Uric acid lowering to prevent kidney function loss in diabetes: the preventing early renal function loss (PERL) allopurinol study.
ABSTRACT: Diabetic kidney disease causes significant morbidity and mortality among people with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Intensive glucose and blood pressure control have thus far failed to adequately curb this problem and therefore a major need for novel treatment approaches exists. Multiple observations link serum uric acid levels to kidney disease development and progression in diabetes and strongly argue that uric acid lowering should be tested as one such novel intervention. A pilot of such a trial, using allopurinol, is currently being conducted by the Preventing Early Renal Function Loss (PERL) Consortium. Although the PERL trial targets T1D individuals at highest risk of kidney function decline, the use of allopurinol as a renoprotective agent may also be relevant to a larger segment of the population with diabetes. As allopurinol is inexpensive and safe, it could be cost-effective even for relatively low-risk patients, pending the completion of appropriate trials at earlier stages.
Project description:PURPOSE:Rasburicase is effective in controlling plasma uric acid in pediatric patients with hematologic malignancies. This study in adults evaluated safety of and compared efficacy of rasburicase alone with rasburicase followed by oral allopurinol and with allopurinol alone in controlling plasma uric acid. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Adults with hematologic malignancies at risk for hyperuricemia and tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) were randomly assigned to rasburicase (0.20 mg/kg/d intravenously days 1-5), rasburicase plus allopurinol (rasburicase 0.20 mg/kg/d days 1 to 3 followed by oral allopurinol 300 mg/d days 3 to 5), or allopurinol (300 mg/d orally days 1 to 5). Primary efficacy variable was plasma uric acid response rate defined as percentage of patients achieving or maintaining plasma uric acid ? 7.5 mg/dL during days 3 to 7. RESULTS:Ninety-two patients received rasburicase, 92 rasburicase plus allopurinol, and 91 allopurinol. Plasma uric acid response rate was 87% with rasburicase, 78% with rasburicase plus allopurinol, and 66% with allopurinol. It was significantly greater for rasburicase than for allopurinol (P = .001) in the overall study population, in patients at high risk for TLS (89% v 68%; P = .012), and in those with baseline hyperuricemia (90% v 53%; P = .015). Time to plasma uric acid control in hyperuricemic patients was 4 hours for rasburicase, 4 hours for rasburicase plus allopurinol, and 27 hours for allopurinol. CONCLUSION:In adults with hyperuricemia or at high risk for TLS, rasburicase provided control of plasma uric acid more rapidly than allopurinol. Rasburicase was well tolerated as a single agent and in sequential combination with allopurinol.
Project description:The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of lesinurad, a selective uric acid uptake inhibitor, alone and in combination with the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol, on serum uric acid and urinary urate excretion in patients with gout and hyperuricemia. A phase 1b, multicenter, open-label, multiple-dose study was carried out in patients with gout with serum uric acid ?8 mg/dL following washout of urate-lowering therapy. Patients were treated with allopurinol 300 mg/day alone in week 1; lesinurad 400 or 600 mg/day was added in week 2, followed by lesinurad 400 or 600 mg/day alone in week 3. Serum uric acid and urine uric acid were evaluated each week. Safety was assessed throughout the study. Lesinurad 400 or 600 mg/day added to allopurinol 300 mg/day reduced serum uric acid by 60% and 72%, respectively, versus allopurinol alone (37%) or lesinurad 400 mg/day (44%) or 600 mg/day (47%) alone. A 100% response rate of serum uric acid <6 mg/dL was achieved by all combinations (serum uric acid <5 mg/dL by 50%-90%). Mean 24-hour urate excretion compared with baseline was -35% with allopurinol, +36% and +56.5% with lesinurad 400 mg/day and 600 mg/day, respectively, and -11.6% and -7.1% with the respective combination therapies. Treatments were well tolerated. In this phase 1 trial, lesinurad added to allopurinol resulted in greater serum uric acid reduction than did allopurinol or lesinurad monotherapy.
