Changes in natural Foxp3(+)Treg but not mucosally-imprinted CD62L(neg)CD38(+)Foxp3(+)Treg in the circulation of celiac disease patients.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Celiac disease (CD) is an intestinal inflammation driven by gluten-reactive CD4(+) T cells. Due to lack of selective markers it has not been determined whether defects in inducible regulatory T cell (Treg) differentiation are associated with CD. This is of importance as changes in numbers of induced Treg could be indicative of defects in mucosal tolerance development in CD. Recently, we have shown that, after encounter of retinoic acid during differentiation, circulating gut-imprinted T cells express CD62L(neg)CD38(+). Using this new phenotype, we now determined whether alterations occur in the frequency of natural CD62L(+)Foxp3(+) Treg or mucosally-imprinted CD62L(neg)CD38(+)Foxp3(+) Treg in peripheral blood of CD patients. In particular, we compared pediatric CD, aiming to select for disease at onset, with adult CD. METHODS: Cell surface markers, intracellular Foxp3 and Helios were determined by flow cytometry. Foxp3 expression was also detected by immunohistochemistry in duodenal tissue of CD patients. RESULTS: In children, the percentages of peripheral blood CD4(+)Foxp3(+) Treg were comparable between CD patients and healthy age-matched controls. Differentiation between natural and mucosally-imprinted Treg on the basis of CD62L and CD38 did not uncover differences in Foxp3. In adult patients on gluten-free diet and in refractory CD increased percentages of circulating natural CD62L(+)Foxp3(+) Treg, but normal mucosally-imprinted CD62L(neg)CD38(+)Foxp3(+) Treg frequencies were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Our data exclude that significant numeric deficiency of mucosally-imprinted or natural Foxp3(+) Treg explains exuberant effector responses in CD. Changes in natural Foxp3(+) Treg occur in a subset of adult patients on a gluten-free diet and in refractory CD patients.
Project description:The aim of this study was to identify new markers of mucosal T cells to monitor ongoing intestinal immune responses in peripheral blood.Expression of cell-surface markers was studied in mice on ovalbumin (OVA)-specific T cells in the gut-draining mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) after OVA feed. The effect of the local mucosal mediators retinoic acid (RA) and transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) on the induction of a mucosal phenotype was determined in in vitro T-cell differentiation assays with murine and human T cells. Tetramer stainings were performed to study gluten-specific T cells in the circulation of patients with celiac disease, a chronic small-intestinal inflammation.In mice, proliferating T cells in MLN were CD62L(neg)CD38(+) during both tolerance induction and abrogation of intestinal homeostasis. This mucosal CD62L(neg)CD38(+) T-cell phenotype was efficiently induced by RA and TGF-? in mice, whereas for human CD4(+) T cells RA alone was sufficient. The CD4(+)CD62L(neg)CD38(+) T-cell phenotype could be used to identify T cells with mucosal origin in human peripheral blood, as expression of the gut-homing chemokine receptor CCR9 and ?(7) integrin were highly enriched in this subset whereas expression of cutaneous leukocyte-associated antigen was almost absent. Tetramer staining revealed that gluten-specific T cells appearing in blood of treated celiac disease patients after oral gluten challenge were predominantly CD4(+)CD62L(neg)CD38(+). The total percentage of circulating CD62L(neg)CD38(+) of CD4 T cells was not an indicator of intestinal inflammation as percentages did not differ between pediatric celiac disease patients, inflammatory bowel disease patients and respective controls. However, the phenotypic selection of mucosal T cells allowed cytokine profiling as upon restimulation of CD62L(neg)CD38(+) cells interleukin-10 (IL-10) and interferon-? (IFN-?) transcripts were readily detected in circulating mucosal T cells.By selecting for CD62L(neg)CD38(+) expression that comprises 5-10% of the cells within the total CD4(+) T-cell pool we are able to highly enrich for effector T cells with specificity for mucosal antigens. This is of pivotal importance for functional studies as this purification enhances the sensitivity of cytokine detection and cellular activation.
Project description:OBJECTIVES: The role of T lymphocytes in the pathogenesis of Celiac disease (CD) is well established. However, the mechanisms of T-cell involvement remain elusive. Little is known on the distribution of T subpopulations: T-regulatory (Treg), Th17, CD103, and CD62L cells at disease onset and after gluten-free diet (GFD). We investigated the involvement of several T subpopulations in the pathogenesis of CD. METHODS: We studied T cells both in the peripheral blood (PB) and the tissue-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) from the mucosa of 14 CD patients at presentation and after a GFD, vs. 12 controls. RESULTS: Our results extend the involvement of Treg, Th1, and Th17 cells in active CD inflammation both in the PB and at the TILs. At baseline, Tregs, Th1, and Th17 cells are significantly higher in active CD patients in TILs and PB. They decreased after diet. Moreover, CD62L+ TILs were increased at diagnosis as compared with GFD patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show significant modifications of the above-mentioned subpopulations both in the PB and TILs. The increase of suppressive Tregs in active CD both in the PB and TILs is intriguing. T lymphocytes are known to have a crucial role in the pathogenesis of CD. We have shown that gluten trigger results in systemic recruitment of T lymphocytes, the unbalance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory populations and the increase of CD62L+ T cells in TILs. Our results delineate a more complete picture of T-cell subsets in active vs. GFD disease. Our data of T-cell subpopulations, combined with known data on cytokine production, support the concept that duodenal micro-environment acts as an immunological niche and this recognition may have an important role in the diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutical approach of CD.
