Comparing two types of macrolide antibiotics for the purpose of assessing population-based drug interactions.
ABSTRACT: Clarithromycin strongly inhibits enzyme cytochrome P450 3A4, preventing the metabolism of some other drugs, while azithromycin is a weak inhibitor. Accordingly, blood concentrations of other drugs increase with clarithromycin coprescription leading to adverse events. These macrolide antibiotics also differ on other properties that may impact outcomes. In this study, we compared outcomes in two groups of macrolide antibiotic users in the absence of potentially interacting drugs.Population-based retrospective cohort study.Ontario, Canada, from 2003 to 2010.Patients (mean 74 years) prescribed clarithromycin (n=52 251) or azithromycin (referent group, n=46 618).The primary outcomes were hospital admission within 30 days of a new antibiotic prescription with any of the 12 conditions examined separately (acute kidney injury, acute myocardial infarction, neuroimaging (proxy for delirium), hypotension, syncope, hyperkalaemia, hyponatraemia, hyperglycaemia, arrhythmia, ischaemic stroke, gastrointestinal bleeding and sepsis). The secondary outcome was mortality.The baseline characteristics of the two groups, including patient demographics, comorbid conditions, infection type and prescribing physician specialty, were nearly identical. The median daily dose was 1000 mg for clarithromycin and 300 mg for azithromycin and the median duration of dispensing antibiotics was 10 and 5 days, respectively. There was no difference between the groups in the risk of hospitalisation for any condition studied (relative risk ranged from 0.67 to 1.23). Compared with azithromycin, clarithromycin was associated with a slightly higher risk of all-cause mortality (0.46% vs 0.37%, relative risk 1.25, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.52).Clarithromycin can be used to assess drug interactions in population-based studies with azithromycin serving as a control group. However, any differences in mortality observed between the two antibiotic groups in the setting of other drug use may be partially attributable to factors beyond the inhibition of drug metabolising enzymes and transporters, as the difference for this outcome was significant.
Project description:Background:Calcineurin inhibitors (CNI; cyclosporine, tacrolimus) are critical for kidney transplant immunosuppression, but have multiple potential drug interactions, such as with macrolide antibiotics. Macrolide antibiotics (clarithromycin, erythromycin, and azithromycin) are often used to treat atypical infections. Clarithromycin and erythromycin inhibit CNI metabolism and increase the risk of CNI nephrotoxicity, while azithromycin does not. Objective:To determine the frequency of CNI-macrolide co-prescriptions, the proportion who receive post-prescription monitoring, and the risk of adverse drug events in kidney transplant recipients. Design:Retrospective cohort study. Setting:We used linked health care databases in Alberta, Canada. Patients:We included 293 adult kidney transplant recipients from 2008-2015 who were co-prescribed a CNI and macrolide. Measurements:The primary outcome was a composite of all-cause hospitalization, acute kidney injury (creatinine increase ?0.3 mg/dL or 1.5 times baseline), or death within 30 days of the macrolide prescription. Methods:We identified CNI-macrolide co-prescriptions and compared outcomes in those who received clarithromycin/erythromycin versus azithromycin. We used a linear mixed-effects model to examine the mean change in serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Results:Of the 293 recipients who were co-prescribed a CNI and a macrolide, 38% (n = 112) were prescribed clarithromycin/erythromycin while 62% (n = 181) were prescribed azithromycin. Compared with azithromycin users, clarithromycin/erythromycin users were less likely to have outpatient serum creatinine monitoring post-prescription (56% vs 69%, P = .03). There was no significant difference in the primary outcome between the 2 groups (17% vs 11%, P = .11); however, the risk of all-cause hospitalization was higher in the clarithromycin/erythromycin group (10% vs 3%, P = .02). The mean decrement in eGFR was significantly greater in the clarithromycin/erythromycin versus azithromycin group (-5.4 vs -1.9 mL/min/1.73 m2, P < .05). Limitations:We did not have CNI levels to correlate with the timing of CNI-macrolide co-prescriptions. We also did not have information regarding the indications for macrolide prescriptions. Conclusion:Clarithromycin and erythromycin were frequently co-prescribed in kidney transplant recipients on CNIs despite known drug interactions. Clarithromycin/erythromycin use was associated with a higher risk of hospitalization compared with azithromycin users. Safer prescribing practices in kidney transplant recipients are warranted.
