The cytokines IL-21 and GM-CSF have opposing regulatory roles in the apoptosis of conventional dendritic cells.
ABSTRACT: Interleukin-21 (IL-21) has broad actions on T and B cells, but its actions in innate immunity are poorly understood. Here we show that IL-21 induced apoptosis of conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) via STAT3 and Bim, and this was inhibited by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). ChIP-Seq analysis revealed genome-wide binding competition between GM-CSF-induced STAT5 and IL-21-induced STAT3. Expression of IL-21 in vivo decreased cDC numbers, and this was prevented by GM-CSF. Moreover, repetitive ?-galactosylceramide injection of mice induced IL-21 but decreased GM-CSF production by natural killer T (NKT) cells, correlating with decreased cDC numbers. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of wild-type CD4+ T cells caused more severe colitis with increased DCs and interferon-? (IFN-?)-producing CD4+ T cells in Il21r(-/-)Rag2(-/-) mice (which lack T cells and have IL-21-unresponsive DCs) than in Rag2(-/-) mice. Thus, IL-21 and GM-CSF exhibit cross-regulatory actions on gene regulation and apoptosis, regulating cDC numbers and thereby the magnitude of the immune response.
Project description:Interleukin-21 (IL-21) has broad actions on T- and B-cells, but its actions in innate immunity are poorly understood. Here we show that IL-21 induced apoptosis of conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) via STAT3 and Bim, and this was inhibited by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). ChIP-Seq analysis revealed genome-wide binding competition between GM-CSF-induced STAT5 and IL-21-induced STAT3. Expression of IL-21 in vivo decreased cDC numbers, and this was prevented by GM-CSF. Moreover, repetitive α-galactosylceramide injection of mice induced IL-21 but decreased GM-CSF production by natural killer T (NKT) cells, correlating with decreased cDC numbers. Furthermore, adoptive-transfer of wild-type CD4+ T cells caused more severe colitis with increased DCs and interferon (IFN)-γ-producing CD4+ T cells in Il21r-/-Rag2-/- mice (which lack T cells and have IL-21-unresponsive DCs) than in Rag2-/- mice. Thus, IL-21 and GM-CSF exhibit cross-regulatory actions on gene regulation and apoptosis, regulating cDC numbers and thereby the magnitude of the immune response. Overall design: Total 6 samples were examined. Splenic dendritic cells were treated with IL-21 and/or GM-CSF studying STAT3 and STAT5B binding in the genome
Project description:Interleukin-21 (IL-21) has broad actions on T- and B-cells, but its actions in innate immunity are poorly understood. Here we show that IL-21 induced apoptosis of conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) via STAT3 and Bim, and this was inhibited by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). ChIP-Seq analysis revealed genome-wide binding competition between GM-CSF-induced STAT5 and IL-21-induced STAT3. Expression of IL-21 in vivo decreased cDC numbers, and this was prevented by GM-CSF. Moreover, repetitive α-galactosylceramide injection of mice induced IL-21 but decreased GM-CSF production by natural killer T (NKT) cells, correlating with decreased cDC numbers. Furthermore, adoptive-transfer of wild-type CD4+ T cells caused more severe colitis with increased DCs and interferon (IFN)-γ-producing CD4+ T cells in Il21r-/-Rag2-/- mice (which lack T cells and have IL-21-unresponsive DCs) than in Rag2-/- mice. Thus, IL-21 and GM-CSF exhibit cross-regulatory actions on gene regulation and apoptosis, regulating cDC numbers and thereby the magnitude of the immune response. Total 6 samples were examined. Splenic dendritic cells were treated with IL-21 and/or GM-CSF studying STAT3 and STAT5B binding in the genome
Project description:Dendritic cells (DCs) are pivotal for the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). However, the mechanisms by which they control disease remain to be determined. This study demonstrates that expression of CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4) by DCs is required for EAE induction. CCR4(-/-) mice presented enhanced resistance to EAE associated with a reduction in IL-23 and GM-CSF expression in the CNS. Restoring CCR4 on myeloid cells in bone marrow chimeras or intracerebral microinjection of CCR4-competent DCs, but not macrophages, restored EAE in CCR4(-/-) mice, indicating that CCR4(+) DCs are cellular mediators of EAE development. Mechanistically, CCR4(-/-) DCs were less efficient in GM-CSF and IL-23 production and also T(H)-17 maintenance. Intraspinal IL-23 reconstitution restored EAE in CCR4(-/-) mice, whereas intracerebral inoculation using IL-23(-/-) DCs or GM-CSF(-/-) DCs failed to induce disease. Thus, CCR4-dependent GM-CSF production in DCs required for IL-23 release in these cells is a major component in the development of EAE. Our study identified a unique role for CCR4 in regulating DC function in EAE, harboring therapeutic potential for the treatment of CNS autoimmunity by targeting CCR4 on this specific cell type.
