Identification of caveolin-1 as a potential causative factor in the generation of trastuzumab resistance in breast cancer cells.
ABSTRACT: The oncogenic tyrosine kinase receptor ErbB2 is a prognostic factor and target for breast cancer therapeutics. In contrast with the other ErbB receptors, ErbB2 is hardly internalized by ligand induced mechanisms, indicating a prevalent surface expression. Elevated levels of ErbB2 in tumor cells are associated with its defective endocytosis and down regulation. Here we show that caveolin-1 expression in breast cancer derived SKBR-3 cells (SKBR-3/Cav-1) facilitates ligand induced ErbB2 endocytosis using an artificial peptide ligand EC-eGFP. Similarly, stimulation with humanized anti ErbB2 antibody Trastuzumab (Herceptin) was found to be internalized and co-localized with caveolin-1 in SKBR-3/Cav-1 cells. Internalized EC-eGFP and Trastuzumab in SKBR-3/Cav-1 cells were then delivered via caveolae to the caveolin-1 containing early endosomes. Consequently, attenuated Fc receptor mediated ADCC functions were observed when exposed to Trastuzumab and EC-Fc (EC-1 peptide conjugated to Fc part of human IgG). On the other hand, this caveolae dependent endocytic synergy was not observed in parental SKBR-3 cells. Therefore, caveolin-1 expression in breast cancer cells could be a predictive factor to estimate how cancer cells are likely to respond to Trastuzumab treatment.
Project description:The humanized monoclonal antibody-drug conjugate trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1, Kadcyla) has been approved by the U.S. FDA to treat human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2)-positive metastatic breast cancer. Despite its effectiveness in most patients, some are initially resistant or develop resistance. No biomarker of drug resistance to T-DM1 has been identified. Antibody-drug efficacy is associated with antibody internalization in the cell; therefore, cellular sensitivity of cells to the drug may be linked to cellular vesicle trafficking systems. Caveolin-1 is a 22 KD protein required for caveolae formation and endocytic membrane transport. In this study, the relationship between caveolin-1 expression and the chemosensitivity of HER-2-positive breast cancer cells to T-DM1 was investigated. Samples from 32 human breast cancer biopsy and normal tissue specimens were evaluated immunohistochemically for caveolin-1 expression. Caveolin-1 was shown to be expressed in 68% (22/32) of the breast cancer specimens. In addition, eight (72.7%, 8/11) HER-2 positive breast cancer specimens had a higher caveolin-1 expression than normal tissues. HER-2-positive BT-474 and SKBR-3 breast cancer cells that express low and moderate levels of caveolin-1, respectively, were treated with trastuzumab or its conjugate T-DM1. Cell viability and molecular localizations of caveolin-1, antibody and its conjugate were examined. Confocal microscopy showed that T-DM1 and caveolin-1 colocalized in SKBR-3 cells, which also were five times more sensitive to the conjugate in terms of cell survival than BT-474 cells, although T-DM1 also showed improved drug efficacy in BT-474 cells than trastuzumab treatment. Caveolin-1 expression in these lines was manipulated by transfection of GFP-tagged caveolin-1 or caveolin-1 siRNA. BT-474 cells overexpressing caveolin-1 were more sensitive to T-DM1 treatment than mock-transfected cells, whereas the siRNA-transfected SKBR-3 cells had decreased sensitivity to T-DM1 than mock-transfected SKBR-3 cells. The expression of caveolin-1 could mediate endocytosis and promote the internalization of T-DM1 into HER-2 positive cancer cells. Thus, caveolin-1 protein may be an effective predictor for determining the outcome of T-DM1 treatment in breast cancer patients.