Project description:Many respiratory tract infections are treated with macrolide antibiotics. Regulatory agencies warn that these antibiotics increase the risk of ventricular arrhythmia. We examined the 30-day risk of ventricular arrhythmia and all-cause mortality associated with macrolide antibiotics relative to nonmacrolide antibiotics.We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study involving older adults (age > 65 yr) with a new prescription for an oral macrolide antibiotic (azithromycin, clarithromycin or erythromycin) in Ontario from 2002 to 2013. Our primary outcome was a hospital encounter with ventricular arrhythmia within 30 days after a new prescription. Our secondary outcome was 30-day all-cause mortality. We matched patients 1:1 using propensity scores to patients prescribed nonmacrolide antibiotics (amoxicillin, cefuroxime or levofloxacin). We used conditional logistic regression to measure the association between macrolide exposure and outcomes, and repeated the analysis in 4 subgroups defined by the presence or absence of chronic kidney disease, congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease and concurrent use of a drug known to prolong the QT interval.Compared with nonmacrolide antibiotics, macrolide antibiotics were not associated with a higher risk of ventricular arrhythmia (0.03% v. 0.03%; relative risk [RR] 1.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.83-1.36) and were associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality (0.62% v. 0.76%; RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.78-0.86). These associations were similar in all subgroups.Among older adults, macrolide antibiotics were not associated with a higher 30-day risk of ventricular arrhythmia than nonmacrolide antibiotics. These findings suggest that current warnings from the US Food and Drug Administration may be overstated.
Project description:Studies reporting an increased risk for cardiac toxicities with macrolide antibiotics have raised concern regarding their cardiovascular safety. We sought to assess the cardiac safety of macrolide antibiotics as a class and of the individual agents by conducting a systematic review and network meta-analysis. Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched up to February 2018 for studies reporting on cardiovascular outcomes with macrolides. We followed the PRISMA 2009 guidelines for data selection and extraction. Outcomes were pooled using random-effects models and odds ratios (OR), and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for arrhythmia, cardiovascular death, and myocardial infarction (MI). A total of 33 studies and data on 22,601,032 subjects were retrieved and included in the current meta-analyses. Macrolide use was not associated with the risk of arrhythmia or cardiovascular mortality. In the primary analysis, macrolide use was associated with a small but statistically significant 15% increase in risk for MI (OR = 1.15 [95% CI, 1.01 to 1.30]). In indirect network meta-analysis, erythromycin and clarithromycin were ranked considerably more likely to be associated with a higher risk for MI and significantly associated with increased risk of MI compared to azithromycin (OR = 1.58 [95% CI, 1.18 to 2.11] and OR = 1.41 [95% CI, 1.11 to 1.81], respectively). Our findings indicate that macrolide antibiotics as a group are associated with a significant risk for MI but not for arrhythmia and cardiovascular mortality. Among the macrolides, erythromycin and clarithromycin were associated with a greater risk of MI. However, it is possible that the association between macrolide use and risk of MI is the result of residual confounding.
Project description:The macrolide antibiotics azithromycin and clarithromycin are large molecular weight compounds that exhibit moderate to excellent oral bioavailability in preclinical species and humans. Previous concomitant dosing studies in rats using rifamycin SV, a general organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) inhibitor, suggested that the high oral absorption of azithromycin and clarithromycin may be caused by facilitative uptake by intestinal Oatps. In this study, we used OATP/Oatp-expressing cells to investigate the interaction of macrolides with rat Oatp1a5, human OATP1A2, and human/rat OATP2B1/Oatp2b1. These experiments showed that azithromycin and clarithromycin were potent inhibitors of rat Oatp1a5-mediated taurocholate uptake with apparent inhibitor constant (K(i)) values of 3.3 and 2.4 microM, respectively. The macrolides functioned as noncompetitive inhibitors but were not transport substrates for rat Oatp1a5, as assessed by direct uptake measurements of radiolabeled azithromycin and clarithromycin. cis-Inhibition and direct uptake studies further showed that azithromycin and clarithromycin were only very weak inhibitors and not substrates for human OATP1A2 and human/rat OATP2B1/Oatp2b1. In summary, these results indicate that the macrolides azithromycin and clarithromycin potently inhibit rat Oatp1a5 but do not significantly interact with OATP1A2 and OATP2B1/Oatp2b1. These intestinally expressed OATP/Oatp(s) are not responsible for the postulated facilitative uptake of azithromycin and clarithromycin, and alternative facilitative pathways must exist for their intestinal absorption.