Bacteriophage bionanowire as a carrier for both cancer-targeting peptides and photosensitizers and its use in selective cancer cell killing by photodynamic therapy.
ABSTRACT: A photosensitizer, pyropheophorbid-a (PPa), is conjugated to SKBR-3 breast cancer cell-specific biological nanowire phage, to form a novel PPa-phage complex, which is further successfully used in selectively killing SKBR-3 breast cancer cells by the mechanism of photodynamic therapy (PDT).
Project description:Candida albicans is the most prevalent fungal pathogen of the human microbiota, causing infections ranging from superficial infections of the skin to life-threatening systemic infections. Due to the increasing occurrence of antibiotic-resistant C. albicans strains, new approaches to control this pathogen are needed. Photodynamic inactivation is an emerging alternative to treat infections based on the interactions between visible light and photosensitisers, in which pheophorbide a (PPA) is a chlorophyll-based photosensitizer that could induce cell death after light irradiation. Due to PPA's phototoxicity and low efficiency, the main challenge is to implement photosensitizer cell targeting and attacking.In this study, PPA was conjugated with JM-phage by EDC/NHS crosslinking. UV-Vis spectra was used to determine the optimum conjugation percentages of PPA and JM-phage complex for photodynamic inactivation. After photodynamic inactivation, the efficacy of PPA-JM-phage was assessed by performing in vitro experiments, such as MTS assay, scanning electron microscopy, measurement of dysfunctional mitochondria, ROS accumulation, S cell arrest and apoptotic pathway.A single-chain variable-fragment phage (JM) with high affinity to MP65 was screened from human single-fold single-chain variable-fragment libraries and designed as a binding target for C. albicans cells. Subsequently, PPa was integrated into JM phage to generate a combined nanoscale material, which was called PPA-JM-phage. After photodynamic inactivation, the growth of C. albicans was inhibited by PPA-JM-phage and apoptosis was observed. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed shrinking and rupturing of C. albicans. We also found that depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential was decreased and intracellular reactive oxygen species levels were elevated significantly in C. albicans inhibited by PPA-JM-phage. Additionally, PPA-JM-phage also lead to S-phase arrest, and metacaspase activation resulting from mitochondrial dysfunction was also found to be involved in C. albicans apoptosis.PPa-JM-phage may induce C. albicans apoptosis through a caspase-dependent pathway and the results herein shed light on the potential application of phtototherapeutic nanostructures in fungal inactivation.
Project description:Elucidation of upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) that can be excited by near-infrared (NIR) light is an interesting topic in the field of photodynamic therapy (PDT). However, the PDT efficiency of conventional UCNPs is limited due to the low quantum yield and overheating effect of the 980 nm light source. In this study, a light source with a wavelength of 808 nm was used as an excitation source for Nd-doped UCNPs to solve the overheating effect. UCNPs with a core@shell structure (NaYF4:Yb,Er,Nd@NaYF4:Yb,Nd) were synthesized to increase the upconversion emission efficiency. Dual-color emitting Er-doped UCNPs and dual photosensitizers (Chlorin e6 and Rose Bengal) were used for enhanced PDT. Each photosensitizer could absorb red and green emissions of the UCNPs to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), respectively. The ROS generation in a dual photosensitizer system is significantly higher than that in a single photosensitizer system. Additionally, PDT induces immunogenic apoptosis. In this study, by utilizing a highly efficient PDT agent, PDT-induced apoptosis was studied by biomarker analysis.
