Novel adamantyl cannabinoids as CB1 receptor probes.
ABSTRACT: In previous studies, compound 1 (AM411), a 3-(1-adamantyl) analogue of the phytocannabinoid (-)-?(8)-tetrahydrocannabinol (?(8)-THC), was shown to have improved affinity and selectivity for the CB1 receptor. In this work, we further explored the role of the 1-adamantyl group at the C-3 position in a series of tricyclic cannabinoid analogues modified at the 9-northern aliphatic hydroxyl (NAH) position. Of these, 9-hydroxymethyl hexahydrocannabinol 11 (AM4054) exhibited high CB1 affinity and full agonist profile. In the cAMP assay, the 9-hydroxymethyl cannabinol analogue 24 (AM4089) had a partial agonist profile, with high affinity and moderate selectivity for rCB1 over hCB2. In vivo results in rat models of hypothermia and analgesia were congruent with in vitro data. Our in vivo data indicate that 3-(1-adamantyl) substitution, within NAH cannabinergics, imparts improved pharmacological profiles when compared to the corresponding, traditionally used 3-dimethylheptyl analogues and identifies 11 and 24 as potentially useful in vivo CB1 cannabinergic probes.
Project description:As a part of our controlled-deactivation ligand development project, we recently disclosed a series of (-)-?(8)-tetrahydrocannabinols (THCs) with a metabolically labile ester group at the 2'-position of the side chain. Now, we have replaced the C-ring in the classical THC structure with a hydrolyzable seven-membered lactone. One of the synthesized analogues binds with high affinity to the CB1 receptor (K i = 4.6 nM) and exhibits much lower affinities for the mCB2 and the hCB2. Also, in vitro functional characterization found the compound to be an agonist at rCB1. Consistent with our rational design, the lead cannabinergic lactone identified here is susceptible to metabolic inactivation by plasma esterases, while the respective acid metabolite is inactive at CB receptors. These results are highlighted with molecular modeling of the two regiosomeric lactones.
Project description:The aliphatic side chain plays a pivotal role in determining the cannabinergic potency of tricyclic classical cannabinoids, and we have previously shown that this chain could be substituted successfully by adamantyl or other polycyclic groups. In an effort to explore the pharmacophoric features of these conformationally fixed groups, we have synthesized a series of analogues in which the C3 position is substituted directly with an adamantyl group bearing functionality at one of the tertiary carbon atoms. These substituents included the electrophilic isothiocyanate and photoactivatable azido groups, both of which are capable of covalent attachment with the target protein. Our results show that substitution at the 3'-adamantyl position can lead to ligands with improved affinities and CB1/CB2 selectivities. Our work has also led to the development of two successful covalent probes with high affinities for both cannabinoid receptors, namely, the electrophilic isothiocyanate AM994 and the photoactivatable aliphatic azido AM993 analogues.
Project description:In pursuit of safer controlled-deactivation cannabinoids with high potency and short duration of action, we report the design, synthesis, and pharmacological evaluation of novel C9- and C11-hydroxy-substituted hexahydrocannabinol (HHC) and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) analogues in which a seven atom long side chain, with or without 1'-substituents, carries a metabolically labile 2',3'-ester group. Importantly, in vivo studies validated our controlled deactivation approach in rodents and non-human primates. The lead molecule identified here, namely, butyl-2-[(6aR,9R,10aR)-1-hydroxy-9-(hydroxymethyl)-6,6-dimethyl-6a,7,8,9,10,10a-hexahydro-6H-benzo[c]chromen-3-yl]-2-methylpropanoate (AM7499), was found to exhibit remarkably high in vitro and in vivo potency with shorter duration of action than the currently existing classical cannabinoid agonists.