Project description:Human CD4(+) CD39(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells hydrolyze exogenous adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and participate in immunosuppressive adenosine production. They contain two T-cell subsets whose role in mediating suppression is not understood. Frequencies of both CD4(+) CD39(+) subsets were evaluated in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 57 cancer patients and in tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) of 6 patients. CD4(+) CD39(+) and CD4(+) CD39(neg) T cells isolated using immunobeads and cell sorting were cultured under various conditions. Their conversion into CD39(+) FOXP3(+) CD25(+) or CD39(+) FOX(neg) CD25(neg) cells was monitored by multiparameter flow cytometry. Hydrolysis of exogenous ATP was measured in luminescence assays. Two CD4(+) CD39(+) cell subsets differing in expression of CD25, FOXP3, CTLA-4, CD121a, PD-1, latency associated peptide (LAP), glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP), and the cytokine profile accumulated with equal frequencies in the blood and tumor tissues of cancer patients. The frequency of both subsets was significantly increased in cancer. CD39 expression levels correlated with the subsets' ability to hydrolyze ATP. Conventional CD4(+) CD39(neg) T cells incubated with IL-2 + TGF-? expanded to generate CD4(+) CD39(+) FOXP3(+) Treg cells, while CD4(+) CD39(+) FOXP3(neg) CD25(neg) subset cells stimulated via the TCR and IL-2 converted to FOXP3(+) CTLA4(+) CD25(+) TGF-?-expressing Treg cells. Among CD4(+) CD39(+) Treg cells, the CD4(+) CD39(+) FOXP3(neg) CD25(neg) subset serves as a reservoir of cells able to convert to Treg cells upon activation by environmental signals.
Project description:Previous studies suggest that thymus produces a homogenous population of natural regulatory T (Treg) cells that express a transcriptional factor FOXP3 and control autoimmunity through a cell-contact-dependent mechanism. We found two subsets of FOXP3+ natural Treg cells defined by the expression of the costimulatory molecule ICOS in the human thymus and periphery. Whereas the ICOS+FOXP3+ Treg cells used interleukin-10 to suppress dendritic cell function and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta to suppress T cell function, the ICOS-FOXP3+ Treg cells used TGF-beta only. The survival and proliferation of the two subsets of Treg cells were differentially regulated by signaling through ICOS or CD28, respectively. We suggest that the selection of natural Treg cells in thymus is coupled with Treg cell differentiation into two subsets imprinted with different cytokine expression potentials and use both cell-contact-dependent and independent mechanisms for immunosuppression in periphery.
Project description:The immunosuppressive drug rapamycin (RAPA) promotes the expansion of CD4(+) CD25(high)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells via mechanisms that remain unknown. Here, we studied expansion, IL-2R-gamma chain signaling, survival pathways and resistance to apoptosis in human Treg responding to RAPA.CD4(+)CD25(+) and CD4(+)CD25(neg) T cells were isolated from PBMC of normal controls (n = 21) using AutoMACS. These T cell subsets were cultured in the presence of anti-CD3/CD28 antibodies and 1000 IU/mL IL-2 for 3 to 6 weeks. RAPA (1-100 nM) was added to half of the cultures. After harvest, the cell phenotype, signaling via the PI3K/mTOR and STAT pathways, expression of survival proteins and Annexin V binding were determined and compared to values obtained with freshly-separated CD4(+)CD25(high) and CD4(+)CD25(neg) T cells. Suppressor function was tested in co-cultures with autologous CFSE-labeled CD4(+)CD25(neg) or CD8(+)CD25(neg) T-cell responders. The frequency and suppressor activity of Treg were increased after culture of CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells in the presence of 1-100 nM RAPA (p<0.001). RAPA-expanded Treg were largely CD4(+)CD25(high)Foxp3(+) cells and were resistant to apoptosis, while CD4(+)CD25(neg) T cells were sensitive. Only Treg upregulated anti-apoptotic and down-regulated pro-apoptotic proteins. Treg expressed higher levels of the PTEN protein than CD4(+)CD25(neg) cells. Activated Treg+/-RAPA preferentially phosphorylated STAT5 and STAT3 and did not utilize the PI3K/mTOR pathway.RAPA favors Treg expansion and survival by differentially regulating signaling, proliferation and sensitivity to apoptosis of human effector T cells and Treg after TCR/IL-2 activation.
