Cilia at the node of mouse embryos sense fluid flow for left-right determination via Pkd2.
ABSTRACT: Unidirectional fluid flow plays an essential role in the breaking of left-right (L-R) symmetry in mouse embryos, but it has remained unclear how the flow is sensed by the embryo. We report that the Ca(2+) channel Polycystin-2 (Pkd2) is required specifically in the perinodal crown cells for sensing the nodal flow. Examination of mutant forms of Pkd2 shows that the ciliary localization of Pkd2 is essential for correct L-R patterning. Whereas Kif3a mutant embryos, which lack all cilia, failed to respond to an artificial flow, restoration of primary cilia in crown cells rescued the response to the flow. Our results thus suggest that nodal flow is sensed in a manner dependent on Pkd2 by the cilia of crown cells located at the edge of the node.
Project description:In mammals, left-right (L-R) asymmetry is established by posteriorly oriented cilia driving a leftwards laminar flow in the embryonic node, thereby activating asymmetric gene expression. The two-cilia hypothesis argues that immotile cilia detect and respond to this flow through a Pkd2-mediated mechanism; a putative sensory partner protein has, however, remained unidentified. We have identified the Pkd1-related locus Pkd1l1 as a crucial component of L-R patterning in mouse. Systematic comparison of Pkd1l1 and Pkd2 point mutants reveals strong phenocopying, evidenced by both morphological and molecular markers of sidedness; both mutants fail to activate asymmetric gene expression at the node or in the lateral plate and exhibit right isomerism of the lungs. Node and cilia morphology were normal in mutants and cilia demonstrated typical motility, consistent with Pkd1l1 and Pkd2 activity downstream of nodal flow. Cell biological analysis reveals that Pkd1l1 and Pkd2 localise to the cilium and biochemical experiments demonstrate that they can physically interact. Together with co-expression in the node, these data argue that Pkd1l1 is the elusive Pkd2 binding partner required for L-R patterning and support the two-cilia hypothesis.
Project description:During mammalian development, left-right (L-R) asymmetry is established by a cilia-driven leftward fluid flow within a midline embryonic cavity called the node. This 'nodal flow' is detected by peripherally-located crown cells that each assemble a primary cilium which contain the putative Ca2+ channel PKD2. The interaction of flow and crown cell cilia promotes left side-specific expression of Nodal in the lateral plate mesoderm (LPM). Whilst the PKD2-interacting protein PKD1L1 has also been implicated in L-R patterning, the underlying mechanism by which flow is detected and the genetic relationship between Polycystin function and asymmetric gene expression remains unknown. Here, we characterize a Pkd1l1 mutant line in which Nodal is activated bilaterally, suggesting that PKD1L1 is not required for LPM Nodal pathway activation per se, but rather to restrict Nodal to the left side downstream of nodal flow. Epistasis analysis shows that Pkd1l1 acts as an upstream genetic repressor of Pkd2. This study therefore provides a genetic pathway for the early stages of L-R determination. Moreover, using a system in which cultured cells are supplied artificial flow, we demonstrate that PKD1L1 is sufficient to mediate a Ca2+ signaling response after flow stimulation. Finally, we show that an extracellular PKD domain within PKD1L1 is crucial for PKD1L1 function; as such, destabilizing the domain causes L-R defects in the mouse. Our demonstration that PKD1L1 protein can mediate a response to flow coheres with a mechanosensation model of flow sensation in which the force of fluid flow drives asymmetric gene expression in the embryo.
Project description:Left-right (L-R) asymmetry in the mouse embryo is generated in the node and is dependent on cilia-driven fluid flow, but how the initial asymmetry is transmitted from the node to the lateral plate has remained unknown. We have now identified a transcriptional enhancer (ANE) in the human LEFTY1 gene that exhibits marked L>R asymmetric activity in perinodal cells of the mouse embryo. Dissection of ANE revealed that it is activated in the perinodal cells on the left side by Nodal signaling, suggesting that Nodal activity in the node is asymmetric at a time when Nodal expression is symmetric. Phosphorylated Smad2/3 (pSmad2) indeed manifested an L-R asymmetric distribution at the node, being detected in perinodal cells preferentially on the left side. This asymmetry in pSmad2 distribution was found to be generated not by unidirectional transport of Nodal but rather as a result of L<R asymmetric expression of the Nodal antagonist Cerl2. For various mutant embryos examined, the asymmetry in pSmad2 distribution among the perinodal cells closely matched that in lateral plate mesoderm (LPM). However, autocrine-paracrine Nodal signaling in perinodal cells is dispensable for L-R patterning of LPM, given that its inhibition by expression of dominant negative forms of Smad3 or ALK4 was still associated with normal (left-sided) Nodal expression in LPM. Our results suggest that LPM is the direct target of Nodal secreted by the perinodal cells, and that an L>R distribution of active Nodal in the node is translated into the asymmetry in LPM.
