Prevalence, risk factors, and impact of isolated antibody to hepatitis B core antigen and occult hepatitis B virus infection in HIV-1-infected pregnant women.
ABSTRACT: Prevalence and risk factors for isolated antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) and occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection are not well known in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected pregnant women. It is unclear if women with occult infections are at risk of transmitting HBV to their infants.HIV-1-infected and HBV surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative pregnant women were tested for antibody to HBsAg (anti-HBs) and anti-HBc using enzyme immunoassay. Women with isolated anti-HBc were assessed for occult HBV infection, defined as HBV DNA levels >15 IU/mL, using the Abbott RealTime HBV DNA assay. Infants born to women with isolated anti-HBc and detectable HBV DNA were tested at 4 months of age for HBV DNA. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with isolated anti-HBc and occult HBV infection.Among 1812 HIV-infected pregnant women, 1682 were HBsAg negative. Fourteen percent (95% confidence interval [CI], 12%-15%) of HBsAg-negative women had an isolated anti-HBc that was independently associated with low CD4 count, age >35 years, birth in northern Thailand, and positive anti-hepatitis C virus serology. Occult HBV infection was identified in 24% (95% CI, 18%-30%) of women with isolated anti-HBc, representing 2.6% (95% CI, 1.9%-3.5%) of HIV-1-infected pregnant women, and was inversely associated with HIV RNA levels. None of the women with isolated anti-HBc and occult HBV infection transmitted HBV to their infants.HIV-1-infected pregnant women with isolated anti-HBc and occult HBV infection have very low HBV DNA levels and are thus at very low risk to transmit HBV to their infants.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Occult hepatitis B (OHB) is a major concern in HIV infected patients as it associates with a high risk of HBV reactivation and disease progression. However, data on the prevalence of OHB among HIV positive patients in Ethiopia is lacking. This study aims to determine the prevalence of OHB in HBV/HIV co-infected patients from Gondar, Ethiopia.<h4>Methods</h4>A total of 308 consented HIV positive patients were recruited from the University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Ethiopia. Clinical and demographic data of the participants were recorded. Plasma was tested for HBsAg and anti-HBc using commercial assays (Abbott Architect). In HBsAg negative anti-HBc positive patient samples, total DNA was isolated and amplified using nested PCR with primers specific to HBV polymerase, surface and pre-core/core regions, followed by Sanger sequencing and HBV mutational analysis using MEGA 7.0.<h4>Results</h4>Of the total study subjects, 62.7% were female, median age 38.4 years, interquartile range (IQR): 18-68, and 208 (67.5%) had lifestyle risk factors for HBV acquisition. Two hundred and ninety-one study subjects were HIV+/HBsAg-, out of which 115 (39.5%) were positive for anti-HBc. Occult hepatitis B was detected in 19.1% (22/115) of anti-HBc positive HIV patients. HBV genotype D was the predominant genotype (81%) among OHB positive patients. Mutations associated with HBV drug resistance, HBV reactivation, and HCC risk were detected in 23% (5/22), 14% (3/22) and 45.5% (10/22) of patients, respectively.<h4>Conclusion</h4>This study found a high rate of occult hepatitis B in HIV patients. Further, high rates of mutations associated with HBV reactivation, drug resistance, and HCC risk were detected in these patients. These data highlighted the need for integrating OHB screening for proper management of liver diseases in HIV patients.