Project description:AIMS: Cardiac atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) participates in the maintenance of arterial blood pressure and intravascular volume homeostasis. The hypovolaemic effects of ANP result from coordinated actions in the kidney and systemic microcirculation. Hence, ANP, via its guanylyl cyclase-A (GC-A) receptor and intracellular cyclic GMP as second messenger, stimulates endothelial albumin permeability. Ultimately, this leads to a shift of plasma fluid into interstitial pools. Here we studied the role of caveolae-mediated transendothelial albumin transport in the hyperpermeability effects of ANP. METHODS AND RESULTS: Intravital microscopy studies of the mouse cremaster microcirculation showed that ANP stimulates the extravasation of fluorescent albumin from post-capillary venules and causes arteriolar vasodilatation. The hyperpermeability effect was prevented in mice with conditional, endothelial deletion of GC-A (EC GC-A KO) or with deleted caveolin-1 (cav-1), the caveolae scaffold protein. In contrast, the vasodilating effect was preserved. Concomitantly, the acute hypovolaemic action of ANP was abolished in EC GC-A KO and Cav-1(-/-) mice. In cultured microvascular rat fat pad and mouse lung endothelial cells, ANP stimulated uptake and transendothelial transport of fluorescent albumin without altering endothelial electrical resistance. The stimulatory effect on albumin uptake was prevented in GC-A- or cav-1-deficient pulmonary endothelia. Finally, preparation of caveolin-enriched lipid rafts from mouse lung and western blotting showed that GC-A and cGMP-dependent protein kinase I partly co-localize with Cav-1 in caveolae microdomains. CONCLUSION: ANP enhances transendothelial caveolae-mediated albumin transport via its GC-A receptor. This ANP-mediated cross-talk between the heart and the microcirculation is critically involved in the regulation of intravascular volume.
Project description:Upon stimulation by histamine, human vascular endothelial cells (EC) shed a soluble form of tumour necrosis factor receptor 1 (sTNFR1) that binds up free TNF, dampening the inflammatory response. Shedding occurs through proteolytic cleavage of plasma membrane-expressed TNFR1 catalysed by TNF-? converting enzyme (TACE). Surface expressed TNFR1 on EC is largely sequestered into specific plasma membrane microdomains, the lipid rafts/caveolae. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of these domains in TACE-mediated TNFR1 shedding in response to histamine. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells derived EA.hy926 cells respond to histamine via H1 receptors to shed TNFR1. Both depletion of cholesterol by methyl-?-cyclodextrin and small interfering RNA knockdown of the scaffolding protein caveolin-1 (cav-1), treatments that disrupt caveolae, reduce histamine-induced shedding of membrane-bound TNFR1. Moreover, immunoblotting of discontinuous sucrose gradient fractions show that TACE, such as TNFR1, is present within low-density membrane fractions, concentrated within caveolae, in unstimulated EA.hy926 endothelial cells and co-immunoprecipitates with cav-1. Silencing of cav-1 reduces the levels of both TACE and TNFR1 protein and displaces TACE, from low-density membrane fractions where TNFR1 remains. In summary, we show that endothelial lipid rafts/caveolae co-localize TACE to surface expressed TNFR1, promoting efficient shedding of sTNFR1 in response to histamine.
Project description:Senescent endothelial cells (EC) have been identified in cardiovascular disease, in angiogenic tumour associated vessels and in aged individuals. We have previously identified a novel anti-inflammatory senescent phenotype of EC. We show here that caveolae are critical in the induction of this anti-inflammatory senescent state. Senescent EC induced by either the overexpression of ARHGAP18/SENEX or by H?O? showed significantly increased numbers of caveolae and associated proteins Caveolin-1, cavin-1 and cavin-2. Depletion of these proteins by RNA interference decreased senescence induced by ARHGAP18 and by H?O?. ARHGAP18 overexpression induced a predominantly anti-inflammatory senescent population and depletion of the caveolae-associated proteins resulted in the preferential reduction in this senescent population as measured by neutrophil adhesion and adhesion protein expression after TNF? treatment. In confirmation, EC isolated from the aortas of CAV-1(-/-) mice failed to induce this anti-inflammatory senescent cell population upon expression of ARHGAP18, whereas EC from wild-type mice showed a significant increase. NF-?B is one of the major transcription factors mediating the induction of E-selectin and VCAM-1 expression, adhesion molecules responsible for leucocyte attachment to EC. TNF?-induced activation of NF-?B was suppressed in ARHGAP18-induced senescent EC, and this inhibition was reversed by Caveolin-1 knock-down. Thus, out results demonstrate that an increase in caveolae and its component proteins in senescent ECs is associated with inhibition of the NF-kB signalling pathway and promotion of the anti-inflammatory senescent pathway.