Project description:Seven new naturally occurring hydroxylated cannabinoids (1-7), along with the known cannabiripsol (8), have been isolated from the aerial parts of high-potency Cannabis sativa. The structures of the new compounds were determined by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis, GC-MS, and HRESIMS as 8?-hydroxy-?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (1), 8?-hydroxy-?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (2), 10?-hydroxy-?(8)-tetrahydrocannabinol (3), 10?-hydroxy-?(8)-tetrahydrocannabinol (4), 10?-hydroxy-?(9,11)-hexahydrocannabinol (5), 9?,10?-epoxyhexahydrocannabinol (6), and 11-acetoxy-?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (7). The binding affinity of isolated compounds 1-8, ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, and ?(8)-tetrahydrocannabinol toward CB1 and CB2 receptors as well as their behavioral effects in a mouse tetrad assay were studied. The results indicated that compound 3, with the highest affinity to the CB1 receptors, exerted the most potent cannabimimetic-like actions in the tetrad assay, while compound 4 showed partial cannabimimetic actions. Compound 2, on the other hand, displayed a dose-dependent hypolocomotive effect only.
Project description:Two novel methyl-substituted arachidonic acid derivatives were prepared in an enantioselective manner from commercially available chiral building blocks, and were found to be excellent templates for the development of (13S)-methyl-substituted anandamide analogues. One of the compounds synthesized, namely, (13S,5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z)-13-methyl-eicosa-5,8,11,14-tetraenoic acid N-(2-hydroxyethyl)amide, is an endocannabinoid analogue with remarkably high affinity for the CB1 cannabinoid receptor.
Project description:In this work, the synthesis of the cannabinoid receptor 1 neutral antagonists 8-chloro-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-N-piperidin-1-yl-4,5-dihydrobenzo-1H-6-oxa-cyclohepta[1,2-c]pyrazole-3-carboxamide 1a and its deaza N-cyclohexyl analogue 1b has led to a deepening of the structure-activity studies of this class of compounds. A series of novel 4,5-dihydrobenzo-oxa-cycloheptapyrazoles analogues of 1a,b, derivatives 1c-j, was synthesized, and their affinity towards cannabinoid receptors was determined. Representative terms were evaluated using in vitro tests and isolated organ assays. Among the derivatives, 1d and 1e resulted in the most potent CB1 receptor ligands (KiCB1 = 35 nM and 21.70 nM, respectively). Interestingly, both in vitro tests and isolated organ assays evidenced CB1 antagonist activity for the majority of the new compounds, excluding compound 1e, which showed a CB1 partial agonist behaviour. CB1 antagonist activity of 1b was further confirmed by a mouse gastrointestinal transit assay. Significant activity of the new CB1 antagonists towards food intake was showed by preliminary acute assays, evidencing the potentiality of these new derivatives in the treatment of obesity.
Project description:The cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1), a member of the class A G protein-coupled receptor family, is expressed in brain tissue where agonist stimulation primarily activates the pertussis toxin-sensitive inhibitory G protein (G(i)). Ligands such as CP55940 ((1R,3R,4R)-3-[2-hydroxy-4-(1,1-dimethylheptyl)phenyl]-4-(3- hydroxypropyl)cyclohexan-1-ol) and ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol are orthosteric agonists for the receptor, bind the conventional binding pocket, and trigger G(i)-mediated effects including inhibition of adenylate cyclase. ORG27569 (5-chloro-3-ethyl-1H-indole-2-carboxylic acid [2-(4-piperidin-1-yl-phenyl)ethyl]amide) has been identified as an allosteric modulator that displays positive cooperativity for CP55940 binding to CB1 yet acts as an antagonist of G protein coupling. To examine this apparent conundrum, we used the wild-type CB1 and two mutants, T210A and T210I (D'Antona, A. M., Ahn, K. H., and Kendall, D. A. (2006) Biochemistry 45, 5606-5617), which collectively cover a spectrum of receptor states from inactive to partially active to more fully constitutively active. Using these receptors, we demonstrated that ORG27569 induces a CB1 receptor state that is characterized by enhanced agonist affinity and decreased inverse agonist affinity consistent with an active conformation. Also consistent with this conformation, the impact of ORG27569 binding was most dramatic on the inactive T210A receptor and less pronounced on the already active T210I receptor. Although ORG27569 antagonized CP55940-induced guanosine 5'-3-O-(thio)triphosphate binding, which is indicative of G protein coupling inhibition in a concentration-dependent manner, the ORG27569-induced conformational change of the CB1 receptor led to cellular internalization and downstream activation of ERK signaling, providing the first case of allosteric ligand-biased signaling via CB1. ORG27569-induced ERK phosphorylation persisted even after pertussis toxin treatment to abrogate G(i) and occurs in HEK293 and neuronal cells.
