Anti-inflammatory components from the root of Solanum erianthum.
ABSTRACT: Two new norsesquiterpenoids, solanerianones A and B (1-2), together with nine known compounds, including four sesquiterpenoids, (-)-solavetivone (3), (+)-anhydro-?-rotunol (4), solafuranone (5), lycifuranone A (6); one alkaloid, N-trans-feruloyltyramine (7); one fatty acid, palmitic acid (8); one phenylalkanoid, acetovanillone (9), and two steroids, ?-sitosterol (10) and stigmasterol (11) were isolated from the n-hexane-soluble part of the roots of Solanum erianthum. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of physical and spectroscopic data analyses. The anti-inflammatory activity of these isolates was monitored by nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells. The cytotoxicity towards human lung squamous carcinoma (CH27), human hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep 3B), human oral squamous carcinoma (HSC-3) and human melanoma (M21) cell lines was also screened by using an MTT assay. Of the compounds tested, 3 exhibited the strongest NO inhibition with the average maximum inhibition (Emax) at 100 ?M and median inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 98.23% ± 0.08% and 65.54 ± 0.18 ?M, respectively. None of compounds (1-9) was found to possess cytotoxic activity against human cancer cell lines at concentrations up to 30 ?M.
Project description:1. This study demonstrated aloe-emodin- and emodin-induced apoptosis in lung carcinoma cell lines CH27 (human lung squamous carcinoma cell) and H460 (human lung non-small cell carcinoma cell). Aloe-emodin- and emodin-induced apoptosis was characterized by nuclear morphological changes and DNA fragmentation. 2. During apoptosis, an increase in cytochrome c of cytosolic fraction and activation of caspase-3, identified by the cleavage of its proform, were observed. 3. To elucidate whether the expression of protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes are involved in aloe-emodin- and emodin-induced apoptosis, this study examined the changes of PKC isozymes by Western blotting techniques during aloe-emodin- and emodin-induced apoptosis. 4. The expression of PKC isozymes involved in aloe-emodin- and emodin-induced apoptosis of CH27 and H460 cells. In this study, aloe-emodin and emodin induced the changes of each of PKC isozymes in CH27 and H460 cells. 5. The decrease in the expression of PKC delta and epsilon may play a critical role in aloe-emodin- and emodin-induced apoptosis in CH27 and H460 cells. 6. The present study also demonstrated that PKC stimulation occurs at a site downstream of caspase-3 in the emodin-mediated apoptotic pathway.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Our previous study demonstrated that 6-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)-2-(3-methoxyphenyl)quinazolin-4-one (HMJ38) was a potent anti-tubulin agent. Here, HMJ38 was used as a lead compound to develop more potent anti-cancer agents and to examine the anti-cancer mechanisms. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Using computer-aided drug design, 2-aryl-6-substituted quinazolinones (MJ compounds) were designed and synthesized by introducing substituents at C-2 and C-6 positions of HMJ38. The cytotoxicity of MJ compounds towards human cancer cells was examined by Trypan blue exclusion assay. Microtubule distribution was visualized using TubulinTracker(TM) Green reagent. Protein expression of cell cycle regulators and JNK was assessed by Western blot analysis. KEY RESULTS: Compounds MJ65-70 exhibited strong anti-proliferative effects towards melanoma M21, lung squamous carcinoma CH27, lung non-small carcinoma H460, hepatoma Hep3B and oral cancer HSC-3 cells, with one compund MJ66 (6-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)-2-(naphthalen-1-yl)quinazolin-4-one) highly active against M21 cells (IC50 about 0.033??M). Treatment of CH27 or HSC-3 cells with MJ65-70 resulted in significant mitotic arrest accompanied by increasing multiple asters of microtubules. JNK protein expression was involved in the MJ65-70-induced CH27 and M21 cell death. Consistent with the cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase, marked increases in cyclin B1 and Bcl-2 phosphorylation were also observed, after treatment with MJ65-70. