Structure and kinetic analysis of H2S production by human mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase.
ABSTRACT: Mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (MST) is a source of endogenous H2S, a gaseous signaling molecule implicated in a wide range of physiological processes. The contribution of MST versus the other two H2S generators, cystathionine β-synthase and γ-cystathionase, has been difficult to evaluate because many studies on MST have been conducted at high pH and have used varied reaction conditions. In this study, we have expressed, purified, and crystallized human MST in the presence of the substrate 3-mercaptopyruvate (3-MP). The kinetics of H2S production by MST from 3-MP was studied at pH 7.4 in the presence of various physiological persulfide acceptors: cysteine, dihydrolipoic acid, glutathione, homocysteine, and thioredoxin, and in the presence of cyanide. The crystal structure of MST reveals a mixture of the product complex containing pyruvate and an active site cysteine persulfide (Cys(248)-SSH) and a nonproductive intermediate in which 3-MP is covalently linked via a disulfide bond to an active site cysteine. The crystal structure analysis allows us to propose a detailed mechanism for MST in which an Asp-His-Ser catalytic triad is positioned to activate the nucleophilic cysteine residue and participate in general acid-base chemistry, whereas our kinetic analysis indicates that thioredoxin is likely to be the major physiological persulfide acceptor for MST.
Project description:Trichomonas vaginalis is a protozoan parasite of humans that is able to synthesize cysteine de novo using cysteine synthase but does not produce glutathione. In this study, high pressure liquid chromatography analysis confirmed that cysteine is the major intracellular redox buffer by showing that T. vaginalis contains high levels of cysteine ( approximately 600 mum) comprising more than 70% of the total thiols detected. To investigate possible mechanisms for the regulation of cysteine levels in T. vaginalis, we have characterized enzymes of the mercaptopyruvate pathway. This consists of an aspartate aminotransferase (TvAspAT1), which transaminates cysteine to form 3-mercaptopyruvate (3-MP), and mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (TvMST), which transfers the sulfur of 3-MP to a nucleophilic acceptor, generating pyruvate. TvMST has high activity with 3-MP as a sulfur donor and can use several thiol compounds as sulfur acceptor substrates. Our analysis indicated that TvMST has a k(cat)/K(m) for reduced thioredoxin of 6.2 x 10(7) m(-1) s(-1), more than 100-fold higher than that observed for beta-mercaptoethanol and cysteine, suggesting that thioredoxin is a preferred substrate for TvMST. Thiol trapping and mass spectrometry provided direct evidence for the formation of thioredoxin persulfide as a product of this reaction. The thioredoxin persulfide could serve a biological function such as the transfer of the persulfide to a target protein or the sequestered release of sulfide for biosynthesis. Changes in MST activity of T. vaginalis in response to variation in the supply of exogenous cysteine are suggestive of a role for the mercaptopyruvate pathway in the removal of excess intracellular cysteine, redox homeostasis, and antioxidant defense.
Project description:Hydrogen polysulfides (H2Sn) have a higher number of sulfane sulfur atoms than hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which has various physiological roles. We recently found H2Sn in the brain. H2Sn induced some responses previously attributed to H2S but with much greater potency than H2S. However, the number of sulfur atoms in H2Sn and its producing enzyme were unknown. Here, we detected H2S3 and H2S, which were produced from 3-mercaptopyruvate (3 MP) by 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MST), in the brain. High performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (LC-FL) and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses showed that H2S3 and H2S were produced from 3 MP in the brain cells of wild-type mice but not 3MST knockout (3MST-KO) mice. Purified recombinant 3MST and lysates of COS cells expressing 3MST produced H2S3 from 3 MP, while those expressing defective 3MST mutants did not. H2S3 was localized in the cytosol of cells. H2S3 was also produced from H2S by 3MST and rhodanese. H2S2 was identified as a minor H2Sn, and 3 MP did not affect the H2S5 level. The present study provides new insights into the physiology of H2S3 and H2S, as well as novel therapeutic targets for diseases in which these molecules are involved.
