Chronic glucolipotoxic conditions in pancreatic islets impair insulin secretion due to dysregulated calcium dynamics, glucose responsiveness and mitochondrial activity.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In the progression towards diabetes, glucolipotoxicity is one of the main causes of pancreatic beta cell pathology. The aim of this study was to examine the in vitro effects of chronic glucolipotoxic conditions on cellular responses in pancreatic islets, including glucose and fat metabolism, Calcium mobilization, insulin secretion and insulin content. RESULTS: Exposure of islets to chronic glucolipotoxic conditions decreased glucose stimulated insulin secretion in vitro. Reduced protein levels of Glut2/slc2a2, and decreased glucokinase and pyruvate carboxylase mRNA levels indicated a significant lowering in glucose sensing. Concomitantly, both fatty acid uptake and triglyceride accumulation increased significantly while fatty acid oxidation decreased. This general suppression in glucose metabolism correlated well with a decrease in mitochondrial number and activity, reduction in cellular ATP content and dampening of the TCA cycle. Further, we also observed a decrease in IP3 levels and lower Calcium mobilization in response to glucose. Importantly, chronic glucolipotoxic conditions in vitro decreased insulin gene expression, insulin content, insulin granule docking (to the plasma membrane) and insulin secretion. CONCLUSIONS: Our results present an integrated view of the effects of chronic glucolipotoxic conditions on known and novel signaling events, in vitro, that results in reduced glucose responsiveness and insulin secretion.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The role of G protein-coupled receptor (GPR40), which is highly expressed in pancreatic beta cells, has been studied extensively in the amelioration of beta cell dysfunction in T2D using rat and mouse islets, beta cell lines and in animal models of diabetes. But its potential as a therapeutic target has not been fully explored. This aim of the study is to evaluate the therapeutic potential of CNX-011-67, a highly selective, potent and orally bioavailable GPR40 agonist, in controlling diabetes and other metabolic parameters. METHODS: Seven week old male ZDF rats were treated with either vehicle or CNX-011-67, 5 mg/kg twice daily, for seven weeks. The animals were subjected to oral glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance tests. Plasma glucose, insulin, triglyceride, HbA1c, fructosamine and free fatty acids were measured at selected time points. Pancreas from control and treated animals were subjected to insulin and pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX1) immunohistochemistry and were also evaluated by electron microscopy. Also the potential impact of CNX-011-67 on islet insulin secretion, content, ATP levels and markers of both glucose oxidation, beta cell health in rat islets under chronic glucolipotoxic conditions was evaluated. RESULTS: Treatment of male ZDF rats with CNX-011-67 for 7 weeks significantly enhanced insulin secretion in response to oral glucose load, delayed the onset of fasting hyperglycemia by 3 weeks, reduced nonfasting glucose excursions, fasting free fatty acids and triglyceride levels. A significant increase in PDX1 expression and insulin content and reduction in plasma fructosamine, HOMA-IR, and beta cell apoptosis were observed. CNX-011-67 improves glucose mediated insulin secretion, insulin gene transcription and islet insulin content in cultured rat islets under chronic glucolipotoxic condition. Also enhanced glucose oxidation in the form of increased islet ATP content and overall improvement in beta cell health in the form of reduced expression of stress markers (TXNIP and CHOP mRNA) were observed. CONCLUSIONS: These findings, suggest that long-term oral therapy with CNX-011-67 could be of clinical value to provide good glycemic control and improve islet beta cell function.