Project description:Both classical DCs (cDCs) and monocyte-derived DCs (Mo-DCs) are capable of cross-priming CD8(+) T cells in response to cell-associated antigens. We found that Ly-6C(hi)TREML4(-) monocytes can differentiate into Zbtb46(+) Mo-DCs in response to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) but that Ly-6C(hi)TREML4(+) monocytes were committed to differentiate into Ly-6C(lo)TREML4(+) monocytes. Differentiation of Zbtb46(+) Mo-DCs capable of efficient cross-priming required both GM-CSF and IL-4 and was accompanied by the induction of Batf3 and Irf4. However, monocytes require IRF4, but not BATF3, to differentiate into Zbtb46(+) Mo-DCs capable of cross-priming CD8(+) T cells. Instead, Irf4(-/-) monocytes differentiate into macrophages in response to GM-CSF and IL-4. Thus, cDCs and Mo-DCs require distinct transcriptional programs of differentiation in acquiring the capacity to prime CD8(+) T cells. These differences may be of consideration in the use of therapeutic DC vaccines based on Mo-DCs.
Project description:Stem cell factor (SCF), the ligand of c-kit, is a key cytokine for hematopoiesis. Hematopoietic precursors express c-kit, whereas differentiated cells of hematopoietic lineage are negative for this receptor, with the exception of NK cells, mast cells, and a few others. While it has long been recognized that dendritic cells (DCs) can express c-kit, several questions remain concerning the SCF/c-kit axis in DCs. This is particularly relevant for DCs found in those organs wherein SCF is highly expressed, including the bone marrow (BM). We characterized c-kit expression by conventional DCs (cDCs) from BM and demonstrated a higher proportion of c-kit+ cells among type 1 cDC subsets (cDC1s) than type 2 cDC subsets (cDC2s) in both humans and mice, whereas similar levels of c-kit expression were observed in cDC1s and cDC2s from mouse spleen. To further study c-kit regulation, DCs were generated with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) from mouse BM, a widely used protocol. CD11c+ cells were purified from pooled non-adherent and slightly adherent cells collected after 7?days of culture, thus obtaining highly purified BM-derived DCs (BMdDCs). BMdDCs contained a small fraction of c-kit+ cells, and by replating them for 2?days with GM-CSF, we obtained a homogeneous population of c-kit+ CD40hi MHCIIhi cells. Not only did BMdDCs express c-kit but they also produced SCF, and both were striking upregulated if GM-CSF was omitted after replating. Furthermore, a small but significant reduction in BMdDC survival was observed upon SCF silencing. Incubation of BMdDCs with SCF did not modulate antigen presentation ability of these cells, nor it did regulate their membrane expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4. We conclude that the SCF/c-kit-mediated prosurvival circuit may have been overlooked because of the prominent use of GM-CSF in DC cultures in vitro, including those human DC cultures destined for the clinics. We speculate that DCs more prominently rely on SCF in vivo in some microenvironments, with potential implications for graft-versus-host disease and antitumor immunity.
