Transcriptional repression of AIB1 by FoxG1 leads to apoptosis in breast cancer cells.
ABSTRACT: The oncogene nuclear receptor coactivator amplified in breast cancer 1 (AIB1) is a transcriptional coactivator that is overexpressed in various types of human cancers. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling AIB1 expression in the majority of cancers remain unclear. In this study, we identified a novel interacting protein of AIB1, forkhead-box protein G1 (FoxG1), which is an evolutionarily conserved forkhead-box transcriptional corepressor. We show that FoxG1 expression is low in breast cancer cell lines and that low levels of FoxG1 are correlated with a worse prognosis in breast cancer. We also demonstrate that transient overexpression of FoxG1 can suppress endogenous levels of AIB1 mRNA and protein in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Exogenously expressed FoxG1 in MCF-7 cells also leads to apoptosis that can be rescued in part by AIB1 overexpression. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we determined that FoxG1 is recruited to a region of the AIB1 gene promoter previously characterized to be responsible for AIB1-induced, positive autoregulation of transcription through the recruitment of an activating, multiprotein complex, involving AIB1, E2F transcription factor 1, and specificity protein 1. Increased FoxG1 expression significantly reduces the recruitment of AIB1, E2F transcription factor 1 and E1A-binding protein p300 to this region of the endogenous AIB1 gene promoter. Our data imply that FoxG1 can function as a pro-apoptotic factor in part through suppression of AIB1 coactivator transcription complex formation, thereby reducing the expression of the AIB1 oncogene.
Project description:The oncogene amplified in breast cancer 1 (AIB1) is a nuclear receptor coactivator that plays a major role in the progression of various cancers. We previously identified a splice variant of AIB1 called AIB1-?4 that is overexpressed in breast cancer. Using mass spectrometry, we define the translation initiation of AIB1-?4 at Met(224) of the full-length AIB1 sequence and have raised an antibody to a peptide representing the acetylated N terminus. We show that AIB1-?4 is predominantly localized in the cytoplasm, although leptomycin B nuclear export inhibition demonstrates that AIB1-?4 can enter and traffic through the nucleus. Our data indicate an import mechanism enhanced by other coactivators such as p300/CBP. We report that the endogenously and exogenously expressed AIB1-?4 is recruited as efficiently as full-length AIB1 to estrogen-response elements of genes, and it enhances estrogen-dependent transcription more effectively than AIB1. Expression of an N-terminal AIB1 protein fragment, which is lost in the AIB1-?4 isoform, potentiates AIB1 as a coactivator. This suggests a model whereby the transcriptional activity of AIB1 is squelched by a repressive mechanism utilizing the N-terminal domain and that the increased coactivator function of AIB1-?4 is due to the loss of this inhibitory domain. Finally, we show, using Scorpion primer technology, that AIB1-?4 expression is correlated with metastatic capability of human cancer cell lines.
Project description:Overexpression and activation of the steroid receptor coactivator amplified in breast cancer 1 (AIB1)/steroid receptor coactivator-3 (SRC-3) have been shown to have a critical role in oncogenesis and are required for both steroid and growth factor signaling in epithelial tumors. Here, we report a new mechanism for activation of SRC coactivators. We demonstrate regulated tyrosine phosphorylation of AIB1/SRC-3 at a C-terminal tyrosine residue (Y1357) that is phosphorylated after insulin-like growth factor 1, epidermal growth factor, or estrogen treatment of breast cancer cells. Phosphorylated Y1357 is increased in HER2/neu (v-erb-b2 erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2) mammary tumor epithelia and is required to modulate AIB1/SRC-3 coactivation of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha), progesterone receptor B, NF-kappaB, and AP-1-dependent promoters. c-Abl (v-Abl Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1) tyrosine kinase directly phosphorylates AIB1/SRC-3 at Y1357 and modulates the association of AIB1 with c-Abl, ERalpha, the transcriptional cofactor p300, and the methyltransferase coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1, CARM1. AIB1/SRC-3-dependent transcription and phenotypic changes, such as cell growth and focus formation, can be reversed by an Abl kinase inhibitor, imatinib. Thus, the phosphorylation state of Y1357 can function as a molecular on/off switch and facilitates the cross talk between hormone, growth factor, and intracellular kinase signaling pathways in cancer.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Control of mRNA translation is fundamentally altered in cancer. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) signaling regulates key translation mediators to modulate protein synthesis (e.g. eIF4E, 4E-BP1, mTOR, and S6K1). Importantly the Amplified in Breast Cancer (AIB1) oncogene regulates transcription and is also a downstream mediator of IGF-I signaling. MATERIALS AND METHODS:To determine if AIB1 also affects mRNA translation, we conducted gain and loss of AIB1 function experiments in estrogen receptor alpha (ER?)(+) (MCF-7L) and ER?(-) (MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-435 and LCC6) breast cancer cells. RESULTS:AIB1 positively regulated IGF-I-induced mRNA translation in both ER?(+) and ER?(-) cells. Formation of the eIF4E-4E-BP1 translational complex was altered in the AIB1 ER?(+) and ER?(-) knockdown cells, leading to a reduction in the eIF4E/4E-BP1 and eIF4G/4E-BP1 ratios. In basal and IGF-I stimulated MCF-7 and LCC6 cells, knockdown of AIB1 decreased the integrity of the cap-binding complex, reduced global IGF-I stimulated polyribosomal mRNA recruitment with a concomitant decrease in ten of the thirteen genes tested in polysome-bound mRNAs mapping to proliferation, cell cycle, survival, transcription, translation and ribosome biogenesis ontologies. Specifically, knockdown of AIB1 decreased ribosome-bound mRNA and steady-state protein levels of the transcription factors ER? and E2F1 in addition to reduced ribosome-bound mRNA of the ribosome biogenesis factor BYSL in a cell-line specific manner to regulate mRNA translation. CONCLUSION:The oncogenic transcription factor AIB1 has a novel role in the regulation of polyribosome recruitment and formation of the translational complex. Combinatorial therapies targeting IGF signaling and mRNA translation in AIB1 expressing breast cancers may have clinical benefit and warrants further investigation.
