivities when compared to age-matched healthy controls. Partial correlations revealed that greater gains in motor function were related to higher FA values and lower directional diffusivities of transcallosal and ipsilesional corticospinal tracts. M1-M1 diffusivity had the greatest predictive value. An additional slice-by-slice analysis of FA values along the corticospinal tracts demonstrated that the more the ipsilesional FA profiles of patients resembled those of healthy controls, the greater their functional improvement. In conclusion, our study shows that DTI-derived measures can be used to predict functional potential for subsequent motor recovery in chronic stroke patients. Diffusivity parameters of individual tracts and tract combinations may help in assessing a patient's individual recovery potential and in determining optimal neurorehabilitative interventions.
Project description:Functional and structural reorganization in the brain occurs after stroke. The ability to predict motor outcomes may depend on patterns of brain functional and structural connectivity. We tested the hypothesis that alterations in motor transcallosal and corticospinal connections correlate with motor impairment in patients with chronic stroke. Eleven ischemic stroke patients underwent the Upper Extremity Fugl-Meyer (UE-FM) assessment, resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Twelve healthy control subjects underwent DTI. We assessed the temporal coupling in neural activity between interhemispheric motor cortex, and white matter integrity by means of fractional anisotropy (FA), in the transcallosal motor fibers and corticospinal tract. Partial correlation analyses were performed to determine whether these connectivity measures correlate with Upper UE-FM scores. Patients compared to controls had reduced FA in common voxels of transcallosal motor and ipsilesional corticospinal fibers. Within the patient group those with higher interhemispheric motor cortex connectivity and higher FA in the transcallosal motor fibers were less impaired. The results show that markers of functional and structural motor cortex connectivity correlate with motor impairment in the chronic stage of stroke.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Little is known about connectivity within the default mode network (DMN) in heroin-dependent individuals (HDIs). In the current study, diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) and resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) were combined to investigate both structural and functional connectivity within the DMN in HDIs. METHODS:Fourteen HDIs and 14 controls participated in the study. Structural (path length, tracts count, (fractional anisotropy) FA and (mean diffusivity) MD derived from DTI tractography)and functional (temporal correlation coefficient derived from rs-fMRI) DMN connectivity changes were examined in HDIs. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to compare the structural/functional indices and duration of heroin use/Iowa gambling task(IGT) performance in HDIs. RESULTS:HDIs had lower FA and higher MD in the tract connecting the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus (PCC/PCUN) to right parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), compared to the controls. HDIs also had decreased FA and track count in the tract connecting the PCC/PCUN and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), as well as decreased functional connectivity between the PCC/PCUN and bilateral PHG and MPFC, compared to controls. FA values for the tract connecting PCC/PCUN to the right PHG and connecting PCC/PCUN to the MPFC were negatively correlated to the duration of heroin use. The temporal correlation coefficients between the PCC/PCUN and the MPFC, and the FA values for the tract connecting the PCC/PCUN to the MPFC were positively correlated to IGT performance in HDIs. CONCLUSIONS:Structural and functional connectivity within the DMN are both disturbed in HDIs. This disturbance progresses as duration of heroin use increases and is related to deficits in decision making in HDIs.