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATION: MJ65-70 are dual-targeted, tubulin- and JNK-binding, anti-cancer agents and induce cancer cell death through up-regulation of JNK and interfering in the dynamics of tubulin. Our work provides a new strategy and mechanism for developing dual-targeted anti-cancer drugs, contributing to clinical anti-cancer drug discovery and application.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The Lonicera japonica has been used as natural and healthy drink for its anti-inflammatory effect and pleasant odor in China and Taiwan. METHODS: 2D electrophoresis was used to analyze the proteins involved in photoactivated Lonicera japonica-induced CH27 cell apoptosis. The fluorescent dyes MitoTracker Red CMXRos, calcein AM and JC-1 were used to elucidate mitochondrial function. The protein expression was performed by Western blotting. Fluorescent image of endoplasmic reticulum was accomplished by using ER-Tracker Green. This study used fluorescent dye CM-H2DCFDA to detect intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species. RESULTS: The identified proteins can be classified into three major groups, which include proteins involved in mitochondrial function, cytoskeleton-related proteins and proteins associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Photoactivated Lonicera japonica caused a significant effect on the mitochondrial function and ER stress in CH27 cells. The reactive oxygen species producing was found to be involved in photoactivated Lonicera japonica-induced CH27 cell apoptosis. CONCLUSION: Mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum are the integral targets in photoactivated Lonicera japonica-induced CH27 cell apoptosis. We also demonstrated that ethyl acetate fraction of Lonicera japonica extracts caused photocytotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner in CH27 cells. This could explain the fact that the ethyl acetate fraction of Lonicera japonica extracts may contain compounds which exhibit the photosensitizing activity in CH27 cells.
Project description:Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci 6605 has two multidrug resistance (MDR) efflux pump transporters, MexAB-OprM and MexEF-OprN. To understand the role of these MDR efflux pumps in virulence, we generated deletion mutants, ?mexB, ?mexF, and ?mexB?mexF, and investigated their sensitivity to plant-derived antimicrobial compounds, antibiotics, and virulence. Growth inhibition assays with KB soft agar plate showed that growth of the wild-type (WT) was inhibited by 5 µl of 1 M catechol and 1 M coumarin but not by other plant-derived potential antimicrobial compounds tested including phytoalexins. The sensitivity to these compounds tended to increase in ?mexB and ?mexB?mexF mutants. The ?mexB?mexF mutant was also sensitive to 2 M acetovanillone. The mexAB-oprM was constitutively expressed, and activated in the ?mexF and ?mexB?mexF mutant strains. The swarming and swimming motilities were impaired in ?mexF and ?mexB?mexF mutants. The flood inoculation test indicated that bacterial populations in all mutant strains were significantly lower than that of WT, although all mutants and WT caused similar disease symptoms. These results indicate that MexAB-OprM extrudes plant-derived catechol, acetovanillone, or coumarin, and contributes to bacterial virulence. Furthermore, MexAB-OprM and MexEF-OprN complemented each other's functions to some extent.
Project description:Five phenolic compounds, namely N-trans-coumaroyltyramine (1), N-trans-feruloyltyramine (2), N-trans-feruloyloctopamine (3), 5,7-dihydroxy-8-methoxyflavone (4) and (3S)3,5,4'-trihydroxy-7-methoxy-6-methylhomoisoflavanone (5), were isolated from the fibrous roots of Liriope muscari (Liliaceae). Compounds 2-5 were isolated for the first time from the Liriope genus. Their in vitro antioxidant activities were assessed by the DPPH and ABTS scavenging methods with microplate assays. The structure-activity relationships of compounds 1-3 are discussed.