Project description:The oncogene nuclear receptor coactivator amplified in breast cancer 1 (AIB1) is a transcriptional coactivator, which is overexpressed in various types of human cancers, including breast cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating AIB1 function remain largely unknown. In this study, we present evidence demonstrating that AIB1 is acetylated by MOF in human breast cancer cells. Moreover, we also found that the acetylation of AIB1 enhances its function in promoting breast cancer cell proliferation. We further showed that the acetylation of AIB1 is required for its recruitment to E2F1 target genes by E2F1. More importantly, we found that the acetylation levels of AIB1 are greatly elevated in human breast cancer cells compared with that in non-cancerous cells. Collectively, our results shed light on the molecular mechanisms that regulate AIB1 function in breast cancer.
Project description:Transcription of the HER2 oncogene can be repressed by estrogen (E2). We now show that, a splice isoform of the nuclear receptor coactivator AIB1, AIB1-?4, is able to reverse E2 repression of HER2 gene expression in breast cancer cells. The first 224 amino acids of AIB1 that are absent in AIB1-?4, bind a co-repressor, ANCO1. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation assay approaches in MCF7 and BT474 cell lines, we demonstrate that AIB1 and AIB1-?4 can bind to the E2 regulatory site in the first intron of the HER2 gene, after E2 treatment, but only full-length AIB1 recruits ANCO1. Consistent with E2-induced chromatin repression, the AIB1-ANCO1 complex recruits HDAC3 and HDAC4 to the intronic estrogen response element and the proximal promoter acquires the repressive chromatin mark H3K9me3 and loses H3K4me1. In contrast, AIB1-?4 does not recruit ANCO 1, HDAC3, or HDAC4 and the proximal promoter retains activation marks of H3K4me1. In cell lines with low levels of ANCO1 (T47D), E2 does not repress HER2 gene transcription but the repressive response can be restored by overexpression of ANCO1. ANCO1 can also repress other E2-responsive genes, indicating that AIB1, AIB1-?4 and ANCO1 are important determinants of endocrine and growth factor responsiveness in breast cancer.
Project description:In this report, we investigated the role and regulation of forkhead box M1 (FOXM1) in breast cancer and epirubicin resistance. We generated epirubicin-resistant MCF-7 breast carcinoma (MCF-7-EPI(R)) cells and found FOXM1 protein levels to be higher in MCF-7-EPI(R) than in MCF-7 cells and that FOXM1 expression is downregulated by epirubicin in MCF-7 but not in MCF-7-EPI(R) cells. We also established that there is a loss of p53 function in MCF-7-EPI(R) cells and that epirubicin represses FOXM1 expression at transcription and gene promoter levels through activation of p53 and repression of E2F activity in MCF-7 cells. Using p53(-/-) mouse embryo fibroblasts, we showed that p53 is important for epirubicin sensitivity. Moreover, transient promoter transfection assays showed that epirubicin and its cellular effectors p53 and E2F1 modulate FOXM1 transcription through an E2F-binding site located within the proximal promoter region. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis also revealed that epirubicin treatment increases pRB (retinoblastoma protein) and decreases E2F1 recruitment to the FOXM1 promoter region containing the E2F site. We also found ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein and mRNA to be overexpressed in the resistant MCF-7-EPI(R) cells compared with MCF-7 cells and that epirubicin could activate ATM to promote E2F activity and FOXM1 expression. Furthermore, inhibition of ATM in U2OS cells with caffeine or depletion of ATM in MCF-7-EPI(R) with short interfering RNAs can resensitize these resistant cells to epirubicin, resulting in downregulation of E2F1 and FOXM1 expression and cell death. In summary, our data show that ATM and p53 coordinately regulate FOXM1 via E2F to modulate epirubicin response and resistance in breast cancer.
