Calbindin controls release probability in ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons.
ABSTRACT: Relatively little is known about the molecular control of midbrain dopamine release. Using high-fidelity imaging of pHluorin-tagged vesicular monoamine transporter 2 in dopamine neurons, we found that exocytosis was more loosely coupled to calcium entry than in fast synapses. In ventral tegmental area neurons, this allows exocytosis to be efficiently controlled by a native fast calcium buffer, calbindin-D28k, maintaining a lower vesicular release probability compared with substantia nigra neurons.
Project description:The calcium-binding protein calbindin-D28K, or calb1, is expressed at higher levels by dopamine (DA) neurons originating in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) than in the adjacent substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). Calb1 has received attention for a potential role in neuroprotection in Parkinson's disease. The underlying physiological roles for calb1 are incompletely understood. We used cre-loxP technology to knock down calb1 in mouse DA neurons to test whether calb1 governs axonal release of DA in the striatum, detected using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry ex vivo. In the ventral but not dorsal striatum, calb1 knockdown elevated DA release and modified the spatiotemporal coupling of Ca2+ entry to DA release. Furthermore, calb1 knockdown enhanced DA uptake but attenuated the impact of DA transporter (DAT) inhibition by cocaine on underlying DA release. These data reveal that calb1 acts through a range of mechanisms underpinning both DA release and uptake to limit DA transmission in the ventral but not dorsal striatum.
Project description:Calbindin-D28K is a widely expressed calcium-buffering cytoplasmic protein that is involved in many physiological processes. It has been shown to interact with other proteins, suggesting a role as a calcium sensor. Many of the targets of calbindin-D28K are of therapeutic interest: for example, inositol monophosphatase, the putative target of lithium therapy in bipolar disorder. Presented here is the first crystal structure of human calbindin-D28K. There are significant deviations in the tertiary structure when compared with the NMR structure of rat calbindin-D28K (PDB entry 2g9b), despite 98% sequence identity. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) indicates that the crystal structure better predicts the properties of calbindin-D28K in solution compared with the NMR structure. Here, the first direct visualization of the calcium-binding properties of calbindin-D28K is presented. Four of the six EF-hands that make up the secondary structure of the protein contain a calcium-binding site. Two distinct conformations of the N-terminal EF-hand calcium-binding site were identified using long-wavelength calcium single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD). This flexible region has previously been recognized as a protein-protein interaction interface. SAXS data collected in both the presence and absence of calcium indicate that there are no large structural differences in the globular structure of calbindin-D28K between the calcium-loaded and unloaded proteins.
Project description:Exocytosis of synaptic vesicles (SVs) during fast synaptic transmission is mediated by soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complex assembly formed by the coil-coiling of three members of this protein family: vesicle SNARE protein, synaptobrevin 2 (syb2), and the presynaptic membrane SNAREs syntaxin-1A and SNAP-25. However, it is controversially debated how many SNARE complexes are minimally needed for SV priming and fusion. To quantify this effective number, we measured the fluorescence responses from single fusing vesicles expressing pHluorin (pHl), a pH-sensitive variant of GFP, fused to the luminal domain of the vesicular SNARE syb2 (spH) in cultured hippocampal neurons lacking endogenous syb2. Fluorescence responses were quantal, with the unitary signals precisely corresponding to single pHluorin molecules. Using this approach we found that two copies of spH per SV fully rescued evoked fusion whereas SVs expressing only one spH were unable to rapidly fuse upon stimulation. Thus, two syb2 molecules and likely two SNARE complexes are necessary and sufficient for SV fusion during fast synaptic transmission.
Project description:Calbindin-D28k is a calcium-binding protein that belongs to the troponin C superfamily. It is expressed in many tissues, including brain, intestine, kidney and pancreas, and performs roles as both a calcium buffer and a calcium sensor and carries out diverse physiological functions of importance. In order to resolve the crystal structure of human calbindin-D28k and to gain a better understanding of its biological functions, recombinant human calbindin-D28k was crystallized at 291 K using PEG 3350 as precipitant and a 2.4 A resolution X-ray data set was collected from a single flash-cooled crystal (100 K). The crystal belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 108.1, b = 28.2, c = 70.6 A, beta = 107.8 degrees . The presence of one molecule per asymmetric unit is presumed, corresponding to a Matthews coefficient of 1.75 A(3) Da(-1).