Project description:Arterial stiffness is increased in patients with CKD and is a powerful predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Use of the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol has been shown to improve endothelial function, reduce left ventricular hypertrophy and possibly improve cardiovascular outcome. We explored the relationship between use of allopurinol and arterial stiffness in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).Cross-sectional observational study of 422 patients with CKD with evidence of, or at high risk of, renal disease progression. Arterial stiffness was determined by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV).The mean age was 63 ± 16 years, median estimated glomerular filtration rate was 25 (interquartile range: 19-31) ml/min/1.73 m(2) and mean PWV was 10.2 ± 2.4 m/s. Seventy-seven patients (18%) were receiving regular allopurinol, 61% at a dose of 100 mg/day (range: 50-400 mg/day). Patients receiving allopurinol had significantly lower peripheral pulse pressure, central pulse pressure, central systolic blood pressure, serum uric acid level tissue advanced glycation end product levels but comparable high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels. Use of allopurinol was associated with lower PWV. After adjusting for age, gender, ethnicity, tissue advanced glycation end product level, peripheral pulse pressure, smoking pack years, presence of diabetes mellitus and use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin II receptor blocker, the use of allopurinol remained a significant independent determinant of PWV (mean difference: -0.63 m/s; 95% CI, -0.09 to -1.17 m/s, p = 0.02).In patients with CKD, use of allopurinol is independently associated with lower arterial stiffness. This study provides further justification for a large definitive randomised controlled trial examining the therapeutic potential of allopurinol to reduce cardiovascular risk in people with CKD.
Project description:Hyperuricemia is reported to be related to rapid progression of renal function in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Allopurinol, a uric acid lowering agent, protects renal progression. However, it is not widely used in patients with CKD because of its serious adverse event. Febuxostat can be alternatively used for patients who are intolerable to allopurinol. We aimed to determine renoprotective effect and urate-lowering effect between the two drugs.We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to assess the effects of febuxostat compared to allopurinol in patients with hyperuricemia. MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were searched to identify research publications.Four relevant publications were selected from among 3,815 studies. No significant differences were found in the changes in serum creatinine from baseline between the febuxostat and allopurinol groups. Changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were observed between the two groups at 1 month (mean difference 1.65 mL/min/1.73 m2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.38, 2.91 mL/min/1.73 m2; heterogeneity ?2 = 1.25, I2 = 0%, P = 0.01); however, the changes in eGFR were not significantly different at 3 months. A significant difference did exist in the changes in albuminuria levels from baseline between the febuxostat and allopurinol groups (mean difference -80.47 mg/gCr, 95% CI -149.29, -11.64 mg/gCr; heterogeneity ?2 = 0.81, I2 = 0%, P = 0.02). A significant difference was also observed in the changes in serum uric acid from baseline between the febuxostat and allopurinol groups (mean difference -0.92 mg/dL, 95% CI -1.29, -0.56 mg/dL; heterogeneity ?2 = 6.24, I2 = 52%, P < 0.001).Febuxostat might be more renoprotective than allopurinol.
Project description:Whether the clinical trial treatment effect of urate-lowering therapy (ULT) in patient with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is generalizable to real-word settings is unclear. This study aimed to compare febuxostat with allopurinol for uric acid reduction and renal protection in patients with CKD. Adult CKD patients newly treated with ULT were identified using electronic health records from 2010 to 2015 from a large healthcare delivery system in Taiwan. Patients with renal replacement therapy or undergoing ULT for <3 months were excluded. Propensity score-matched cohort study design was conducted to compare outcomes between patients initiated with febuxostat or allopurinol therapy. Cox regression analyses were employed to compare the adjusted hazards ratio (aHR) of incident event of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ? 30% decrease, and the difference in longitudinal changes in serum uric acid (SUA) and eGFR between groups was analyzed using linear mixed model. Overall, 1050 CKD patients who initiated febuxostat (n?=?525) or allopurinol (n?=?525) treatment were observed for 2.5 years. Compared with allopurinol, febuxostat use was associated with higher rate of patients maintaining SUA target <6?mg/dL in >80% of follow-up time with a reduction in mean SUA change. There were no significant differences in the mean eGFR changes over time between the febuxostat and allopurinol groups or in the risk of eGFR decline ?30% of baseline. Febuxostat was associated with greater reduction in SUA level than allopurinol in patients with CKD. However, febuxostat and allopurinol showed no difference in renal function changes during study follow-up. These findings require further investigation with long-term follow up in CKD patients with hyperuricemia.