Project description:Endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which is primarily generated by 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST) in Escherichia coli (E. coli) under aerobic conditions, renders bacteria highly resistant to oxidative stress. However, the biosynthetic pathway and physiological role of this gas under anaerobic conditions remains largely unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that cysteine desulfurase (IscS), not 3-MST, is the primary source of endogenous H2S in E. coli under anaerobic conditions. A significant decrease in H2S production under anaerobic conditions was observed in E. coli upon deletion of IscS, but not in 3-MST-deficient bacteria (?mstA). Furthermore, the H2S-producing activity of recombinant IscS using L-cysteine as a substrate exhibited an approximately 2.6-fold increase in the presence of dithiothreitol (DTT), indicating that H2S production catalyzed by IscS was greatly increased under reducing conditions. The activity of IscS was regulated under the different redox conditions and the midpoint redox potential was determined to be -329 ± 1.6 mV. Moreover, in E. coli cells H2S production from IscS is regulated under oxidative and reductive stress. A mutant E. coli (?iscS) strain lacking a chromosomal copy of the IscS-encoding gene iscS showed significant growth defects and low levels of ATP under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The growth defects could be fully restored after addition of 500 ?M Na2S (an H2S donor) under anaerobic conditions, but not by the addition of cysteine, sodium sulfite or sodium sulfate. We also showed that the addition of 500 ?M Na2S to culture medium stimulates ATP synthesis in the mutant E. coli (?iscS) strain in the logarithmic growth phase but suppresses ATP synthesis in wild-type E. coli. Our results reveal a new H2S-producing pathway in E. coli under anaerobic conditions and show that hydrogen sulfide from IscS contributes to sustaining cell growth and bioenergetics under oxygen-deficient conditions.
Project description:Human mercaptolactate-cysteine disulfiduria (MCDU) was first recognized and reported in 1968. Most cases of MCDU are associated with mental retardation, while the pathogenesis remains unknown. To investigate it, we generated homozygous 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (MST: EC 126.96.36.199) knockout (KO) mice using C57BL/6 embryonic stem cells as an animal model. The MST-KO mice showed significantly increased anxiety-like behaviors with an increase in serotonin level in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), but not with abnormal morphological changes in the brain. MCDU can be caused by loss in the functional diversity of MST; first, MST functions as an antioxidant protein. MST possessing 2 redox-sensing molecular switches maintains cellular redox homeostasis. Second, MST can produce H2S (or HS(-)). Third, MST can also produce SOx. It is concluded that behavioral abnormality in MST-KO mice is caused by MST function defects such as an antioxidant insufficiency or a new transducer, H2S (or HS(-)) and/or SOx deficiency.
Project description:Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenously produced signaling molecule. The enzymes 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (MST), partly localized in mitochondria, and the inner mitochondrial membrane-associated sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (SQR), besides being respectively involved in the synthesis and catabolism of H2S, generate sulfane sulfur species such as persulfides and polysulfides, currently recognized as mediating some of the H2S biological effects. Reprogramming of H2S metabolism was reported to support cellular proliferation and energy metabolism in cancer cells. As oxidative stress is a cancer hallmark and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) was recently suggested to act as an antioxidant by increasing intracellular levels of sulfane sulfur species, here we evaluated the effect of prolonged exposure to NAC on the H2S metabolism of SW480 colon cancer cells. Cells exposed to NAC for 24 h displayed increased expression and activity of MST and SQR. Furthermore, NAC was shown to: (i) persist at detectable levels inside the cells exposed to the drug for up to 24 h and (ii) sustain H2S synthesis by human MST more effectively than cysteine, as shown working on the isolated recombinant enzyme. We conclude that prolonged exposure of colon cancer cells to NAC stimulates H2S metabolism and that NAC can serve as a substrate for human MST.
Project description:Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has emerged as a signalling molecule capable of regulating several important physiological functions such as blood pressure, neurotransmission and inflammation. The mechanisms behind these effects are still largely elusive and oxidative posttranslational modification of cysteine residues (protein persulfidation or S-sulfhydration) has been proposed as the main pathway for H2S-induced biological and pharmacological effects. As a signalling mechanism, persulfidation has to be controlled. Using an improved tag-switch assay for persulfide detection we show here that protein persulfide levels are controlled by the thioredoxin system. Recombinant thioredoxin showed an almost 10-fold higher reactivity towards cysteine persulfide than towards cystine and readily cleaved protein persulfides as well. This reaction resulted in H2S release suggesting that thioredoxin could be an important regulator of H2S levels from persulfide pools. Inhibition of the thioredoxin system caused an increase in intracellular persulfides, highlighting thioredoxin as a major protein depersulfidase that controls H2S signalling. Finally, using plasma from HIV-1 patients that have higher circulatory levels of thioredoxin, we could prove depersulfidase role in vivo.
Project description:Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) elicits pleiotropic physiological effects ranging from modulation of cardiovascular to CNS functions. A dominant method for transmission of sulfide-based signals is via posttranslational modification of reactive cysteine thiols to persulfides. However, the source of the persulfide donor and whether its relationship to H2S is as a product or precursor is controversial. The transsulfuration pathway enzymes can synthesize cysteine persulfide (Cys-SSH) from cystine and H2S from cysteine and/or homocysteine. Recently, Cys-SSH was proposed as the primary product of the transsulfuration pathway with H2S representing a decomposition product of Cys-SSH. Our detailed kinetic analyses demonstrate a robust capacity for Cys-SSH production by the human transsulfuration pathway enzymes, cystathionine beta-synthase and ?-cystathionase (CSE) and for homocysteine persulfide synthesis from homocystine by CSE only. However, in the reducing cytoplasmic milieu where the concentration of reduced thiols is significantly higher than of disulfides, substrate level regulation favors the synthesis of H2S over persulfides. Mathematical modeling at physiologically relevant hepatic substrate concentrations predicts that H2S rather than Cys-SSH is the primary product of the transsulfuration enzymes with CSE being the dominant producer. The half-life of the metastable Cys-SSH product is short and decomposition leads to a mixture of polysulfides (Cys-S-(S)n-S-Cys). These in vitro data, together with the intrinsic reactivity of Cys-SSH for cysteinyl versus sulfur transfer, are consistent with the absence of an observable increase in protein persulfidation in cells in response to exogenous cystine and evidence for the formation of polysulfides under these conditions.