Project description:The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a global problem; however, the burden of HBV infection in pregnant women in Botswana is unknown. We sought to determine the prevalence of chronic and occult HBV infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and -uninfected pregnant women in Botswana. Samples from 752 pregnant women were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), and HBsAg-positive samples were tested for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and HBV DNA load. Samples that were HBsAg negative were screened for occult HBV infection by determining the HBV DNA load. HBV genotypes were determined based on a 415-base-pair fragment of the surface gene. Among the 752 women tested during pregnancy or early postpartum, 16 (2.1%) (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.0?2.2) were HBsAg-positive. The prevalence of chronic HBV infection was higher (3.1%) among HIV-infected (95% CI: 3.0?3.2) compared with HIV-uninfected women (1.1%) (95% CI: 1.07?1.1, p = 0.057). Among the 622 HBsAg-negative women, the prevalence of occult HBV infection was 6.6% (95% CI: 6.5?6.7). Three of thirteen HBsAg-positive participants were HBeAg-positive, and all were HIV-negative. Of the 11 maternal samples successfully genotyped, five (45.5%) were genotype D3, five (45.5%) were genotype A1, and one was genotype E (9%). Low and similar proportions of HIV-infected and -uninfected pregnant women in Botswana had occult or chronic HBV infection. We identified a subset of HIV-negative pregnant women who had high HBV DNA levels and were HBeAg-positive, and thus likely to transmit HBV to their infants.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Occult Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) is defined as the presence of HBV-DNA in the liver or serum with undetectable hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Hemodialysis (HD) patients are at risk of acquiring parenterally transmitted infections. OBJECTIVES:The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of OBI in HD patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS:A hundred HBsAg negative HD patients were included in this study from main dialysis units in Tehran, Iran. HBsAg, hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs), hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) and liver enzymes levels were examined in all subjects. The presence of HBV-DNA was determined in plasma samples using real-time PCR. RESULTS:A hundredpatients with a mean age of 58.5 ± 16.1 years were enrolled in this study. In total, 56.7% were male and 43.3% female. Anti-HBs, anti-HBc, anti-HCV and anti-HIV were detected in 56.7%, 2%, 5.2% and 1% of patients, respectively. Isolated anti-HBc was detected in 2% of cases. HBV-DNA was detected in 1% of HBsAg negative patients. CONCLUSIONS:This study showed a low rate of isolated anti-HBc and occult HBV infection in HD patients. It can be due to improvement of people's knowledge about HBV transmission routes, HBV vaccination of HD patients and regular surveillance of HBV infection.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) is a phase of HBV infection characterised by the presence of HBV DNA in the absence of detectable hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). OBI is of concern in the HIV-infected due to high prevalence and risk of HBV reactivation. The prevalence and clinico-demographic characteristics of OBI in anti-retroviral therapy (ART) naïve HIV infected adults in Kenya is unknown.<h4>Methods</h4>A cross sectional study carried was out at three sites in Kenya. HIV infected ART naïve adults were enrolled and demographic data collected. Blood samples were assayed for HBsAg, HBV DNA, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) and hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc). Data on CD4 count, HIV viral load and platelet count were obtained from medical records.<h4>Results</h4>Of 208 patients, 199 (95.7%) did not report HBV vaccination, 196 (94.2%) were HBsAg negative, 119 (57.2%) had no HBV markers, 58 (27.9%) had previous HBV infection (anti-HBc positive) and 11 (5.3%) had OBI. All 11 (100%) OBI patients were anti-HBc positive. OBI patients comprised 19.0% of HBsAg negative, anti-HBc positive patients. There was no difference in clinico-demographic characteristics between the overt HBV, OBI and HBV negative patients.<h4>Conclusion</h4>This was the first study on OBI in ART naïve HIV infected adults in Kenya. The lower OBI prevalence compared to other sub-Saharan African countries could be attributed to lower HBV exposure. Most patients were HBV unexposed and unimmunized, outlining the need to implement guideline recommended immunization strategies.
Project description:Occult HBV infection (OBI), defined by the presence of HBV DNA in absence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), is a significant concern in the HIV-infected population. Of 441 HIV+/HBsAg- patients analyzed, the overall prevalence of OBI was 6.3% (28/441). OBI was identified in 21 anti-HBc positives (17.8%), as well as among those who lacked any HBV-specific serological markers (2.2%). Comparison with HIV/HBV co-infection revealed that the levels of CD4, ALT, and HBV DNA were significantly lower during occult infection. Discrete differences were also observed with respect to quasispecies divergence. Additionally, subgenotype D1 was most frequent in occult infection, while D2 was widespread during chronic infection. The majority (~90%) of occult D1 sequences had the sQ129R mutation in the surface gene. This study highlights several distinct features of OBI in India and underscores the need for additional HBV DNA screening in HIV-positive individuals.
