Roles of long-range electrostatic domain interactions and K+ in phosphoenzyme transition of Ca2+-ATPase.
ABSTRACT: Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase couples the motions and rearrangements of three cytoplasmic domains (A, P, and N) with Ca(2+) transport. We explored the role of electrostatic force in the domain dynamics in a rate-limiting phosphoenzyme (EP) transition by a systematic approach combining electrostatic screening with salts, computer analysis of electric fields in crystal structures, and mutations. Low KCl concentration activated and increasing salt above 0.1 m inhibited the EP transition. A plot of the logarithm of the transition rate versus the square of the mean activity coefficient of the protein gave a linear relationship allowing division of the activation energy into an electrostatic component and a non-electrostatic component in which the screenable electrostatic forces are shielded by salt. Results show that the structural change in the transition is sterically restricted, but that strong electrostatic forces, when K(+) is specifically bound at the P domain, come into play to accelerate the reaction. Electric field analysis revealed long-range electrostatic interactions between the N and P domains around their hinge. Mutations of the residues directly involved and other charged residues at the hinge disrupted in parallel the electric field and the structural transition. Favorable electrostatics evidently provides a low energy path for the critical N domain motion toward the P domain, overcoming steric restriction. The systematic approach employed here is, in general, a powerful tool for understanding the structural mechanisms of enzymes.
Project description:Sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase catalyzes ATP-driven Ca2+ transport from the cytoplasm to the lumen and is critical for a range of cell functions, including muscle relaxation. Here, we investigated the effects of the headgroups of the 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl glycerophospholipids phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylserine (PS), and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+-ATPase embedded into a nanodisc, a lipid-bilayer construct harboring the specific lipid. We found that Ca2+-ATPase activity in a PC bilayer is comparable with that of SR vesicles and is suppressed in the other phospholipids, especially in PS. Ca2+ affinity at the high-affinity transport sites in PC was similar to that of SR vesicles, but 2-3-fold reduced in PE and PS. Ca2+ on- and off-rates in the non-phosphorylated ATPase were markedly reduced in PS. Rate-limiting phosphoenzyme (EP) conformational transition in 0.1 m KCl was as rapid in PC as in SR vesicles, but slowed in other phospholipids, especially in PS. Using kinetic plots of the logarithm of rate versus the square of mean activity coefficient of solutes in 0.1-1 m KCl, we noted that PC is optimal for the EP transition, but PG and especially PS had markedly unfavorable electrostatic effects, and PE exhibited a strong non-electrostatic restriction. Thus, the major SR membrane lipid PC is optimal for all steps and, unlike the other headgroups, contributes favorable electrostatics and non-electrostatic elements during the EP transition. Our analyses further revealed that the surface charge of the lipid bilayer directly modulates the transition rate.
Project description:The ongoing outbreak of COVID-19 has been a serious threat to human health worldwide. The virus SARS-CoV-2 initiates its infection to the human body via the interaction of its spike (S) protein with the human Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) of the host cells. Therefore, understanding the fundamental mechanisms of how SARS-CoV-2 S protein receptor binding domain (RBD) binds to ACE2 is highly demanded for developing treatments for COVID-19. Here we implemented multi-scale computational approaches to study the binding mechanisms of human ACE2 and S proteins of both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. Electrostatic features, including electrostatic potential, electric field lines, and electrostatic forces of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 were calculated and compared in detail. The results demonstrate that SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 S proteins are both attractive to ACE2 by electrostatic forces even at different distances. However, the residues contributing to the electrostatic features are quite different due to the mutations between SARS-CoV S protein and SARS-CoV-2 S protein. Such differences are analyzed comprehensively. Compared to SARS-CoV, the SARS-CoV-2 binds with ACE2 using a more robust strategy: The electric field line related residues are distributed quite differently, which results in a more robust binding strategy of SARS-CoV-2. Also, SARS-CoV-2 has a higher electric field line density than that of SARS-CoV, which indicates stronger interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and ACE2, compared to that of SARS-CoV. Key residues involved in salt bridges and hydrogen bonds are identified in this study, which may help the future drug design against COVID-19.