Project description:There are three members of the endogenous gas transmitter family. The first two are nitric oxide and carbon monoxide, and the third newly added member is hydrogen sulfide (H2S). They all have similar functions: relaxing blood vessels, smoothing muscles, and getting involved in the regulation of neuronal excitation, learning, and memory. The cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS), 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfur transferase acts together with cysteine aminotransferase (3-MST/CAT), cystathionine ?-lyase (CSE), and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfur transferase with D-amino acid oxidase (3-MST/DAO) pathways are involved in the enzymatic production of H2S. More and more researches focus on the role of H2S in the central nervous system (CNS), and H2S plays a significant function in neuroprotection processes, regulating the function of the nervous system as a signaling molecule in the CNS. Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and protein misfolding in its mechanism are related to neurodegenerative diseases. H2S exhibits a wide variety of cytoprotective and physiological functions in the CNS degenerative diseases by regulating ERS. This review summarized on the neuroprotective effect of H2S for ERS played in several CNS diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and depression disorder, and discussed the corresponding possible signaling pathways or mechanisms as well.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is an endogenous gasotransmitter. Although it has been shown to elicit responses in vascular and other smooth muscle preparations, a role for endogenously produced H2S in mediating airway tone has yet to be demonstrated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether H2S is produced within the airways and to determine the functional effect on airway tone. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Small peripheral airways (<5 mm in diameter) from porcine lungs were set up in isolated tissue baths, pre-contracted with the muscarinic agonist carbachol, and then exposed to either the H2S donor sodium hydrosulphide (NaHS), or the precursor L-cysteine. H2S production from L-cysteine or 3-mercaptopyruvate in tissue homogenates was measured by the methylene blue assay. Expression of the H2S-synthesizing enzymes cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS), cystathionine ? lyase (CSE) and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulphurtransferase (3-MST) were measured by Western blotting. KEY RESULTS: NaHS caused a large relaxation of the airways, which was inhibited partially by pre-contraction with KCl or exposure to tetraethylammonium, but not glibenclamide, paxilline or 4-aminopyridine. L-cysteine also caused a relaxation of the airways which was inhibited by the CBS inhibitor aminooxyacetic acid. Tissue homogenates from airways exposed to L-cysteine or 3-mercaptopyruvate in vitro showed a significant production of H2S. Western blotting demonstrated immunoreactivity to CBS, CSE and 3-MST enzymes in the airways. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: These data demonstrate that H2S can be produced endogenously within porcine airways causing relaxation. The mechanism of relaxation depends, in part, on K(+) channel activity.
Project description:3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST) has emerged as one of the significant sources of biologically active sulfur species in various mammalian cells. The current study was designed to investigate the functional role of 3-MST's catalytic activity in the murine colon cancer cell line CT26. The novel pharmacological 3-MST inhibitor HMPSNE was used to assess cancer cell proliferation, migration and bioenergetics in vitro. Methods included measurements of cell viability (MTT and LDH assays), cell proliferation and in vitro wound healing (IncuCyte) and cellular bioenergetics (Seahorse extracellular flux analysis). 3-MST expression was detected by Western blotting; H2S production was measured by the fluorescent dye AzMC. The results show that CT26 cells express 3-MST protein and mRNA, as well as several enzymes involved in H2S degradation (TST, ETHE1). Pharmacological inhibition of 3-MST concentration-dependently suppressed H2S production and, at 100 and 300 µM, attenuated CT26 proliferation and migration. HMPSNE exerted a bell-shaped effect on several cellular bioenergetic parameters related to oxidative phosphorylation, while other bioenergetic parameters were either unaffected or inhibited at the highest concentration of the inhibitor tested (300 µM). In contrast to 3-MST, the expression of CBS (another H2S producing enzyme which has been previously implicated in the regulation of various biological parameters in other tumor cells) was not detectable in CT26 cells and pharmacological inhibition of CBS exerted no significant effects on CT26 proliferation or bioenergetics. In summary, 3-MST catalytic activity significantly contributes to the regulation of cellular proliferation, migration and bioenergetics in CT26 murine colon cancer cells. The current studies identify 3-MST as the principal source of biologically active H2S in this cell line.