Project description:Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-based photodynamic therapy (PDT) has a widespread application in cancer therapy. Nevertheless, the efficiency of PDT is far from satisfactory. One major impediment is the overexpression of glutathione (GSH) in tumor cells, which could deplete the level of PDT-generated ROS. Herein, we develop a novel type of cytochrome P450 enzyme-mediated auto-enhanced photodynamic co-nanoassembly between clopidogrel (CPG) and photosensitizer pyropheophorbide a (PPa). Methods: In this work, we prepare the co-assembled nanoparticles of CPG and PPa (CPG/PPa NPs) by using one-step precipitation method. The assembly mechanism, drug release behavior, GSH consumption, ROS generation, cellular uptake, cytotoxicity of CPG/PPa NPs are investigated in vitro. The mice bearing 4T1 tumor are employed to evaluate in vivo biodistribution and anti-tumor effect of CPG/PPa NPs. Results: Such CPG/PPa NPs could disrupt the intracellular redox homeostasis, resulting from the elimination of GSH by CPG active metabolite mediated by cytochrome P450 enzyme (CYP2C19). The in vivo assays reveal that CPG/PPa NPs not only increase the drug accumulation in tumor sites but also significantly suppress tumor growth in BALB/c mice bearing 4T1 tumor. With CPG-mediated GSH consumption and PPa-triggered ROS generation, CPG/PPa NPs show the enhanced PDT treatment effect by breaking intracellular redox balance. Conclusion: Our findings provide a valuable knowledge for the rational design of the PDT-based combinational cancer therapy.
Project description:Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has attracted widespread attention due to its potential in the treatment of various cancers. Porphyrinic pyropheophorbide-a (PPa) has been shown to be a potent photosensitizer in PDT experiments. In this paper, a C-3¹,13¹ bisphenylhydrazone modified methyl pyropheophorbide-a (BPHM) was designed and synthesized with the consideration that phenylhydrazone structure may extend absorption wavelength of methyl pyro-pheophorbide-a (Mppa), and make the photosensitizer potential in deep tumor treatment. The synthesis, spectral properties and in vitro photodynamic therapy (PDT) against human HeLa cervical cancer cell line was studied. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay showed the title compound could achieve strong inhibition of cervical cancer cell viability under visible light (675 nm, 25 J/cm²). Cell uptake experiments were performed on HeLa cells. Morphological changes were examined and analyzed by fluorescent inverted microscope. In addition, the mechanism of the photochemical processes of PDT was investigated, which showed that the formation of singlet oxygen after treatment with PDT played a moderate important role.
Project description:Photodynamic therapy (PDT) leads to cancer remission via the production of cytotoxic species under photosensitizer (PS) irradiation. However, concomitant damage and dark toxicity can both hinder its use. With this in mind, we have implemented a versatile peptide-based platform of bioorthogonally activatable BODIPY-tetrazine PSs. Confocal microscopy and phototoxicity studies demonstrated that the incorporation of the PS, as a bifunctional module, into a peptide enabled spatial and conditional control of singlet oxygen (1 O2 ) generation. Comparing subcellular distribution, PS confined in the cytoplasmic membrane achieved the highest toxicities (IC50 =0.096±0.003??m) after activation and without apparent dark toxicity. Our tunable approach will inspire novel probes towards smart PDT.
Project description:Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has emerged as an alternative and promising noninvasive treatment for cancer as well as non-cancer diseases, which involves the uptake of photosensitizers (PSs) by cancer cells followed by irradiation. The use of nanomaterials as carriers of PSs is a very promising approach to improve the development of PDT in clinical medicine. In this study, a novel folic acid-conjugated graphene oxide (GO) was strategically designed and prepared as targeting drug delivery system to achieve higher specificity. The second generation photosensitizer (PS) Chlorin e6 (Ce6) was effectively loaded into the system via hydrophobic interactions and ?-? stacking. The nanocarriers can significantly increase the accumulation of Ce6 in tumor cells and lead to a remarkable photodynamic efficacy on MGC803 cells upon irradiation. These suggested that folic acid-conjugated GO loaded Ce6 had great potential as effective drug delivery system in targeting PDT.
Project description:Translocator protein (TSPO) 18 kDa overexpression has been observed in a large variety of human cancers, especially breast cancers. PK 11195, an isoquinoline analogue, is one of the ligands of highest TSPO binding affinity. Due to the long biological half life of our photosensitizers, there is a need to label them with a long lived radioisotope, for example I-124. Our objectives are to find translocator protein targeted photosensitizers for both tumor imaging (PET) and photodynamic therapy (PDT). I-PK 11195 is conjugated with the tumor avid photosensitizer HPPH. We find that those two tumor avid components complement each other and make the conjugate molecule even more tumor avid; compared to the photosensitizer itself, the conjugate is found to show improved PDT efficacy. It is concluded that I-PK 11195 can be a good vehicle to deliver radionuclide and photosensitizer to TSPO overexpressed tumor regions. Such conjugates could be useful for both tumor imaging (PET) and PDT.