Project description:Rotating cilia at the vertebrate left-right organizer (LRO) generate an asymmetric leftward flow, which is sensed by cells at the left LRO margin. Ciliary activity of the calcium channel Pkd2 is crucial for flow sensing. How this flow signal is further processed and relayed to the laterality-determining Nodal cascade in the left lateral plate mesoderm (LPM) is largely unknown. We previously showed that flow down-regulates mRNA expression of the Nodal inhibitor Dand5 in left sensory cells. De-repression of the co-expressed Nodal, complexed with the TGFß growth factor Gdf3, drives LPM Nodal cascade induction. Here, we show that post-transcriptional repression of dand5 is a central process in symmetry breaking of Xenopus, zebrafish and mouse. The RNA binding protein Bicc1 was identified as a post-transcriptional regulator of dand5 and gdf3 via their 3'-UTRs. Two distinct Bicc1 functions on dand5 mRNA were observed at pre- and post-flow stages, affecting mRNA stability or flow induced translational inhibition, respectively. To repress dand5, Bicc1 co-operates with Dicer1, placing both proteins in the process of flow sensing. Intriguingly, Bicc1 mediated translational repression of a dand5 3'-UTR mRNA reporter was responsive to pkd2, suggesting that a flow induced Pkd2 signal triggers Bicc1 mediated dand5 inhibition during symmetry breakage.
Project description:Flow-activated Na+ and HCO3- transport in kidney proximal tubules (PT) underlies relatively constant fractional reabsorption during changes in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) or glomerulotubular balance (GTB). In view of hypothesized connections of epithelial cilia to flow sensing, we examined flow-activated transport in 3 polycystic kidney disease-related mouse models based on inducible conditional KO of Pkd1, Pkd2, and Kif3a. PTs were harvested from mice after gene inactivation but prior to cyst formation, and flow-mediated PT transport was measured. We confirm that higher flow increased both Na+ and HCO3- absorption in control mice, and we observed that this flow effect was preserved in PTs of Pkd1-/- and Kif3a-/-mice. However, flow activation was absent in Pkd2+/- and Pkd2-/- PT. In heterozygous (Pkd2+/-) mice, a dopamine receptor 1 (DA1) antagonist (SCH23390) restored transport flow sensitivity. When given chronically, this same antagonist reduced renal cyst formation in Pkd2-/-, as evidenced by reduced kidney weight, BUN, and the cystic index, when compared with untreated mice. In contrast, SCH23390 did not prevent cyst formation in Pkd1-/- mice. These results indicate that Pkd2 is necessary for normal GTB and that restoration of flow-activated transport by DA1 antagonist can slow renal cyst formation in Pkd2-/- mice.
Project description:Molecular left-right (L-R) asymmetry is established at the node of the mouse embryo as a result of the sensing of a leftward fluid flow by immotile cilia of perinodal crown cells and the consequent degradation of Dand5 mRNA on the left side. We here examined how the fluid flow induces Dand5 mRNA decay. We found that the first 200 nucleotides in the 3' untranslated region (3'-UTR) of Dand5 mRNA are necessary and sufficient for the left-sided decay and to mediate the response of a 3'-UTR reporter transgene to Ca<sup>2+</sup>, the cation channel Pkd2, the RNA-binding protein Bicc1 and their regulation by the flow direction. We show that Bicc1 preferentially recognizes GACR and YGAC sequences, which can explain the specific binding to a conserved GACGUGAC motif located in the proximal Dand5 3'-UTR. The Cnot3 component of the Ccr4-Not deadenylase complex interacts with Bicc1 and is also required for Dand5 mRNA decay at the node. These results suggest that Ca<sup>2+</sup> currents induced by leftward fluid flow stimulate Bicc1 and Ccr4-Not to mediate Dand5 mRNA degradation specifically on the left side of the node.
Project description:<h4>Unlabelled</h4>Directional beating of ependymal (E) cells' cilia in the walls of the ventricles in the brain is essential for proper CSF flow. E cells display two forms of planar cell polarity (PCP): rotational polarity of individual cilium and translational polarity (asymmetric positioning of cilia in the apical area). The orientation of individual E cells varies according to their location in the ventricular wall (location-specific PCP). It has been hypothesized that hydrodynamic forces on the apical surface of radial glia cells (RGCs), the embryonic precursors of E cells, could guide location-specific PCP in the ventricular epithelium. However, the detection mechanisms for these hydrodynamic forces have not been identified. Here, we show that the mechanosensory proteins polycystic kidney disease 1 (Pkd1) and Pkd2 are present in primary cilia of RGCs. Ablation of Pkd1 or Pkd2 in Nestin-Cre;Pkd1(flox/flox) or Nestin-Cre;Pkd2(flox/flox) mice, affected PCP development in RGCs and E cells. Early shear forces on the ventricular epithelium may activate Pkd1 and Pkd2 in primary cilia of RGCs to properly polarize RGCs and E cells. Consistently, Pkd1, Pkd2, or primary cilia on RGCs were required for the proper asymmetric localization of the PCP protein Vangl2 in E cells' apical area. Analyses of single- and double-heterozygous mutants for Pkd1 and/or Vangl2 suggest that these genes function in the same pathway to establish E cells' PCP. We conclude that Pkd1 and Pkd2 mechanosensory proteins contribute to the development of brain PCP and prevention of hydrocephalus.<h4>Significance statement</h4>This study identifies key molecules in the development of planar cell polarity (PCP) in the brain and prevention of hydrocephalus. Multiciliated ependymal (E) cells within the brain ventricular epithelium generate CSF flow through ciliary beating. E cells display location-specific PCP in the orientation and asymmetric positioning of their cilia. Defects in this PCP can result in hydrocephalus. Hydrodynamic forces on radial glial cells (RGCs), the embryonic progenitors of E cells, have been suggested to guide PCP. We show that the mechanosensory proteins Pkd1 and Pkd2 localize to primary cilia in RGCs, and their ablation disrupts the development of PCP in E cells. Early shear forces on RGCs may activate Pkd1 and Pkd2 in RGCs' primary cilia to properly orient E cells. This study identifies key molecules in the development of brain PCP and prevention of hydrocephalus.