Project description:Background: Brain-computer interface (BCI) devices are being investigated for their application in stroke rehabilitation, but little is known about how structural changes in the motor system relate to behavioral measures with the use of these systems. Objective: This study examined relationships among diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-derived metrics and with behavioral changes in stroke patients with and without BCI training. Methods: Stroke patients (n = 19) with upper extremity motor impairment were assessed using Stroke Impact Scale (SIS), Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), Nine-Hole Peg Test (9-HPT), and DTI scans. Ten subjects completed four assessments over a control period during which no training was administered. Seventeen subjects, including eight who completed the control period, completed four assessments over an experimental period during which subjects received interventional BCI training. Fractional anisotropy (FA) values were extracted from each corticospinal tract (CST) and transcallosal motor fibers for each scan. Results: No significant group by time interactions were identified at the group level in DTI or behavioral measures. During the control period, increases in contralesional CST FA and in asymmetric FA (aFA) correlated with poorer scores on SIS and 9-HPT. During the experimental period (with BCI training), increases in contralesional CST FA were correlated with improvements in 9-HPT while increases in aFA correlated with improvements in ARAT but with worsening 9-HPT performance; changes in transcallosal motor fibers positively correlated with those in the contralesional CST. All correlations p < 0.05 corrected. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the integrity of the contralesional CST may be used to track individual behavioral changes observed with BCI training after stroke.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is known to affect large-scale gray and white matter networks, and these network changes likely contribute to the verbal memory impairments observed in many patients. In this study, we investigate multimodal imaging patterns of brain alterations in TLE and evaluate the sensitivity of different imaging measures to verbal memory impairment. METHODS:Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (vMRI), and resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) were evaluated in 46 patients with TLE and 33 healthy controls to measure patterns of microstructural, structural, and functional alterations, respectively. These measurements were obtained within the white matter directly beneath neocortex (ie, superficial white matter [SWM]) for DTI and across neocortex for vMRI and rs-fMRI. The degree to which imaging alterations within left medial temporal lobe/posterior cingulate (LMT/PC) and left lateral temporal regions were associated with verbal memory performance was evaluated. RESULTS:Patients with left TLE and right TLE both demonstrated pronounced microstructural alterations (ie, decreased fractional anisotropy [FA] and increased mean diffusivity [MD]) spanning the entire frontal and temporolimbic SWM, which were highly lateralized to the ipsilateral hemisphere. Conversely, reductions in cortical thickness in vMRI and alterations in the magnitude of the rs-fMRI response were less pronounced and less lateralized than the microstructural changes. Both stepwise regression and mediation analyses further revealed that FA and MD within SWM in LMT/PC regions were the most robust predictors of verbal memory, and that these associations were independent of left hippocampal volume. SIGNIFICANCE:These findings suggest that microstructural loss within the SWM is pronounced in patients with TLE, and injury to the SWM within the LMT/PC region plays a critical role in verbal memory impairment.
Project description:Aims: To investigate the white matter (WM) integrity and hippocampal functional connectivity (FC) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients without mild cognitive impairment (MCI) by using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI), respectively. Methods: Twelve T2DM patients without MCI and 24 age, sex and education matched healthy controls (HC) were recruited. DTI and rs-fMRI data were subsequently acquired on a 3.0T MR scanner. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) combining region of interests (ROIs) analysis was used to investigate the alterations of DTI metrics (fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), ?1 and ?23) and FC measurement was performed to calculate hippocampal FC with other brain regions. Cognitive function was evaluated by using Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Brain volumes were also evaluated among these participants. Results: There were no difference of MMSE and MoCA scores between two groups. Neither whole brain nor regional brain volume decrease was revealed in T2DM patients without MCI. DTI analysis revealed extensive WM disruptions, especially in the body of corpus callosum (CC). Significant decreases of hippocampal FC with certain brain structures were revealed, especially with the bilateral frontal cortex. Furthermore, the decreased FA in left posterior thalamic radiation (PTR) and increased MD in the splenium of CC were closely related with the decreased hippocampal FC to caudate nucleus and frontal cortex. Conclusions: T2DM patients without MCI showed extensive WM disruptions and abnormal hippocampal FC. Moreover, the WM disruptions and abnormal hippocampal FC were closely associated. Highlights -T2DM patients without MCI demonstrated no obvious brain volume decrease.-Extensive white matter disruptions, especially within the body of corpus callosum, were revealed with DTI analysis among the T2DM patients.-Despite no MCI in T2DM patients, decreased functional connectivity between hippocampal region and some critical brain regions were detected.-The alterations in hippocampal functional connectivity were closely associated with those of the white matter structures in T2DM patients. This trial was registered to ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02420470, https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/).