Project description:The cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) is the principal target of the psychoactive constituent of marijuana, the partial agonist ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC). Here we report two agonist-bound crystal structures of human CB1 in complex with a tetrahydrocannabinol (AM11542) and a hexahydrocannabinol (AM841) at 2.80?Å and 2.95?Å resolution, respectively. The two CB1-agonist complexes reveal important conformational changes in the overall structure, relative to the antagonist-bound state, including a 53% reduction in the volume of the ligand-binding pocket and an increase in the surface area of the G-protein-binding region. In addition, a 'twin toggle switch' of Phe2003.36 and Trp3566.48 (superscripts denote Ballesteros-Weinstein numbering) is experimentally observed and appears to be essential for receptor activation. The structures reveal important insights into the activation mechanism of CB1 and provide a molecular basis for predicting the binding modes of ?9-THC, and endogenous and synthetic cannabinoids. The plasticity of the binding pocket of CB1 seems to be a common feature among certain class A G-protein-coupled receptors. These findings should inspire the design of chemically diverse ligands with distinct pharmacological properties.
Project description:(E)-4-[3-(1-Adamantyl)-4'-hydroxyphenyl]-3-chlorocinnamic acid (3-Cl-AHPC) induces the cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis of leukemia and cancer cells. Studies demonstrated that 3-Cl-AHPC bound to the atypical orphan nuclear receptor small heterodimer partner (SHP). Although missing a DNA-binding domain, SHP heterodimerizes with the ligand-binding domains of other nuclear receptors to repress their abilities to induce or inhibit gene expression. 3-Cl-AHPC analogues having the 1-adamantyl and phenolic hydroxyl pharmacophoric elements replaced with isosteric groups were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their inhibition of proliferation and induction of human cancer cell apoptosis. Structure-anticancer activity relationship studies indicated the importance of both groups to apoptotic activity. Docking of 3-Cl-AHPC and its analogues to an SHP computational model that was based on the crystal structure of ultraspiracle complexed with 1-stearoyl-2-palmitoylglycero-3-phosphoethanolamine suggested why these 3-Cl-AHPC groups could influence SHP activity. Inhibitory activity against Src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 (Shp-2) was also assessed. The most active Shp-2 inhibitor was found to be the 3'-(3,3-dimethylbutynyl) analogue of 3-Cl-AHPC.
Project description:Excessive inflammatory responses can emerge as a potential danger for organisms' health. Physiological balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory processes constitutes an important feature of responses against harmful events. Here, we show that cannabinoid receptors type 1 (CB1) mediate intrinsic protective signals that counteract proinflammatory responses. Both intrarectal infusion of 2,4-dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS) and oral administration of dextrane sulfate sodium induced stronger inflammation in CB1-deficient mice (CB1(-/-)) than in wild-type littermates (CB1(+/+)). Treatment of wild-type mice with the specific CB1 antagonist N-(piperidino-1-yl)-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (SR141716A) mimicked the phenotype of CB1(-/-) mice, showing an acute requirement of CB1 receptors for protection from inflammation. Consistently, treatment with the cannabinoid receptor agonist R(-)-7-hydroxy-Delta(6)-tetra-hydrocannabinol-dimethylheptyl (HU210) or genetic ablation of the endocannabinoid-degrading enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) resulted in protection against DNBS-induced colitis. Electrophysiological recordings from circular smooth muscle cells, performed 8 hours after DNBS treatment, revealed spontaneous oscillatory action potentials in CB1(-/-) but not in CB1(+/+) colons, indicating an early CB1-mediated control of inflammation-induced irritation of smooth muscle cells. DNBS treatment increased the percentage of myenteric neurons expressing CB1 receptors, suggesting an enhancement of cannabinoid signaling during colitis. Our results indicate that the endogenous cannabinoid system represents a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of intestinal disease conditions characterized by excessive inflammatory responses.