Project description:Left-right (L-R) asymmetry in the body plan is determined by nodal flow in vertebrate embryos. Shinohara et al. (Shinohara K et al. 2012 Nat. Commun.3, 622 (doi:10.1038/ncomms1624)) used Dpcd and Rfx3 mutant mouse embryos and showed that only a few cilia were sufficient to achieve L-R asymmetry. However, the mechanism underlying the breaking of symmetry by such weak ciliary flow is unclear. Flow-mediated signals associated with the L-R asymmetric organogenesis have not been clarified, and two different hypotheses-vesicle transport and mechanosensing-are now debated in the research field of developmental biology. In this study, we developed a computational model of the node system reported by Shinohara et al. and examined the feasibilities of the two hypotheses with a small number of cilia. With the small number of rotating cilia, flow was induced locally and global strong flow was not observed in the node. Particles were then effectively transported only when they were close to the cilia, and particle transport was strongly dependent on the ciliary positions. Although the maximum wall shear rate was also influenced by ciliary position, the mean wall shear rate at the perinodal wall increased monotonically with the number of cilia. We also investigated the membrane tension of immotile cilia, which is relevant to the regulation of mechanotransduction. The results indicated that tension of about 0.1??N?m-1 was exerted at the base even when the fluid shear rate was applied at about 0.1?s-1. The area of high tension was also localized at the upstream side, and negative tension appeared at the downstream side. Such localization may be useful to sense the flow direction at the periphery, as time-averaged anticlockwise circulation was induced in the node by rotation of a few cilia. Our numerical results support the mechanosensing hypothesis, and we expect that our study will stimulate further experimental investigations of mechanotransduction in the near future.
Project description:Native PKD2-L1 channel subunits are present in primary cilia and other restricted cellular spaces. Here we investigate the mechanism for the channel's unusual regulation by external calcium, and rationalize this behavior to its specialized function. We report that the human PKD2-L1 selectivity filter is partially selective to calcium ions (Ca(2+)) moving into the cell, but blocked by high internal Ca(2+)concentrations, a unique feature of this transient receptor potential (TRP) channel family member. Surprisingly, we find that the C-terminal EF-hands and coiled-coil domains do not contribute to PKD2-L1 Ca(2+)-induced potentiation and inactivation. We propose a model in which prolonged channel activity results in calcium accumulation, triggering outward-moving Ca(2+) ions to block PKD2-L1 in a high-affinity interaction with the innermost acidic residue (D523) of the selectivity filter and subsequent long-term channel inactivation. This response rectifies Ca(2+) flow, enabling Ca(2+) to enter but not leave small compartments such as the cilium.
Project description:Cyclic AMP promotes cyst growth in polycystic kidney disease (PKD) by stimulating cell proliferation and fluid secretion. Previously, we showed that the primary cilium of renal epithelial cells contains a cAMP regulatory complex comprising adenylyl cyclases 5 and 6 (AC5/6), polycystin-2, A-kinase anchoring protein 150, protein kinase A, and phosphodiesterase 4C. In Kif3a mutant cells that lack primary cilia, the formation of this regulatory complex is disrupted and cAMP levels are increased. Inhibition of AC5 reduces cAMP levels in Kif3a mutant cells, suggesting that AC5 may mediate the increase in cAMP in PKD. Here, we examined the role of AC5 in an orthologous mouse model of PKD caused by kidney-specific ablation of Pkd2. Knockdown of AC5 with siRNA attenuated the increase in cAMP levels in Pkd2-deficient renal epithelial cells. Levels of cAMP and AC5 mRNA transcripts were elevated in the kidneys of mice with collecting duct-specific ablation of Pkd2. Compared with Pkd2 single mutant mice, AC5/Pkd2 double mutant mice had less kidney enlargement, lower cyst index, reduced kidney injury, and improved kidney function. Importantly, cAMP levels and cAMP-dependent signaling were reduced in the kidneys of AC5/Pkd2 double mutant compared to the kidneys of Pkd2 single mutant mice. Additionally, we localized endogenous AC5 in the primary cilium of renal epithelial cells and showed that ablation of AC5 reduced ciliary elongation in the kidneys of Pkd2 mutant mice. Thus, AC5 contributes importantly to increased renal cAMP levels and cyst growth in Pkd2 mutant mice, and inhibition of AC5 may be beneficial in the treatment of PKD.