Project description:The prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Mozambique is one of the highest in the world, though in spite of this the prevalence of occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) is unknown.This study was conducted with the aim to investigate the prevalence of OBI and frequency of isolated hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc alone) among antiretroviral (ART) naïve HIV-positive patients in Mozambique.A cross-sectional study was conducted in two health facilities within Maputo city. All ART-naive HIV seropositive patients attending outpatient clinics between June and October 2012 were consecutively enrolled. Blood samples were drawn from each participant and used for serological measurement of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), antibodies against HBV surface antigen (anti-HBs) and antibodies against core antigen (anti-HBc) using ELISA. Quantification of HBV DNA was performed by real time PCR. A questionnaire was used to obtain demographics and clinical data.Of the 518 ART-naive HIV-positive subjects enrolled in the study, 90.9% (471/518) were HBsAg negative. Among HBsAg negative, 45.2% (213/471) had isolated anti-HBc antibodies, and the frequency of OBI among patients with anti-HBc alone was 8.3% (17/206). OBI was not correlated either with CD4+ T cells count or transaminases levels. A total of 11.8% of patients with OBI presented elevated HBV DNA level. Frequency of individuals with APRI score > 2 and FIB-4 score > 3.25 was higher in patients with OBI as compared not exposed, immune and anti-HBc alone patients.Our data demonstrate for the first time that OBI is prevalent among HIV patients in Mozambique, and will be missed using the commonly available serological assays that measures HBsAg.
Project description:Major hydrophilic region in genomic HBV extending from aa99 to aa169, clustered with a highly conformational epitope, is critical to the antigenicity of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and may affect the diagnosis of HBV in HBV screening test. So, this study aimed to characterize variants of S gene product of hepatitis B virus (HBV) isolated from patients with overt or occult HBV infection in north-eastern Egypt.The study included sera of two different groups of volunteer blood donors (VBDs), 82 with overt HBV that were positive for HBsAg and anti-HBc and 343 donors negative for HBsAg eligible for donation. Of the latter group, only 44 were positive for anti-HBc. All anti-HBc positive sera were subjected to HBV DNA detection and partial sequence analysis targeting the HBV S gene.HBV DNA was detected in 22.7 % of HBsAg-/anti-HBc?+?(10/44 patients) and in 90 % of HBsAg + donors (74/82 patients) with significant statistical difference (P = 0.0001). Phylogenetic analysis showed that HBV strains retrieved from both groups were of genotype D. Amino acid escape mutation T125M was detected in only 2 samples of the occult infection group and in none of the overt group (P = 0.01). Different amino acid substitutions were identified in overt infection group: S143L/T (16.2 %, 12/74) and P120T/S (2.7 %, 2/74). Q129R was significantly more frequent in cases with occult HBV infection (40 %, 4/10) than overt group (6.8 %, 5/74) (P = 0.01).HBV genotype D predominated both in patients with overt and occult HBV infection. Different profiles of amino acid substitutions in the major hydrophilic region were seen in these two groups in Egypt.