Project description:Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin is the second most common cutaneous malignancy. Despite various available treatment methods and advances in noninvasive diagnostic techniques, the incidence of metastatic cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma is rising. Deficiency in effective preventive or treatment methods of transformed keratinocytes leads to necessity of searching for new anticancer agents. The present study aims to evaluate the possibility of using wool hydrolysates as such agents. Commercially available compounds such as 5-fluorouracil, ingenol mebutate, diclofenac sodium salt were also used in this study. The process of wool degradation was based on chemical pre-activation and enzymatic digestion of wool. The effect of mentioned compounds on cell viability of squamous carcinoma cell line and healthy keratinocytes was evaluated. The obtained data show a significantly stronger effect of selected wool hydrolysates compared to commercial compounds (p<0.05) on viability of cells. The wool hydrolysates decreased squamous cell carcinoma cells viability by up to 67% comparing to untreated cells. These results indicate bioactive properties of wool hydrolysates, which affect the viability of squamous carcinoma cells and decrease their number. We hypothesize that these agents may be used topically for treatment of transformed keratinocytes in actinic keratosis and invasive squamous skin cancer in humans.
Project description:Anoctamin1 (ANO1), a calcium-activated chloride channel, is frequently overexpressed in several cancers, including human prostate cancer and oral squamous cell carcinomas. ANO1 plays a critical role in tumor growth and maintenance of these cancers. In this study, we have isolated two new compounds (1 and 2) and four known compounds (3-6) from Mallotus apelta. These compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on ANO1 channel activity and their cytotoxic effects on PC-3 prostate cancer cells. Interestingly, compounds 1 and 2 significantly reduced both ANO1 channel activity and cell viability. Electrophysiological study revealed that compound 2 (Ani-D2) is a potent and selective ANO1 inhibitor, with an IC50 value of 2.64 ?M. Ani-D2 had minimal effect on cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel activity and intracellular calcium signaling. Notably, Ani-D2 significantly reduced ANO1 protein expression levels and cell viability in an ANO1-dependent manner in PC-3 and oral squamous cell carcinoma CAL-27 cells. In addition, Ani-D2 strongly reduced cell migration and induced activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of PARP in PC-3 and CAL-27 cells. This study revealed that a novel ANO1 inhibitor, Ani-D2, has therapeutic potential for the treatment of several cancers that overexpress ANO1, such as prostate cancer and oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Project description:Targeting autophagic pathways might play a critical role in designing novel chemotherapeutic approaches in the treatment of human cancers, and the prevention of tumor-derived chemoresistance. Marine compounds were found to decrease tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Some of them were shown to induce autophagic flux in tumor cells. In this study, we observed that the selected marine life-derived compounds (Chromomycin A2, Psammaplin A, and Ilimaquinone) induce expression of several autophagic signaling intermediates in human squamous cell carcinoma, glioblastoma, and colorectal carcinoma cells in vitro through a transcriptional regulation by tumor protein (TP)-p53 family members. These conclusions were supported by specific qPCR expression analysis, luciferase reporter promoter assay, and chromatin immunoprecipitation of promoter sequences bound to the TP53 family proteins, and silencing of the TP53 members in tumor cells.
Project description:Recently, squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck chemoprevention research has made major advances with novel clinical trial designs suited for the purpose, use of biomarkers to identify high-risk patients, and the emergence of numerous molecularly targeted agents and natural dietary compounds. Among many natural compounds, green tea polyphenols, particularly (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), possess remarkable potential as chemopreventive agents. EGCG modulates several key molecular signaling pathways at multiple levels and has synergistic or additive effects when combined with many other natural or synthetic compounds. This review will provide an update of the potential of green tea polyphenols, particularly EGCG, for the chemoprevention of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.
Project description:Oncogenic mutations in the PI3K/AKT pathway are present in nearly half of human tumors. Nonetheless, inhibitory compounds of the pathway often induce pathway rebound and tumor resistance. We find that lung squamous cell carcinoma (SQCC), which accounts for ~20% of lung cancer, exhibits increased expression of the PI3K subunit PIK3R2, which is at low expression levels in normal tissues. We tested a new approach to interfere with PI3K/AKT pathway activation in lung SQCC. We generated tumor xenografts of SQCC cell lines and examined the consequences of targeting PIK3R2 expression. In tumors with high PIK3R2 expression, and independently of PIK3CA, KRAS, or PTEN mutations, PIK3R2 depletion induced lung SQCC xenograft regression without triggering PI3K/AKT pathway rebound. These results validate the use PIK3R2 interfering tools for the treatment of lung squamous cell carcinoma.