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Antibiotics have been routinely used for several decades against Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), but antibiotic resistance of P. acnes is becoming a global problem. Only one related Chinese study is available. The aim of this study was to assess the antibiotic susceptibility of P. acnes obtained from patients with acne in Southwest China. DESIGN:This was a prospective cross-sectional study. Cutaneous samples were obtained from acne lesions on the face of 375 patients. Samples were cultured in anaerobic medium to identify the presence of P. acnes. Susceptibility tests of isolated P. acnes were performed for tetracycline, doxycycline, clindamycin, erythromycin, azithromycin and clarithromycin using the Epsilometer test. RESULTS:P. acnes was isolated from 227 patients; 224 isolates (98.7%) were susceptible to doxycycline and 220 (96.9%) were susceptible to tetracycline, followed by clindamycin and clarithromycin in 101 (44.5%) and 102 (44.93%) isolates, respectively. Susceptibility of P. acnes was detected for erythromycin in 96 (42.3%) patients, followed by azithromycin in 94 (41.4%). Subjects who received antibiotics (topical and oral) had higher frequencies of antibiotic-resistant P. acnes as well as increased antibiotic minimum inhibitory concentrations compared with patients without antibiotic treatment. CONCLUSIONS:P. acnes was highly sensitive to cyclines (doxycycline and tetracycline). P. acnes showed higher resistance rates to macrolides-lincosamides-streptogramins antibiotics (such as erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin and clindamycin). The irrational use of antibiotics for acne treatment is probably a problem in China and elsewhere. These results suggest that dermatologists should be more prudent in prescribing antibiotics for acne.
Project description:Macrolides represent a large family of protein synthesis inhibitors of great clinical interest due to their applicability to human medicine. Macrolides are composed of a macrocyclic lactone of different ring sizes, to which one or more deoxy-sugar or amino sugar residues are attached. Macrolides act as antibiotics by binding to bacterial 50S ribosomal subunit and interfering with protein synthesis. The high affinity of macrolides for bacterial ribosomes, together with the highly conserved structure of ribosomes across virtually all of the bacterial species, is consistent with their broad-spectrum activity. Since the discovery of the progenitor macrolide, erythromycin, in 1950, many derivatives have been synthesised, leading to compounds with better bioavailability and acid stability and improved pharmacokinetics. These efforts led to the second generation of macrolides, including well-known members such as azithromycin and clarithromycin. Subsequently, in order to address increasing antibiotic resistance, a third generation of macrolides displaying improved activity against many macrolide resistant strains was developed. However, these improvements were accompanied with serious side effects, leading to disappointment and causing many researchers to stop working on macrolide derivatives, assuming that this procedure had reached the end. In contrast, a recent published breakthrough introduced a new chemical platform for synthesis and discovery of a wide range of diverse macrolide antibiotics. This chemical synthesis revolution, in combination with reduction in the side effects, namely, 'Ketek effects', has led to a macrolide renaissance, increasing the hope for novel and safe therapeutic agents to combat serious human infectious diseases.
Project description:Laboratory studies have suggested that antibiotic resistance may result in decreased fitness in the bacteria that harbor it. Observational studies have supported this, but due to ethical and practical considerations, it is rare to have experimental control over antibiotic prescription rates.We analyze data from a 54-month longitudinal trial that monitored pneumococcal drug resistance during and after biannual mass distribution of azithromycin for the elimination of the blinding eye disease, trachoma. Prescription of azithromycin and antibiotics that can create cross-resistance to it is rare in this part of the world. As a result, we were able to follow trends in resistance with minimal influence from unmeasured antibiotic use. Using these data, we fit a probabilistic disease transmission model that included two resistant strains, corresponding to the two dominant modes of resistance to macrolide antibiotics. We estimated the relative fitness of these two strains to be 0.86 (95% CI 0.80 to 0.90), and 0.88 (95% CI 0.82 to 0.93), relative to antibiotic-sensitive strains. We then used these estimates to predict that, within 5 years of the last antibiotic treatment, there would be a 95% chance of elimination of macrolide resistance by intra-species competition alone.Although it is quite possible that the fitness cost of macrolide resistance is sufficient to ensure its eventual elimination in the absence of antibiotic selection, this process takes time, and prevention is likely the best policy in the fight against resistance.