Project description:Amplified in breast cancer 1 (AIB1) is a member of p160 steroid receptor coactivator (SRC) family that mediates the transcriptional activities of nuclear receptors and other transcription factors. It acts as a major oncogene in diverse cancers, whereas biological function of AIB1 in gastric cancer remains largely unclear. This study was designed to explore the role of AIB1 in gastric tumorigenesis and its potential as a useful prognostic marker and therapeutic target in this cancer. Our data demonstrated that AIB1 was significantly up-regulated in gastric cancer tissues as compared with control subjects. Moreover, AIB1 amplification was found in 47 of 133 (35.3%) gastric cancer cases, but not in control subjects. AIB1 amplification was positively associated with its protein expression, and was significantly correlated with poor patient survival. AIB1 knockdown in gastric cancer cells dramatically inhibited cell proliferation, invasiveness and tumorigenic potential in nude mice, and induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Mechanically, AIB1 promotes gastric cancer cell proliferation, survival and invasiveness through modulating major signaling pathways such as ErbB and Wnt/?-catenin pathways. Collectively, these findings suggest that AIB1 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of gastric cancer and represents a potential prognostic marker and therapeutic target for this cancer.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Estrogen is a known growth promoter for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer cells. Paradoxically, in breast cancer cells that have been chronically deprived of estrogen stimulation, re-introduction of the hormone can induce apoptosis.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>Here, we sought to identify signaling networks that are triggered by estradiol (E2) in isogenic MCF-7 breast cancer cells that undergo apoptosis (MCF-7:5C) versus cells that proliferate upon exposure to E2 (MCF-7). The nuclear receptor co-activator AIB1 (Amplified in Breast Cancer-1) is known to be rate-limiting for E2-induced cell survival responses in MCF-7 cells and was found here to also be required for the induction of apoptosis by E2 in the MCF-7:5C cells. Proteins that interact with AIB1 as well as complexes that contain tyrosine phosphorylated proteins were isolated by immunoprecipitation and identified by mass spectrometry (MS) at baseline and after a brief exposure to E2 for two hours. Bioinformatic network analyses of the identified protein interactions were then used to analyze E2 signaling pathways that trigger apoptosis versus survival. Comparison of MS data with a computationally-predicted AIB1 interaction network showed that 26 proteins identified in this study are within this network, and are involved in signal transduction, transcription, cell cycle regulation and protein degradation.<h4>Conclusions</h4>G-protein-coupled receptors, PI3 kinase, Wnt and Notch signaling pathways were most strongly associated with E2-induced proliferation or apoptosis and are integrated here into a global AIB1 signaling network that controls qualitatively distinct responses to estrogen.
Project description:The nuclear receptor and bona fide oncogene, steroid receptor coactivator-3 (SRC-3, AIB1), acts as a master transcriptional regulator of breast cancer by transducing growth signals via the estrogen receptor alpha (ER). In this resource paper, we present the genome-wide localization analysis of SRC-3 chromatin affinity sites in MCF-7 human breast cancer chromatin and compare the cis binding sites to global cartographies for ER and FoxA1. By correlating their gene proximal binding sites to integrated gene expression signatures, and in combination with gene ontology analyses, we provide a functional classification of estradiol-induced gene regulation that further highlights an intricate transcriptional control of interdependent cellular pathways by SRC-3. Furthermore, by presenting proteomics analyses of in vivo SRC-3- and ER-associated proteins, we give strong evidence to support the idea that the interpretative power of SRC-3 in estrogen signaling is mediated through the formation of distinct, cell state-dependent protein complexes. Altogether, we present the first approach in complementary comparative analyses that converges results obtained by three discovery-driven methods (cistromics, transcriptomics, and proteomics) into testable hypotheses, thus providing a valuable resource for follow-up studies that further our understanding of estrogen signaling in human diseases in general and breast cancer in particular.
Project description:SRCs (steroid receptor coactivators) are required for nuclear receptor-mediated transcription and are also implicated in the transcription initiation by other transcription factors, such as STATs and NFkappaB. Despite phenotypic manifestations in gene knockout mice for SRC-1, GRIP1, and AIB1 of the SRC (Steroid Receptor Coactivator) family indicating their differential roles in animal physiology, there is no clear evidence, at the molecular level, to support a functional specificity for these proteins. We demonstrated in this report that two species of SRC coactivators, either as AIB1:GRIP1 or as AIB1:SRC-1 are recruited, possibly through heterodimerization, on the promoter of genes that contain a classical hormone responsive element (HRE). In contrast, on non-HRE-containing gene promoters, on which steroid receptors bind indirectly, either GRIP1 or SRC-1 is recruited as a monomer, depending on the cellular abundance of the protein. Typically, non-HRE-containing genes are early genes activated by steroid receptors, whereas HRE-containing genes are activated later. Our results also showed that SRC proteins contribute to the temporal regulation of gene transcription. In addition, our experiments revealed a positive correlation between AIB1/c-myc overexpression in ER+ breast carcinoma samples, suggesting a possible mechanism for AIB1 in breast cancer carcinogenesis.