Project description:The peripheral Foxp3(+) Treg pool consists of naturally arising Treg (nTreg) and adaptive Treg cells (iTreg). It is well known that naive CD4(+) T cells can be readily converted to Foxp3(+) iTreg in vitro, and memory CD4(+) T cells are resistant to conversion. In this study, we investigated the induction of Foxp3(+) T cells from various CD4(+) T-cell subsets in human peripheral blood. Though naive CD4(+) T cells were readily converted to Foxp3(+) T cells with TGF-? and IL-2 treatment in vitro, such Foxp3(+) T cells did not express the memory marker CD45RO as do Foxp3(+) T cells induced in the peripheral blood of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) patients. Interestingly, a subset of human memory CD4(+) T cells, defined as CD62L(+) central memory T cells, could be induced by TGF-? to differentiate into Foxp3(+) T cells. It is well known that Foxp3(+) T cells derived from human CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells in vitro are lack suppressive functions. Our data about the suppressive functions of CD4(+)CD62L(+) central memory T cell-derived Foxp3(+) T cells support this conception, and an epigenetic analysis of these cells showed a similar methylation pattern in the FOXP3 Treg-specific demethylated region as the naive CD4(+) T cell-derived Foxp3(+) T cells. But further research showed that mouse CD4(+) central memory T cells also could be induced to differentiate into Foxp3(+) T cells, such Foxp3(+) T cells could suppress the proliferation of effector T cells. Thus, our study identified CD4(+)CD62L(+) central memory T cells as a novel potential source of iTreg.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIM:Thymus-derived regulatory T cells (Tregs) mediate dominant peripheral tolerance and treat experimental colitis. Tregs can be expanded from patient blood and were safely used in recent phase 1 studies in graft versus host disease and type 1 diabetes. Treg cell therapy is also conceptually attractive for Crohn's disease (CD). However, barriers exist to this approach. The stability of Tregs expanded from Crohn's blood is unknown. The potential for adoptively transferred Tregs to express interleukin-17 and exacerbate Crohn's lesions is of concern. Mucosal T cells are resistant to Treg-mediated suppression in active CD. The capacity for expanded Tregs to home to gut and lymphoid tissue is unknown. METHODS:To define the optimum population for Treg cell therapy in CD, CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(lo)CD45RA(+) and CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(lo)CD45RA(-) Treg subsets were isolated from patients' blood and expanded in vitro using a workflow that can be readily transferred to a good manufacturing practice background. RESULTS:Tregs can be expanded from the blood of patients with CD to potential target dose within 22-24?days. Expanded CD45RA(+) Tregs have an epigenetically stable FOXP3 locus and do not convert to a Th17 phenotype in vitro, in contrast to CD45RA(-) Tregs. CD45RA(+) Tregs highly express ?4?7 integrin, CD62L and CC motif receptor 7 (CCR7). CD45RA(+) Tregs also home to human small bowel in a C.B-17 severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) xenotransplant model. Importantly, in vitro expansion enhances the suppressive ability of CD45RA(+) Tregs. These cells also suppress activation of lamina propria and mesenteric lymph node lymphocytes isolated from inflamed Crohn's mucosa. CONCLUSIONS:CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(lo)CD45RA(+) Tregs may be the most appropriate population from which to expand Tregs for autologous Treg therapy for CD, paving the way for future clinical trials.
Project description:The PI3K pathway has emerged as a key regulator of regulatory T cell (Treg) development and homeostasis and is required for full Treg-mediated suppression. To identify new genes involved in PI3K-dependent suppression, we compared the transcriptome of WT and p110?(D910A) Tregs. Among the genes that were differentially expressed was the gene for the transmembrane cyclic ADP ribose hydrolase CD38. Here we show that CD38 is expressed mainly by a subset of Foxp3(+)CD25(+)CD4(+) T cells originating in the thymus and on Tregs in the spleen. CD38(high) WT Tregs showed superior suppressive activity to CD38(low) Tregs, which failed to upregulate CD73, a surface protein which is important for suppression. However, Tregs from heterozygous CD38(+/-) mice were unimpaired despite lower levels of CD38 expression. Therefore, CD38 can be used as a marker for Tregs with high suppressive activity and the impaired Treg function in p110?(D910A) mice can in part be explained by the failure of CD38(high) cells to develop.
Project description:CD103 (alphaEbeta7) has been shown to be an excellent marker for identifying in vivo-activated FoxP3(+)CD4(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells. It is unknown whether reinfusion of in vivo-activated donor-type CD103(+) Treg cells from recipient can ameliorate ongoing chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Here, we showed that, in a chronic GVHD model of DBA/2 (H-2(d)) donor to BALB/c (H-2(d)) recipient, donor-type CD103(+) Treg cells from recipients were much more potent than CD25(hi) natural Treg cells from donors in reversing clinical signs of GVHD and tissue damage. Furthermore, in contrast to CD25(hi) natural Treg cells, CD103(+) Treg cells expressed high levels of CCR5 but low levels of CD62L and directly migrated to GVHD target tissues. In addition, the CD103(+) Treg cells strongly suppressed donor CD4(+) T-cell proliferation; they also induced apoptosis of in vivo-activated CD4(+) T and B cells and significantly reduced pathogenic T and B cells in GVHD target tissues. These results indicate that CD103(+) Treg cells from chronic GVHD recipients are functional, and reinfusion of the CD103(+) Treg cells can shift the balance between Treg cells and pathogenic T cells in chronic GVHD recipients and ameliorate ongoing disease.