Project description:Hyperuricemia may contribute to endothelial dysfunction in CKD. We evaluated whether lowering serum uric acid levels with allopurinol improves endothelial dysfunction in 80 participants ?18 years of age with stage 3 CKD and asymptomatic hyperuricemia (?7 mg/dl in men and ?6 mg/dl in women) randomized in a double-blinded manner to receive placebo or allopurinol for 12 weeks. Randomization was stratified according to presence or absence of diabetes mellitus. We measured vascular endothelial function by brachial artery flow-mediated dilation. No significant differences existed between groups at baseline; 61% of the participants had diabetes mellitus in both groups. The placebo and the allopurinol groups had baseline serum uric acid levels (SDs) of 8.7 (1.6) mg/dl and 8.3 (1.4) mg/dl, respectively, and baseline flow-mediated dilation values (SDs) of 6.0% (5.0%) and 4.8% (5.0%), respectively. Compared with placebo, allopurinol lowered serum uric acid significantly but did not improve endothelial function. In participants without diabetes mellitus, allopurinol associated with a trend toward improved flow-mediated dilation (+1.4% [3.9%] versus -0.7% [4.1%] with placebo), but this was not statistically significant (P=0.26). Furthermore, we did not detect significant differences between groups in BP or serum levels of markers of inflammation and oxidative stress. In conclusion, allopurinol effectively and safely lowered serum uric acid levels in adults with stage 3 CKD and asymptomatic hyperuricemia but did not improve endothelial function in this sample of patients.
Project description:Uric acid released from injured tissue is considered a major endogenous danger signal and local instillation of uric acid crystals induces acute lung inflammation via activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) is mediated by the NLRP3 inflammasome and increased uric acid levels in lung lavage fluid are reported. We studied levels in human lung injury and the contribution of uric acid in experimental VILI.Uric acid levels in lung lavage fluid of patients with acute lung injury (ALI) were determined. In a different cohort of cardiac surgery patients, uric acid levels were correlated with pulmonary leakage index. In a mouse model of VILI the effect of allopurinol (inhibits uric acid synthesis) and uricase (degrades uric acid) pre-treatment on neutrophil influx, up-regulation of adhesion molecules, pulmonary and systemic cytokine levels, lung pathology, and regulation of receptors involved in the recognition of uric acid was studied. In addition, total protein and immunoglobulin M in lung lavage fluid and pulmonary wet/dry ratios were measured as markers of alveolar barrier dysfunction.Uric acid levels increased in ALI patients. In cardiac surgery patients, elevated levels correlated significantly with the pulmonary leakage index. Allopurinol or uricase treatment did not reduce ventilator-induced inflammation, I?B-? degradation, or up-regulation of NLRP3, Toll-like receptor 2, and Toll-like receptor 4 gene expression in mice. Alveolar barrier dysfunction was attenuated which was most pronounced in mice pre-treated with allopurinol: both treatment strategies reduced wet/dry ratio, allopurinol also lowered total protein and immunoglobulin M levels.Local uric acid levels increase in patients with ALI. In mice, allopurinol and uricase attenuate ventilator-induced alveolar barrier dysfunction.