Project description:In Gabon, a central African country, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) are endemic. In a recent study, conducted in a semi-urban area (Franceville, Gabon), HBV infection was found to be more prevalent among HIV infected individuals. This study aims to investigate the prevalence and genetic diversity of hepatitis B virus infection among HIV infected individuals, predominantly under antiretroviral therapy, living in fully urbanized area: Libreville, capital of Gabon. Serological and molecular tests were performed to detect HBV infection among patients living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA). We used Monolisa HBsAg ULTRA, Anti-HBc Plus and Anti-HBs Plus EIA kits for serological analyses. HBV DNA viral load (HBV DNA VL) was determined by real time PCR and molecular characterization of HBV strains was performed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of partial HBV surface and core genes. At all, 70.2% of patients were under antiretroviral therapy. The prevalence of HBsAg was 8.8% (43/487). Detectable HBV DNA was found in 69.7% (30/43) of HBsAg positive patients and in 17.5% (24/137) HBsAg negative patients. HBV DNA VL was significantly higher among patient with CD4 cell counts less than 200 cells/mm3 than those with CD4 cell counts greater than 500 cells/mm3 (p = 0.008). We confirmed the presence of HBV sub-genotypes QS-A3 (40%), and A4 (20%) and HBV-E genotype (40%). The percentage of resistance to Lamivudine was high (40%) and varied according to the M204V/I motif. Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) was found in patients with isolated HBcAb and among patients who had completed their HBsAg seroconversion. We detected HBV DNA for one patient without any HBV serological marker. This study provides a new landmark for the comprehension of HBV infection in PLHA in urban areas. OBI enhances HBV DNA prevalence and should be investigated in all HBsAg negative individuals.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Occult hepatitis B virus infection (OBI) poses a challenge to the safety of blood donation. The prevalence of OBI is not well documented in Indonesia, although this information in such an endemic country is needed. This study was aimed to evaluate the prevalence of occult hepatitis B in blood donors from two cities of Indonesia, and to study the genetic variation and its effect on the predicted antigenicity of HBsAg. METHODS: Serum samples of 309 regular blood donors negative for HBsAg were tested for anti-HBs and anti-HBc. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA isolated from anti-HBc-positive samples were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction, cloned and sequenced. Antigenic properties of identified HBsAg mutants were predicted by calculation of the antigenic index. RESULTS: Of the 309 HBsAg-negative samples, anti-HBc was positive in 134 (43.4%) and HBV DNA was detected in 25 (8.1%). Seven of the viremic samples had nucleotide substitutions (A521G, A551T, C582T, and A562G) in the S gene, causing amino acid mutations (T123A, M133L, and T143M) in the 'a' determinant of HBsAg that resulted in changes in the predicted antigenicity. CONCLUSIONS: OBI was detected in blood donors' samples in Indonesia. Anti-HBc was shown to be a better screening parameter than HBsAg, however, it might result in the loss of donors particularly in endemic countries. HBsAg detection failure in this study might be due to mutations altering the protein antigenicity and/or the low-level carriage of HBV.
Project description:Sudan is a highly endemic area for hepatitis B virus (HBV), and >5% of blood donors are chronically infected. To examine potential strategies to improve HBV blood safety, 404 replacement donor samples previously screened for HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) were tested for antibody to HBV core (anti-HBc), anti-surface antigen (anti-HBs), and HBV DNA. Of 145 anti-HBc-containing samples (36%) identified, 16 retested were HBsAg positive (11%). Anti-HBs was detected in 43/77 (56%) anti-HBc-reactive samples. Six samples were HBsAg(-)/anti-HBc(+)/anti-HBs(+) and contained HBV DNA, meeting the definition of occult HBV infection (OBI). OBIs had low HBV DNA loads (<10 IU/ml) and were genotype B (n = 1) or genotype D (n = 5). Pre-S/S and/or whole genome sequences were obtained from 47 randomly selected HBsAg-positive donors added to the previous 16. Genotype E was identified in 27 strains (57.5%), genotype D in 19 strains (40.5%), and genotype A2 in 1 strain (2%). Two outlier strains within genotype D ultimately were identified as recombinants of genotypes D and E with identical recombination points, suggesting circulating, infectious, recombinant strains. Anti-HBc screening does not appear to be a sustainable blood safety strategy because of the cost and the negative impact on the Sudanese blood supply, even when reduced by anti-HBs testing. Being at the junction between two main African HBV genotypes, genetic recombination occurred and became part of the molecular epidemiology of HBV in Sudan.