Project description:The objective of this study was to determine the phenotypic patterns of antibiotic resistance and the epidemiology of drug-resistant Campylobacter spp. from a low-resource setting. A birth cohort of 303 patients was followed until 5?years of age. Stool samples from asymptomatic children (n = 10,008) and those with diarrhea (n = 3,175) were cultured for Campylobacter Disk diffusion for ciprofloxacin (CIP), nalidixic acid (NAL), erythromycin (ERY), azithromycin (AZM), tetracycline (TE), gentamicin (GM), ampicillin (AMP), amoxicillin and clavulanic acid (AMC), ceftriaxone (CRO), chloramphenicol (C), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMS) was determined. Antibiotic resistances in Campylobacter jejuni and non-C. jejuni isolates from surveillance and diarrhea samples were compared, and the association between personal macrolide exposure and subsequent occurrence of a macrolide-resistant Campylobacter spp. was assessed. Of 917 Campylobacter isolates, 77.4% of C. jejuni isolates and 79.8% of non-C. jejuni isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, while 4.9% of C. jejuni isolates and 24.8% of non-C. jejuni isolates were not susceptible to azithromycin. Of the 303 children, 33.1% had been diagnosed with a Campylobacter strain nonsusceptible to both azithromycin and ciprofloxacin. Personal macrolide exposure did not affect the risk of macrolide-resistant Campylobacter Amoxicillin and clavulanic acid (94.0%) was one of the antibiotics with the highest rates of susceptibility. There is a high incidence of quinolone- and macrolide-resistant Campylobacter infections in infants under 24?months of age. Given the lack of association between personal exposure to macrolides and a subsequent Campylobacter infection resistant to macrolides, there is a need to evaluate the source of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Campylobacter This study provides compelling evidence to propose amoxicillin/clavulanic acid as a treatment for campylobacteriosis.
Project description:PURPOSE:Macrolide antibiotics are commonly prescribed treatments for drug-resistant bacterial infections; however, many macrolides have been shown to cause liver enzyme elevations and one macrolide, telithromycin, has been pulled from the market by its provider due to liver toxicity. This work seeks to assess the mechanisms responsible for the toxicity of macrolide antibiotics. METHODS:Five macrolides were assessed in in vitro systems designed to test for bile acid transporter inhibition, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress. The macrolides were then represented in DILIsym, a quantitative systems pharmacology (QST) model of drug-induced liver injury, placing the in vitro results in context with each compound's predicted liver exposure and known biochemistry. RESULTS:DILIsym results suggest that solithromycin and clarithromycin toxicity is primarily due to inhibition of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) while erythromycin toxicity is primarily due to bile acid transporter inhibition. Telithromycin and azithromycin toxicity was not predicted by DILIsym and may be caused by mechanisms not currently incorporated into DILIsym or by unknown metabolite effects. CONCLUSIONS:The mechanisms responsible for toxicity can be significantly different within a class of drugs, despite the structural similarity among the drugs. QST modeling can provide valuable insight into the nature of these mechanistic differences.
Project description:INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES:Macrolides have been associated with proarrhythmic properties, but the evidence is conflicting. We evaluated the risk of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) associated with specific macrolides in a retrospective study. Associations between specific macrolides and OHCA were examined by conditional logistic regression analyses in case-crossover and case-time-control models, using penicillin-V treatment as the comparative reference. From nationwide registries, we identified all OHCAs in Denmark from 2001 to 2010 and use of antibiotics. ETHICS:The present study was approved by the Danish Data Protection Agency (Danish Data Protection Agency (ref.no. 2007-58-0015, local ref.no. GEH-2014-017, (I-Suite.nr. 02?735)). PARTICIPANTS:We identified 29?111 patients with an OHCA. Of these, 514 were in macrolide treatment ?7 days before OHCA and 1237 in penicillin-V treatment. RESULTS:In the case-crossover analyses, overall macrolide use was not associated with OHCA with penicillin V as negative comparative reference (OR=0.90; 95% CI 0.73 to 1.10). Compared with penicillin-V treatment, specific macrolides were not associated with increased risk of OHCA: roxithromycin (OR=0.97; 95% CI 0.74 to 1.26), erythromycin (OR=0.68; 95% CI 0.44 to 1.06), clarithromycin (OR=0.95; 95% CI 0.61 to 1.48) and azithromycin (OR=0.85; 95% CI 0.57 to 1.27).Similar results were obtained using case-time-control models: overall macrolide use (OR=0.81; 95% CI 0.62 to 1.06) and specific macrolides (roxithromycin (OR=0.70; 95% CI 0.49 to 1.00), erythromycin (OR=0.67; 95% CI 0.38 to 1.18), clarithromycin (OR=0.75; 95% CI 0.41 to 1.39) or azithromycin (OR=1.17; 95% CI 0.70 to 1.95)). CONCLUSION:The risk of OHCA during treatment with macrolides was similar to that of penicillin V, suggesting no additional risk of OHCA associated with macrolides.