Project description:Obesity is a medical condition affecting billions of people. Various neuroimaging methods including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been used to obtain information about obesity. We adopted a multi-modal approach combining diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) to incorporate complementary information and thus better investigate the brains of non-healthy weight subjects. The objective of this study was to explore multi-modal neuroimaging and use it to predict a practical clinical score, body mass index (BMI). Connectivity analysis was applied to DTI and rs-fMRI. Significant regions and associated imaging features were identified based on group-wise differences between healthy weight and non-healthy weight subjects. Six DTI-driven connections and 10 rs-fMRI-driven connectivities were identified. DTI-driven connections better reflected group-wise differences than did rs-fMRI-driven connectivity. We predicted BMI values using multi-modal imaging features in a partial least-square regression framework (percent error 15.0%). Our study identified brain regions and imaging features that can adequately explain BMI. We identified potentially good imaging biomarker candidates for obesity-related diseases.
Project description:Many neurological and psychiatric diseases in humans are caused by disruptions to large-scale functional properties of the brain, including functional connectivity. There has been growing interest in discovering the functional organization of brain networks in larger animal models. As a result, the use of translational pig models in neuroscience has significantly increased in the past decades. The gyrencephalic pig brain resembles the human brain more in anatomy, growth, and development than the brains of commonly used small laboratory animals such as rodents. In this work, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data were acquired from a group of pigs (n?=?12). rs-fMRI data were analyzed for resting-state networks (RSNs) by using independent component analysis and sparse dictionary learning. Six RSNs (executive control, cerebellar, sensorimotor, visual, auditory, and default mode) were detected that resemble their counterparts in human brains, as measured by Pearson spatial correlations and mean ratios. Supporting evidence of the validity of these RSNs was provided through the evaluation and quantification of structural connectivity measures (mean diffusivity, fractional anisotropy, fiber length, and fiber density) estimated from the DTI data. This study shows that as a translational, large animal model, pigs demonstrate great potential for mapping connectome-scale functional connectivity in experimental modeling of human brain disorders.
Project description:Previous studies have reported diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) changes within the optic radiations of patients after optic neuritis (ON). We aimed to study optic radiation DTI changes over 12 months following acute ON and to study correlations between DTI parameters and damage to the optic nerve and primary visual cortex (V1). We measured DTI parameters [fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (AD), radial diffusivity (RD), and mean diffusivity (MD)] from the optic radiations of 38 acute ON patients at presentation and 6 and 12 months after acute ON. In addition, we measured retinal nerve fibre layer thickness, visual evoked potential amplitude, optic radiation lesion load, and V1 thickness. At baseline, FA was reduced and RD and MD were increased compared to control. Over 12 months, FA reduced in patients at an average rate of -2.6% per annum (control = -0.51%; p = 0.006). Change in FA, RD, and MD correlated with V1 thinning over 12 months (FA: R = 0.450, p = 0.006; RD: R = -0.428, p = 0.009; MD: R = -0.365, p = 0.029). In patients with no optic radiation lesions, AD significantly correlated with RNFL thinning at 12 months (R = 0.489, p = 0.039). In conclusion, DTI can detect optic radiation changes over 12 months following acute ON that correlate with optic nerve and V1 damage.
Project description:There is ongoing debate regarding the role that sensorimotor regions play in conceptual processing, with embodied theories supporting their direct involvement in processing verbs describing body part movements. Patient lesion studies examining a causal role for sensorimotor activation in conceptual task performance have suffered the caveat of lesions being largely diffuse and extensive beyond sensorimotor cortices. The current study addresses this limitation in reporting on 20 pre-operative neurosurgical patients with focal lesion to the pre- and post-central area corresponding to somatotopic representations. Patients were presented with a battery of neuropsychological tests and experimental tasks tapping into motor imagery and verbal conceptual verb processing in addition to neurophysiological measures including DTI, fMRI, and MEP being measured. Results indicated that left tumor patients who presented with a lesion at or near somatotopic hand representations performed significantly worse on the mental rotation hand task and that performance correlated with MEP amplitudes in the upper limb motor region. Furthermore, performance on tasks of verbal processing was within the normal range. Taken together, while our results evidence the involvement of the motor system in motor imagery processes, they do not support the embodied view that sensorimotor regions are necessary to tasks of action verb processing.