Project description:We have investigated the role of t-DARPP in trastuzumab resistance in ERBB2-amplified and overexpressed breast cancer cell lines.We have used the HR-5 and HR-6 trastuzumab-resistant cells that were established from tumors that recurred in the presence of trastuzumab therapy following xenografts of BT-474 cells in nude mice. In addition, SKBR-3 cells, engineered for stable expression of t-DARPP, and HCC-1569 cells, which have constitutive expression of t-DARPP and are de novo resistant to trastuzumab, were used.We reported > or =15-fold up-regulation of mRNA and protein levels of t-DARPP in HR-5 and HR-6 cells compared with their progenitor BT-474 trastuzumab-sensitive cells. The t-DARPP expression was not regulated by changes in its promoter DNA methylation levels. The SKBR-3 cells stably expressing t-DARPP developed resistance to trastuzumab compared with their parental cells and empty vector controls (P < 0.01). The trastuzumab-resistant cell lines showed a significant increase in pAKT (Ser(473)) and BCL2 protein levels. The small interfering RNA knockdown of t-DARPP in all trastuzumab-resistant cells led to a significant reduction in ERBB2, pAKT (Ser(473)), and BCL2 protein levels with a significant decrease in cell viability (P < or = 0.001) and an increase in cleaved caspase-3 levels, indicating the progression of these cells toward apoptosis. The t-DARPP protein was associated with both heat shock protein 90 and ERBB2 forming a potential protein complex. This association may play a role in regulating ERBB2 protein in trastuzumab-resistant cells.We conclude that t-DARPP is a novel molecular target that can mediate the therapeutic resistance to trastuzumab in breast cancer cells.
Project description:Caveolin-1, the signature protein of endothelial cell caveolae, has many important functions in vascular cells. Caveolae are thought to be the transcellular pathway by which plasma proteins cross normal capillary endothelium, but, unexpectedly, cav-1(-/-) mice, which lack caveolae, have increased permeability to plasma albumin. The acute increase in vascular permeability induced by agents such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A occurs through venules, not capillaries, and particularly through the vesiculo-vacuolar organelle (VVO), a unique structure composed of numerous interconnecting vesicles and vacuoles that together span the venular endothelium from lumen to ablumen. Furthermore, the hyperpermeable blood vessels found in pathological angiogenesis, mother vessels, are derived from venules. The present experiments made use of cav-1(-/-) mice to investigate the relationship between caveolae and VVOs and the roles of caveolin-1 in VVO structure in the acute vascular hyperpermeability induced by VEGF-A and in pathological angiogenesis and associated chronic vascular hyperpermeability. We found that VVOs expressed caveolin-1 variably but, in contrast to caveolae, were present in normal numbers and with apparently unaltered structure in cav-1(-/-) mice. Nonetheless, VEGF-A-induced hyperpermeability was strikingly reduced in cav-1(-/-) mice, as was pathological angiogenesis and associated chronic vascular hyperpermeability, whether induced by VEGF-A(164) or by a tumor. Thus, caveolin-1 is not necessary for VVO structure but may have important roles in regulating VVO function in acute vascular hyperpermeability and angiogenesis.
Project description:Caveolae are organelles abundant in the plasma membrane of many specialized cells including endothelial cells (ECs), epithelial cells, and adipocytes, and in these cells, caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is the major coat protein essential for the formation of caveolae. To identify proteins that require Cav-1 for stable incorporation into membrane raft domains, a quantitative proteomics analysis using isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantification was performed on rafts isolated from wild-type and Cav-1-deficient mice. In three independent experiments, 117 proteins were consistently identified in membrane rafts with the largest differences in the levels of Cav-2 and in the caveola regulatory proteins Cavin-1 and Cavin-2. Because the lung is highly enriched in ECs, we validated and characterized the role of the newly described protein Cavin-1 in several cardiovascular tissues and in ECs. Cavin-1 was highly expressed in ECs lining blood vessels and in cultured ECs. Knockdown of Cavin-1 reduced the levels of Cav-1 and -2 and weakly influenced the formation of high molecular weight oligomers containing Cav-1 and -2. Cavin-1 silencing enhanced basal nitric oxide release from ECs but blocked proangiogenic phenotypes such as EC proliferation, migration, and morphogenesis in vitro. Thus, these data support an important role of Cavin-1 as a regulator of caveola function in ECs.