Project description:Prolonged exposure of pancreatic beta cells to excessive levels of glucose and fatty acids, referred to as glucolipotoxicity, is postulated to contribute to impaired glucose homeostasis in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, the relative contribution of defective beta cell function vs diminished beta cell mass under glucolipotoxic conditions in vivo remains a subject of debate. We therefore sought to determine whether glucolipotoxicity in rats is due to impaired beta cell function and/or reduced beta cell mass, and whether older animals are more susceptible to glucolipotoxic condition.Wistar rats (2 and 6 months old) received a 72 h infusion of glucose + intravenous fat emulsion or saline control. In vivo insulin secretion and sensitivity were assessed by hyperglycaemic clamps. Ex vivo insulin secretion, insulin biosynthesis and gene expression were measured in isolated islets. Beta cell mass and proliferation were examined by immunohistochemistry.A 72 h infusion of glucose + intravenous fat emulsion in 2-month-old Wistar rats did not affect insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion or beta cell mass. In 6-month-old rats by contrast it led to insulin resistance and reduced insulin secretion in vivo, despite an increase in beta cell mass and proliferation. This was associated with: (1) diminished glucose-stimulated second-phase insulin secretion and proinsulin biosynthesis; (2) lower insulin content; and (3) reduced expression of beta cell genes in isolated islets.In this in vivo model, glucolipotoxicity is characterised by an age-dependent impairment of glucose-regulated beta cell function despite a marked increase in beta cell mass.
Project description:Glucose (20 mM) and carbachol (1 mM) produced a rapid increase in [3H]inositol trisphosphate (InsP3) formation in isolated rat islets of Langerhans prelabelled with myo-[3H]inositol. The magnitude of the increase in InsP3 formation was similar when either agent was used alone and was additive when they were used together. In islets prelabelled with 45Ca2+ and treated with carbachol (1 mM), the rise in InsP3 correlated with a rapid, transient, release of 45Ca2+ from the cells, consistent with mobilization of 45Ca2+ from an intracellular pool. Under these conditions, however, insulin secretion was not increased. In contrast, islets prelabelled with 45Ca2+ and exposed to 20mM-glucose exhibited a delayed and decreased 45Ca2+ efflux, but released 7-8-fold more insulin than did those exposed to carbachol. Depletion of extracellular Ca2+ failed to modify the increase in InsP3 elicited by either glucose or carbachol, whereas it selectively inhibited the efflux of 45Ca2+ induced by glucose in preloaded islets. Under these conditions, however, glucose was still able to induce a small stimulation of the first phase of insulin secretion. These results demonstrate that polyphosphoinositide metabolism, Ca2+ mobilization and insulin release can all be dissociated in islet cells, and suggest that glucose and carbachol regulate these parameters by different mechanisms.
Project description:Type 2 diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and progressive ? cell dysfunction. Excess glucose and lipid impair ? cell function in islet cell lines, cultured rodent and human islets, and in vivo rodent models. Here, we examined the mechanistic consequences of glucotoxic and lipotoxic conditions on human islets in vivo and developed and/or used 3 complementary models that allowed comparison of the effects of hyperglycemic and/or insulin-resistant metabolic stress conditions on human and mouse islets, which responded quite differently to these challenges. Hyperglycemia and/or insulin resistance impaired insulin secretion only from human islets in vivo. In human grafts, chronic insulin resistance decreased antioxidant enzyme expression and increased superoxide and amyloid formation. In human islet grafts, expression of transcription factors NKX6.1 and MAFB was decreased by chronic insulin resistance, but only MAFB decreased under chronic hyperglycemia. Knockdown of NKX6.1 or MAFB expression in a human ? cell line recapitulated the insulin secretion defect seen in vivo. Contrary to rodent islet studies, neither insulin resistance nor hyperglycemia led to human ? cell proliferation or apoptosis. These results demonstrate profound differences in how excess glucose or lipid influence mouse and human insulin secretion and ? cell activity and show that reduced expression of key islet-enriched transcription factors is an important mediator of glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity.