Project description:Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a clinically approved therapeutic modality for the treatment of diseases characterized by uncontrolled cell proliferation, mainly cancer. It involves the selective uptake of a photosensitizer (PS) by neoplastic tissue, which is able to produce reactive oxygen species upon irradiation with light, leading to tumor regression. Here a synergistic cell photoinactivation is reported based on the simultaneous administration of two PSs, zinc(II)-phthalocyanine (ZnPc) and the cationic porphyrin meso-tetrakis(4-N-methylpyridyl)porphine (TMPyP) in three cell lines (HeLa, HaCaT and MCF-7), using very low doses of PDT. We detected changes from predominant apoptosis (without cell detachment) to predominant necrosis, depending on the light dose used (2.4 and 3.6?J/cm(2), respectively). Analysis of changes in cytoskeleton components (microtubules and F-actin), FAK protein, as well as time-lapse video microscopy evidenced that HeLa cells were induced to undergo apoptosis, without losing adhesion to the substrate. Moreover, 24?h after intravenous injection into tumor-bearing mice, ZnPc and TMPyP were preferentially accumulated in the tumor area. PDT with combined treatment produced significant retardation of tumor growth. We believe that this combined and highly efficient strategy (two PSs) may provide synergistic curative rates regarding conventional photodynamic treatments (with one PS alone).
Project description:To impart effective cellular damage via photodynamic therapy (PDT), it is vital to deliver the appropriate light dose and photosensitizer concentration, and to monitor the PDT dose delivered at the site of interest. In vivo monitoring of photosensitizers has in large part relied on their fluorescence emission. Palladium-containing photosensitizers have shown promising clinical results by demonstrating near full conversion of light to PDT activity at the cost of having undetectable fluorescence. We demonstrate that, through the coupling of plasmonic nanoparticles with palladium-photosensitizers, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) provides both reporting and monitoring capability to otherwise quiescent molecules. Nano-enabled SERS reporting of photosensitizers allows for the decoupling of the therapeutic and imaging mechanisms so that both phenomena can be optimized independently. Most importantly, the design enables the use of the same laser wavelength to stimulate both the PDT and imaging features, opening the potential for real-time dosimetry of photosensitizer concentration and PDT dose delivery by SERS monitoring.
Project description:Photodynamic therapy (PDT) was discovered more than 100 years ago, and has since become a well-studied therapy for cancer and various non-malignant diseases including infections. PDT uses photosensitizers (PSs, non-toxic dyes) that are activated by absorption of visible light to initially form the excited singlet state, followed by transition to the long-lived excited triplet state. This triplet state can undergo photochemical reactions in the presence of oxygen to form reactive oxygen species (including singlet oxygen) that can destroy cancer cells, pathogenic microbes and unwanted tissue. The dual-specificity of PDT relies on accumulation of the PS in diseased tissue and also on localized light delivery. Tetrapyrrole structures such as porphyrins, chlorins, bacteriochlorins and phthalocyanines with appropriate functionalization have been widely investigated in PDT, and several compounds have received clinical approval. Other molecular structures including the synthetic dyes classes as phenothiazinium, squaraine and BODIPY (boron-dipyrromethene), transition metal complexes, and natural products such as hypericin, riboflavin and curcumin have been investigated. Targeted PDT uses PSs conjugated to antibodies, peptides, proteins and other ligands with specific cellular receptors. Nanotechnology has made a significant contribution to PDT, giving rise to approaches such as nanoparticle delivery, fullerene-based PSs, titania photocatalysis, and the use of upconverting nanoparticles to increase light penetration into tissue. Future directions include photochemical internalization, genetically encoded protein PSs, theranostics, two-photon absorption PDT, and sonodynamic therapy using ultrasound.