Project description:Targeting and down-regulation of ErbB2, a member of EGF receptor family, is regarded as one of the key aspect for cancer treatment because it is often overexpressed in breast and ovarian cancer cells. Although natural ligands for ErbB2 have not been found, unlike other ErbB receptors, EC-1, a 20-amino acid circular peptide, has been shown to bind to ErbB2 as an artificial ligand. Previously we showed EC-1 peptide did not induce the internalization of ErbB2 in SK-BR-3 cells. In this report, we designed divalent and multivalent forms of EC-1 peptide with the Fc portion of the human IgG and bionanocapsule modified with ZZ-tag on its surface to improve the interaction with ErbB2. These forms showed higher affinity to ErbB2 than that of EC-1 monomer. Furthermore, prominent endosomal accumulation of ErbB2 occurred in SK-BR-3 cells when stimulated with EC-Fc ligand multivalently displayed on the surface of the bionanocapsule, whereas SK-BR-3 cells as themselves displayed stringent mechanism against ErbB2 internalization without stimulation. The multivalent form of EC-1 peptide appeared to internalize ErbB2 more efficiently than divalent form did. This internalization was unaffected by the inhibition of clathrin association, but inhibited when the cholesterol was depleted which explained either caveolar or GPI-AP-early endocytic compartment (GEEC) pathway. Because of the lack of caveolin-1 expression, caveolar machinery may be lost in SK-BR-3 cell line. Therefore, it is suggested that the multivalent form of EC-1 induces the internalization of ErbB2 through the GEEC pathway.
Project description:Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is the principal structural component of caveolae organelles in smooth muscle cells, adipocytes, fibroblasts, epithelial cells, and endothelial cells (ECs). Cav-1-deficient (Cav-1 knockout [KO]) mice are viable and show increases of nitric oxide (NO) production in vasculature, cardiomyopathy, and pulmonary dysfunction. In this study, we generated EC-specific Cav-1-reconstituted (Cav-1 RC) mice and reexamined vascular, cardiac, and pulmonary phenotypes. Cav-1 KO pulmonary arteries had decreased smooth muscle contractility and increased endothelial NO synthase activation and hypotension; the latter two effects were rescued completely in Cav-1 RC mice. Cav-1 KO mice exhibited myocardial hypertrophy, pulmonary hypertension, and alveolar cell hyperproliferation caused by constitutive activation of p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase and Akt. Interestingly, in Cav-1 RC mice, cardiac hypertrophy and pulmonary hypertension were completely rescued, whereas alveolar hyperplasia was partially recovered because of the lack of rescue of Cav-1 in bronchiolar epithelial cells. These results provide clear physiological evidence supporting the important role of cell type-specific Cav-1 expression governing multiple phenotypes in the vasculature, heart, and lung.
Project description:Caveolae are abundant cell-surface organelles involved in lipid regulation and endocytosis. We used comparative proteomics to identify PTRF (also called Cav-p60, Cavin) as a putative caveolar coat protein. PTRF-Cavin selectively associates with mature caveolae at the plasma membrane but not Golgi-localized caveolin. In prostate cancer PC3 cells, and during development of zebrafish notochord, lack of PTRF-Cavin expression correlates with lack of caveolae, and caveolin resides on flat plasma membrane. Expression of PTRF-Cavin in PC3 cells is sufficient to cause formation of caveolae. Knockdown of PTRF-Cavin reduces caveolae density, both in mammalian cells and in the zebrafish. Caveolin remains on the plasma membrane in PTRF-Cavin knockdown cells but exhibits increased lateral mobility and accelerated lysosomal degradation. We conclude that PTRF-Cavin is required for caveola formation and sequestration of mobile caveolin into immobile caveolae.