Project description:Pancreatic ?-cell dysfunction and death contribute to the onset of diabetes, and novel strategies of ?-cell function and survival under diabetogenic conditions need to be explored. We previously demonstrated that Isx9, a small molecule based on the isoxazole scaffold, drives neuroendocrine phenotypes by increasing the expression of genes required for ?-cell function and improves glycemia in a model of ? cell regeneration. We further investigated the role of Isx9 in ?-cell survival. We find that Isx9 drives the expression of Calbindin-D28K (D28K), a key regulator of calcium homeostasis, and plays a cytoprotective role through its calcium buffering capacity in ? cells. Isx9 increased the activity of the calcineurin (CN)/cytoplasmic nuclear factor of the activated T-cells (NFAT) transcription factor, a key regulator of D28K, and improved the recruitment of NFATc1, cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), and p300 to the D28K promoter. We found that nutrient stimulation increased D28K plasma membrane enrichment and modulated calcium channel activity in order to regulate glucose-induced insulin secretion. Isx9-mediated expression of D28K protected ? cells against chronic stress induced by serum withdrawal or chronic inflammation by reducing caspase 3 activity. Consequently, Isx9 improved human islet function after transplantation in NOD-SCID mice in a streptozotocin-induced diabetes model. In summary, Isx9 significantly regulates expression of genes relevant to ? cell survival and function, and may be an attractive therapy to treat diabetes and improve islet function post-transplantation.
Project description:Previous work has characterized the properties of neurotransmitter release at excitatory and inhibitory synapses, but we know remarkably little about the properties of monoamine release, because these neuromodulators do not generally produce a fast ionotropic response. Since dopamine and serotonin neurons can also release glutamate in vitro and in vivo, we have used the vesicular monoamine transporter VMAT2 and the vesicular glutamate transporter VGLUT1 to compare the localization and recycling of synaptic vesicles that store, respectively, monoamines and glutamate. First, VMAT2 segregates partially from VGLUT1 in the boutons of midbrain dopamine neurons, indicating the potential for distinct release sites. Second, endocytosis after stimulation is slower for VMAT2 than VGLUT1. During the stimulus, however, the endocytosis of VMAT2 (but not VGLUT1) accelerates dramatically in midbrain dopamine but not hippocampal neurons, indicating a novel, cell-specific mechanism to sustain high rates of release. On the other hand, we find that in both midbrain dopamine and hippocampal neurons, a substantially smaller proportion of VMAT2 than VGLUT1 is available for evoked release, and VMAT2 shows considerably more dispersion along the axon after exocytosis than VGLUT1. Even when expressed in the same neuron, the two vesicular transporters thus target to distinct populations of synaptic vesicles, presumably due to their selection of distinct recycling pathways.
Project description:1alpha,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] is known to modulate Ca2+ metabolism in several cell types. Vitamin-D-dependent calcium binding proteins such as calbindin-D28K (28 kDa calcium binding proteins) have been shown to be regulated by 1,25(OH)2D3 but the mechanisms controlling calbindin synthesis are still poorly understood in human osteoblast cell culture models. The human bone marrow stromal cells (HBMSC) described in this paper developed a calcified matrix, expressed osteocalcin (OC), osteopontin (OP) and responded to 1,25(OH)2D3. The expression of vitamin D receptor mRNA was demonstrated by reverse transcription-PCR. Calbindin-D28K protein was identified only in cells arising from the sixth subculture, which exhibited a calcified matrix and all of the osteoblastic markers, e.g. OC and OP. It was demonstrated by dot-immunodetection using immunological probes, and by in situ hybridization using labelled cDNA probes. Moreover, vitamin D3 enhanced calbindin-D28K synthesis as well as OC synthesis and alkaline phosphatase activity. Uptake of 45Ca induced into the matrix by 1,25(OH)2D3 supports the hypothesis that the calcium-enriched matrix could trap calbindin-D proteins. In conclusion, the studies in vitro described in the present paper indicate, for the first time, a possible role of calbindin-D28K in mineralized matrix formation in HBMSC.