Project description:Human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) aggregation is associated with ?-cell dysfunction and death in type 2 diabetes (T2D). we aimed to determine whether in vivo treatment with chemical chaperone 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA) ameliorates hIAPP-induced ?-cell dysfunction and islet amyloid formation. Oral administration of PBA in hIAPP transgenic (hIAPP Tg) mice expressing hIAPP in pancreatic ? cells counteracted impaired glucose homeostasis and restored glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Moreover, PBA treatment almost completely prevented the transcriptomic alterations observed in hIAPP Tg islets, including the induction of genes related to inflammation. PBA also increased ?-cell viability and improved insulin secretion in hIAPP Tg islets cultured under glucolipotoxic conditions. Strikingly, PBA not only prevented but even reversed islet amyloid deposition, pointing to a direct effect of PBA on hIAPP. This was supported by in silico calculations uncovering potential binding sites of PBA to monomeric, dimeric, and pentameric fibrillar structures, and by in vitro assays showing inhibition of hIAPP fibril formation by PBA. Collectively, these results uncover a novel beneficial effect of PBA on glucose homeostasis by restoring ?-cell function and preventing amyloid formation in mice expressing hIAPP in ? cells, highlighting the therapeutic potential of PBA for the treatment of T2D.-Montane, J., de Pablo, S., Castaño, C., Rodríguez-Comas, J., Cadavez, L., Obach, M., Visa, M., Alcarraz-Vizán, G., Sanchez-Martinez, M., Nonell-Canals, A., Parrizas, M., Servitja, J.-M., Novials, A. Amyloid-induced ?-cell dysfunction and islet inflammation are ameliorated by 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA) treatment.
Project description:The worldwide prevalence of diabetes has risen to 8.5% among adults, which represents a staggering rise in prevalence from 4.7% in 1980. Whilst some treatments work by increasing insulin secretion, over time their effectiveness decreases. We aim to increase insulin secretion by developing strategies that work through mechanisms independent of current treatment options. Isolated CD1 mouse islets, INS-1 pancreatic ?-cells, or C2C12 mouse myotubes were incubated in standard tissue culture media, or media supplemented with 28?mM glucose, 200??M palmitic acid, and 200??M oleic acid as a cellular model of diabetic glucolipotoxicity. Intracellular reactive species content was assayed using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate dye, inducible nitric oxide synthase levels determined by Western blot, 3-nitrotyrosine and 4-hydrpxnonenal both assayed by ELISA, insulin secretion quantified using ELISA or radioimmunoassay, and glucose uptake determined through 2-deoxy glucose 6 phosphate luminescence. Our data indicate that carnosine, a histidine containing dipeptide available through the diet, is an effective scavenger of each of the aforementioned reactive species. This results in doubling of insulin secretion from isolated mouse islets or INS-1 ?-cells. Crucially, carnosine also reverses glucolipotoxic inhibition of insulin secretion and enhances glucose uptake into skeletal muscle cells. Thus, carnosine, or non-hydrolysable carnosine analogs, may represent a new class of therapeutic agent to fight type 2 diabetes.
Project description:<h4>Aims/hypothesis</h4>Obesity is associated with a dysregulation of beta-cell and adipocyte function. The molecular interactions between adipose tissue and beta-cells are not yet fully elucidated. We investigated, whether or not the adipocytokine Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) and its enzymatic product Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), which has been associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) directly influence beta-cell survival and function.<h4>Methods</h4>The effect of Nampt and NMN on viability of INS-1E cells was assessed by WST-1 assay. Apoptosis was measured by Annexin V/PI and TUNEL assay. Activation of apoptosis signaling pathways was evaluated. Adenylate kinase release was determined to assess cytotoxicity. Chronic and acute effects of the adipocytokine Nampt and its enzymatic product NMN on insulin secretion were assessed by glucose stimulated insulin secretion in human islets.<h4>Results</h4>While stimulation of beta-cells with the cytokines IL-1?, TNF? and IFN-? or palmitate significantly decreased viability, Nampt and NMN showed no direct effect on viability in INS-1E cells or in human islets, neither alone nor in the presence of pro-diabetic conditions (elevated glucose concentrations and palmitate or cytokines). At chronic conditions over 3 days of culture, Nampt and its product NMN had no effects on insulin secretion. In contrast, both Nampt and NMN potentiated glucose stimulated insulin secretion acutely during 1 h incubation of human islets.<h4>Conclusion/interpretation</h4>Nampt and NMN neither influenced beta-cell viability nor apoptosis but acutely potentiated glucose stimulated insulin secretion.