Project description:Dendritic cells (DCs) play a major role in innate and adaptive immunity and self-immune tolerance. Immunogenic versus tolerogenic DC functions are dictated by their levels of costimulatory molecules and their cytokine expression profile. The transcription factor C/EBP? regulates the expression of several inflammatory genes in many cell types including macrophages. However, little is known regarding the role of C/EBP? in tolerogenic versus immunogenic DCs functions. We have previously reported that bone marrow-derived DCs generated with GM-CSF (GM/DCs) acquire the signature of semi-mature tolerogenic IL-10-producing DCs as opposed to immunogenic DCs generated with GM-CSF and IL-4 (IL-4/DCs). Here, we show that tolerogenic GM/DCs exhibit higher levels of phosphorylation and enhanced DNA binding activity of C/EBP? and CREB than immunogenic IL-4/DCs. We also show that the p38 MAPK/CREB axis and GSK3 play an important role in regulating C/EBP? phosphorylation and DNA binding activity. Inhibition of p38 MAPK in GM/DCs resulted in a drastic decrease of C/EBP? and CREB DNA binding activities, a reduction of their IL-10 production and an increase of their IL-12p70 production, a characteristic of immunogenic IL-4/DCs. We also present evidence that GSK3 inhibition in GM/DCs reduced C/EBP? DNA binding activity and increased expression of costimulatory molecules in GM/DCs and their production of IL-10. Analysis of GM/DCs of C/EBP?-/- mice showed that C/EBP? was essential to maintain the semimature phenotype and the production of IL-10 as well as low CD4? T cell proliferation. Our results highlight the importance of the p38MAPK-C/EBP? pathway in regulating phenotype and function of tolerogenic GM/DCs.
Project description:Mst1 is a multifunctional serine/threonine kinase that is highly expressed in several immune organs. The role of Mst1 in the activation of dendritic cells (DCs), a key player of adaptive immunity, is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of Mst1 in GM-CSF-induced bone marrow-derived DCs and the underlying mechanisms. Mst1 -/- DCs in response to GM-CSF expressed higher levels of activation/maturation-related cell surface molecules, such as B7 and MHC class II than Mst1 +/+ DCs. Furthermore, the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-23, TNF-?, and IL-12p40, was increased in Mst1 -/- DCs, indicating that Mst1-deficiency may induce the hyperactivation of DCs. Additionally, Mst1 -/- DCs exhibited a stronger capacity to activate allogeneic T cells than Mst1 +/+ DCs. Silencing of Mst1 in DCs promoted their hyperactivation, similar to the phenotypes of Mst1 -/- DCs. Mst1 -/- DCs exhibited an increase in Akt1 phosphorylation and c-myc protein levels. In addition, treatment with an Akt1 inhibitor downregulated the protein level of c-myc increased in Mst1-deficient DCs, indicating that Akt1 acts as an upstream inducer of the de novo synthesis of c-myc. Finally, Akt1 and c-myc inhibitors downregulated the increased expression of IL-23p19 observed in Mst1-knockdown DCs. Taken together, these data demonstrate that Mst1 negatively regulates the hyperactivation of DCs through downregulation of the Akt1/c-myc axis in response to GM-CSF, and suggest that Mst1 is one of the endogenous factors that determine the activation status of GM-CSF-stimulated inflammatory DCs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Administration of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) increases regulatory T cell (Treg) number and function with control of neuroinflammation and neuronal protection in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Recently, we demonstrated in an early phase 1 clinical trial that GM-CSF also improves motor skills in PD patients. However, the mechanisms of Treg induction and its effects on neuroprotective responses remain unknown. As GM-CSF induces tolerogenic dendritic cells (DCs) that in turn convert conventional T cells to Tregs, the pathways for DC induction of Tregs were assessed. METHODS:Following differentiation, bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) were cultured in media or GM-CSF with or without post-culture stimulation with nitrated ?-synuclein (N-?-Syn). Expression of cell surface co-stimulatory molecules and proinflammatory cytokines, and induction of Tregs were evaluated. The neuroprotective capacity of tolerogenic BMDCs was assessed by adoptive transfer to MPTP-intoxicated mice. The extent of neuroinflammation and numbers of surviving dopaminergic neurons were assessed in relation to Treg numbers. RESULTS:Co-culture of differentiated BMDCs with conventional T cells led to Treg induction. Stimulation of BMDCs with N-?-Syn increased expression of co-stimulatory molecules and proinflammatory cytokines, with modest increases in Treg numbers. In contrast, continued culture of BMDCs with GM-CSF modestly altered expression of co-stimulatory molecules and proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, but decreased Treg induction. Continued culture in GM-CSF and combined stimulation with N-?-Syn reduced Treg induction to the lowest levels. Adoptive transfer of tolerogenic BMDCs to MPTP-intoxicated mice increased splenic Tregs, attenuated neuroinflammatory responses, and protected nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. CONCLUSIONS:GM-CSF acts broadly to differentiate DCs and affect immune transformation from effector to regulatory immune responses. DCs skew such immune responses by increasing Treg numbers and activities that serve to attenuate proinflammatory responses and augment neuroprotection.