Project description:Diabetic nephropathy is a common diabetic complication that is associated with alterations in the expression of several renal proteins and abnormal calcium homeostasis. We performed proteomic analysis to screen for global changes of renal protein expression in diabetic kidney. Proteins extracted from the whole kidney of 120-day-old OVE26 (a transgenic model of Type 1 diabetes) and FVB (non-diabetic background strain) mice were separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE) and visualized by SYPRO Ruby staining (n = 5 in each group). Quantitative intensity analysis revealed 41 differentially expressed proteins, of which 30 were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) followed by peptide mass fingerprinting. One of the altered proteins with the greatest magnitude of change was the calcium-binding protein, calbindin-D28k, whose expression was increased 6.7-fold in diabetic kidney. We confirmed the increase in calbindin-D28k expression in diabetic kidney by Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemical study demonstrated that calbindin-D28k expression was markedly increased in tubular epithelial cells of distal convoluted tubules (DCT), collecting ducts (CD), and proximal convoluted tubules (PCT) in diabetic kidney. Calbindin-D28k plays a critical role in maintaining calcium homeostasis. The elevation in renal calbindin-D28k expression in our model may indicate a compensatory mechanism to overcome hypercalciuria in diabetes.
Project description:Calbindin-D28k is a calcium binding protein with six EF hand domains. Calbindin-D28k is unique in that it functions as both a calcium buffer and a sensor protein. It is found in many tissues, including brain, pancreas, kidney, and intestine, playing important roles in each. Calbindin-D28k is known to bind four calcium ions and upon calcium binding undergoes a conformational change. The structure of apo calbindin-D28k is in an ordered state, transitioning into a disordered state as calcium is bound. Once fully loaded with four calcium ions, it again takes on an ordered state. The solution structure of disulfide-reduced holo-calbindin-D28k has been determined by NMR, while the structure of apo calbindin-D28k has yet to be determined. Differential surface modification of lysine and histidine residues analyzed by mass spectrometry has been used in this study to identify, for the first time, the specific regions of calbindin-D28k undergoing conformational changes between the holo and apo states. Using differential surface modification in combination with mass spectrometry, EF hands 1 and 4 as well as the linkers before EF hand 1 and the linkers between EF hands 4 and 5 and EF hands 5 and 6 were identified as regions of conformational change between apo and holo calbindin-D28k. Under the experimental conditions employed, EF hands 2 and 6, which are known not to bind calcium, were unaffected in either form. EF hand 2 is highly accessible; however, EF hand 6 was determined not to be surface accessible in either form. Previous research has identified a disulfide bond between cysteines 94 and 100 in the holo state. Until now, it was unknown whether this bond also exists in the apo form. Our data confirm the presence of the disulfide bond between cysteines 94 and 100 in the holo form and indicate that there is predominantly no disulfide bond between these residues in the apoprotein.
Project description:Calcium-triggered exocytosis is key to many physiological processes, including neurotransmitter and hormone release by neurons and endocrine cells. Dozens of proteins regulate exocytosis, yet the temporal and spatial dynamics of these factors during vesicle fusion remain unclear. Here we use total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to visualize local protein dynamics at single sites of exocytosis of small synaptic-like microvesicles in live cultured neuroendocrine PC12 cells. We employ two-color imaging to simultaneously observe membrane fusion (using vesicular acetylcholine ACh transporter tagged to pHluorin) and the dynamics of associated proteins at the moments surrounding exocytosis. Our experiments show that many proteins, including the SNAREs syntaxin1 and VAMP2, the SNARE modulator tomosyn, and Rab proteins, are preclustered at fusion sites and rapidly lost at fusion. The ATPase N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor is locally recruited at fusion. Interestingly, the endocytic Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs domain-containing proteins amphiphysin1, syndapin2, and endophilins are dynamically recruited to fusion sites and slow the loss of vesicle membrane-bound cargo from fusion sites. A similar effect on vesicle membrane protein dynamics was seen with the overexpression of the GTPases dynamin1 and dynamin2. These results suggest that proteins involved in classical clathrin-mediated endocytosis can regulate exocytosis of synaptic-like microvesicles. Our findings provide insights into the dynamics, assembly, and mechanistic roles of many key factors of exocytosis and endocytosis at single sites of microvesicle fusion in live cells.