Project description:Here, we demonstrate that the fractalkine (FKN)/CX3CR1 system represents a regulatory mechanism for pancreatic islet ? cell function and insulin secretion. CX3CR1 knockout (KO) mice exhibited a marked defect in glucose and GLP1-stimulated insulin secretion, and this defect was also observed in vitro in isolated islets from CX3CR1 KO mice. In vivo administration of FKN improved glucose tolerance with an increase in insulin secretion. In vitro treatment of islets with FKN increased intracellular Ca(2+) and potentiated insulin secretion in both mouse and human islets. The KO islets exhibited reduced expression of a set of genes necessary for the fully functional, differentiated ? cell state, whereas treatment of wild-type (WT) islets with FKN led to increased expression of these genes. Lastly, expression of FKN in islets was decreased by aging and high-fat diet/obesity, suggesting that decreased FKN/CX3CR1 signaling could be a mechanism underlying ? cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes.
Project description:Subtypes of purinergic receptors involved in modulation of cytoplasmic calcium ion concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) and insulin release in mouse pancreatic beta-cells were examined in two systems, pancreatic islets in primary culture and beta-TC6 insulinoma cells. Both systems exhibited some physiological responses such as acetylcholine-stimulated [Ca(2+)](i) rise via cytoplasmic Ca(2+) mobilization. Addition of ATP, ADP, and 2-MeSADP (each 100 microM) transiently increased [Ca(2+)](i) in single islets cultured in the presence of 5.5 mM (normal) glucose. The potent P2Y(1) receptor agonist 2-MeSADP reduced insulin secretion significantly in islets cultured in the presence of high glucose (16.7 mM), whereas a slight stimulation occurred at 5.5 mM glucose. The selective P2Y(6) receptor agonist UDP (200 microM) transiently increased [Ca(2+)](i) and reduced insulin secretion at high glucose, whereas the P2Y(2/4) receptor agonist UTP and adenosine receptor agonist NECA were inactive. [Ca(2+)](i) transients induced by 2-MeSADP and UDP were antagonized by suramin (100 microM), U73122 (2 microM, PLC inhibitor), and 2-APB (10 or 30 microM, IP(3) receptor antagonist), but neither by staurosporine (1 microM, PKC inhibitor) nor depletion of extracellular Ca(2+). The effect of 2-MeSADP on [Ca(2+)](i) was also significantly inhibited by MRS2500, a P2Y(1) receptor antagonist. These results suggested that P2Y(1) and P2Y(6) receptor subtypes are involved in Ca(2+) mobilization from intracellular stores and insulin release in mouse islets. In beta-TC6 cells, ATP, ADP, 2-MeSADP, and UDP transiently elevated [Ca(2+)](i) and slightly decreased insulin secretion at normal glucose, while UTP and NECA were inactive. RT-PCR analysis detected mRNAs of P2Y(1) and P2Y(6), but not P2Y(2) and P2Y(4) receptors.
Project description:Increased uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2) expression has been associated with impaired insulin secretion, whereas UCP-3 protein levels are decreased in the skeleton muscle of type-2 diabetic subjects. In the present studies we hypothesize an opposing effect of glucose on the regulation of UCP-2 and UCP-3 in pancreatic islets.Dominant negative UCP-2 and wild type UCP-3 adenoviruses were generated, and insulin release by transduced human islets was measured. UCP-2 and UCP-3 mRNA levels were determined using quantitative PCR. UCP-2 and UCP-3 protein expression was investigated in human islets cultured in the presence of different glucose concentrations. Human pancreatic sections were analyzed for subcellular localization of UCP-3 using immunohistochemistry.Dominant negative UCP-2 expression in human islets increased insulin secretion compared to control islets (p<0.05). UCP-3 mRNA is expressed in human islets, but the relative abundance of UCP-2 mRNA was 8.1-fold higher (p<0.05). Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed co-localization of UCP-3 protein with mitochondria in human beta-cells. UCP-2 protein expression in human islets was increased approximately 2-fold after high glucose exposure, whereas UCP-3 protein expression was decreased by approximately 40% (p<0.05). UCP-3 overexpression improved glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.UCP-2 and UCP-3 may have distinct roles in regulating beta-cell function. Increased expression of UCP-2 and decreased expression of UCP-3 in humans with chronic hyperglycemia may contribute to impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. These data imply that mechanisms that suppress UCP-2 or mechanisms that increase UCP-3 expression and/or function are potential therapeutic targets to offset defects of insulin secretion in humans with type-2 diabetes.