Project description:Higher urinary uric acid excretion is a suspected risk factor for calcium oxalate stone formation. Febuxostat, a xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor, is effective in lowering serum urate concentration and urinary uric acid excretion in healthy volunteers and people with gout. This work studied whether febuxostat, compared with allopurinol and placebo, would reduce 24-hour urinary uric acid excretion and prevent stone growth or new stone formation.In this 6-month, double-blind, multicenter, randomized controlled trial, hyperuricosuric participants with a recent history of calcium stones and one or more radio-opaque calcium stone ? 3 mm (as seen by multidetector computed tomography) received daily febuxostat at 80 mg, allopurinol at 300 mg, or placebo. The primary end point was percent change from baseline to month 6 in 24-hour urinary uric acid. Secondary end points included percent change from baseline to month 6 in size of index stone and change from baseline in the mean number of stones and 24-hour creatinine clearance.Of 99 enrolled participants, 86 participants completed the study. Febuxostat led to significantly greater reduction in 24-hour urinary uric acid (-58.6%) than either allopurinol (-36.4%; P=0.003) or placebo (-12.7%; P<0.001). Percent change from baseline in the size of the largest calcium stone was not different with febuxostat compared with allopurinol or placebo. There was no change in stone size, stone number, or renal function. No new safety concerns were noted for either drug.Febuxostat (80 mg) lowered 24-hour urinary uric acid significantly more than allopurinol (300 mg) in stone formers with higher urinary uric acid excretion after 6 months of treatment. There was no change in stone size or number over the 6-month period.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Hyperuricemia is an abnormal increase in uric acid levels in the blood. It is the cause of gout that manifested by inflammatory arthritis and painful disable. Therefore, current study evaluated the potential ameliorative impact of Lesinurad and Allopurinol on the kidneys of hyperuricemic mice at the biochemical, molecular and cellular levels. METHODS:Lesinurad and allopurinol alone or in combination were orally administered to hyperuricemic and control mice for seven consecutive days. Levels of uric acid and blood urea nitrogen, along with antioxidants and inflammatory cytokines (IL-1? and TNF-?) were measured in the serum. The mRNA expression of mouse urate anion transporter-1, glucose transporter 9, organic anion transporters, in renal tissues were examined using quantitative real time PCR. Simultaneously, the immunoreactivity of transforming growth factor-beta 1 was examined immunohistochemically. RESULTS:Lesinurad and allopurinol administration resulted in significant decrease in serum levels of uric acid, blood urea nitrogen, xanthine oxidase activity, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and inflammatory cytokines (IL-1? and TNF-?) reported in hyperuricemic mice. Both partially reversed oxonate-induced alterations in renal mURAT-1, mGLUT-9, mOAT-1 and mOAT-3 expressions, as well as alterations in the immunoreactivity of TGF- ?1, resulting in the increase of renal uric acid secretion and excretion. The combined administration of lesinurad and ALP restored all altered parameters in a synergistic manner, improving renal function in the hyperuricemic mouse model employed. CONCLUSION:This study confirmed synergistic ameliorative hypouricemic impact of both lesinurad and allopurinol in the treatment of hyperuricemia in mice at the biochemical, molecular and cellular levels.
Project description:Allopurinol, which lowers uric acid (UA) concentration, is increasingly being recognized for its benefits in cardiovascular and renal disease. However, response to allopurinol is variable. We gathered samples from 4,446 multiethnic subjects for a genome-wide association study of allopurinol response. Consistent with previous studies, we observed that the Q141K variant in ABCG2 (rs2231142), which encodes the efflux pump breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), associated with worse response to allopurinol. However, for the first time this association reached genome-wide level significance (P = 8.06 × 10-11 ). Additionally, we identified a novel association with a variant in GREM2 (rs1934341, P = 3.22 × 10-6 ). In vitro studies identified oxypurinol, the active metabolite of allopurinol, as an inhibitor of the UA transporter GLUT9, suggesting that oxypurinol may modulate UA reabsorption. These results provide strong evidence for a role of BCRP Q141K in allopurinol response, and suggest that allopurinol may have additional hypouricemic effects beyond xanthine oxidase inhibition.