Project description:Retinoic acid (RA) produced by intestinal dendritic cells (DCs) imprints gut-homing specificity on lymphocytes and enhances Foxp3(+) regulatory T-cell differentiation. The expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) 1A in these DCs is essential for the RA production. However, it remains unclear how the steady-state ALDH1A expression is induced under specific pathogen-free (SPF) conditions. Here, we found that bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BM-DCs) generated with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) expressed Aldh1a2, an isoform of Aldh1a, but that fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 ligand-generated BM-DCs did not. DCs from mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and Peyer's patches (PP) of normal SPF mice expressed ALDH1A2, but not the other known RA-producing enzymes. Employing a flow cytometric method, we detected ALDH activities in 10-30% of PP-DCs and MLN-DCs. They were CD11c(high)CD4(-/low)CD8alpha(intermediate)CD11b(-/low) F4/80(low/intermediate)CD45RB(low)CD86(high)MHC class II(high)B220(-)CD103(+). Equivalent levels of aldehyde dehydrogenase activity (ALDHact) and ALDH1A2 expression were induced synergistically by GM-CSF and IL-4 in splenic DCs in vitro. In BM-DCs, however, additional signals via Toll-like receptors or RA receptors were required for inducing the equivalent levels. The generated ALDH1A2(+) DCs triggered T cells to express gut-homing receptors or Foxp3. GM-CSF receptor-deficient or vitamin A-deficient mice exhibited marked reductions in the ALDHact in intestinal DCs and the T cell number in the intestinal lamina propria, whereas IL-4 receptor-mediated signals were dispensable. GM-CSF(+)CD11c(-)F4/80(+) cells existed constitutively in the intestinal tissues. The results suggest that GM-CSF and RA itself are pivotal among multiple microenvironment factors that enable intestinal DCs to produce RA.
Project description:Migratory CD103+ and lymphoid-resident CD8+ dendritic cells (DCs) share many attributes, such as dependence on the same transcription factors, cross-presenting ability and expression of certain surface molecules, such that it has been proposed they belong to a common sub-lineage. The functional diversity of the two DC types is nevertheless incompletely understood. Here we reveal that upon skin infection with herpes simplex virus, migratory CD103+ DCs from draining lymph nodes were more potent at inducing Th17 cytokine production by CD4+ T cells than CD8+ DCs. This superior capacity to drive Th17 responses was also evident in CD103+ DCs from uninfected mice. Their differential potency to induce Th17 differentiation was reflected by higher production of IL-1? and IL-6 by CD103+ DCs compared with CD8+ DCs upon stimulation. The two types of DCs from isolated lymph nodes also differ in expression of certain pattern recognition receptors. Furthermore, elevated levels of GM-CSF, typical of those found in inflammation, substantially increased the pool size of CD103+ DCs in lymph nodes and skin. We argue that varied levels of GM-CSF may explain the contrasting reports regarding the positive role of GM-CSF in regulating development of CD103+ DCs. Together, we find that these two developmentally closely-related DC subsets display functional differences and that GM-CSF has differential effect on the two types of DCs.