Project description:The contribution of ligand-ligand electrostatic interaction to transition state formation during enzyme catalysis has remained unexplored, even though electrostatic forces are known to play a major role in protein functions and have been investigated by the vibrational Stark effect (VSE). To monitor electrostatic changes along important steps during catalysis, we used a nitrile probe (T46C-CN) inserted proximal to the reaction center of three dihydrofolate reductases (DHFRs) with different biophysical properties, Escherichia coli DHFR (EcDHFR), its conformationally impaired variant (EcDHFR-S148P), and Geobacillus stearothermophilus DHFR (BsDHFR). Our combined experimental and computational approach revealed that the electric field projected by the substrate toward the probe negates those exerted by the cofactor when both are bound within the enzymes. This indicates that compared to previous models that focus exclusively on subdomain reorganization and protein-ligand contacts, ligand-ligand interactions are the key driving force to generate electrostatic environments conducive for catalysis.
Project description:PHEMTO (protein pH-dependent electric moment tools) is released in response to the high demand in protein science community for evaluation of electrostatic characteristics in relations to molecular recognition. PHEMTO will serve protein scientists with new advanced features for analysis of protein molecular interactions: Electric/dipole moments, their pH-dependence and in silico charge mutagenesis effects on these properties as well as alternative algorithms for electric/dipole moment computation--Singular value decomposition of electrostatic potential (EP) to account for reaction field. The implementation is based on long-term experience--PHEI mean field electrostatics and PHEPS server for evaluation of global and local pH-dependent properties. However, PHEMTO is not just an update of our PHEPS server. Besides standard electrostatics, we offer new, advanced and useful features for analysis of protein molecular interactions. In addition our algorithms are very fast. Special emphasis is given to the interface--intuitive and user-friendly. The input is comprised of the atomic coordinate file in Protein Data Bank format. The advanced user is provided with a special input section for addition of non-polypeptide charges. The output covers actually full electrostatic characteristics but special emphasis is given to electric/dipole moments and their interactive visualization. PHEMTO server can be accessed at http://phemto.orgchm.bas.bg/.
Project description:We used molecular dynamics to find the average path of the A-domain H ? B conformational transition in protein kinase A I?. We obtained thirteen productive trajectories and processed them sequentially using factor and cross-correlation analyses. The conformational transition is presented as partly deterministic sequence of six events. Event B represents H ? B transition of the phosphate binding cassette. Main participants of this event form electrostatic switch cAMP(O6)-A202(N-H)-G199(C=O). Through this switch, cAMP transmits information about its binding to hydrophobic switch L203-Y229 and thus triggers conformational transition of A-domain. Events C and D consist in N3A-motif displacement towards phosphate binding cassette and B/C-helix rotation. Event E involves an increase in interaction energy between Y229 and ?-subdomain. Taken together, events B, E, and D correspond to the hinge movement towards ?-barrel. Transition of B/C-helix turn (a.a. 229-234) from ?-form to ?-form accounts for event F. Event G implies that ?-helical turn is replaced by kink. Emerging in the resulting conformation, electrostatic interaction R241-E200 facilitates kink formation. The obtained data on the mechanism of cAMP-dependent activation of PKA I? may contribute to new approaches to designing pharmaceuticals based on cAMP analogs.
Project description:The mechanism whereby events in and around the catalytic site/head of Ca(2+)-ATPase effect Ca(2+) release to the lumen from the transmembrane helices remains elusive. We developed a method to determine deoccluded bound Ca(2+) by taking advantage of its rapid occlusion upon formation of E1PCa2 and of stabilization afforded by a high concentration of Ca(2+). The assay is applicable to minute amounts of Ca(2+)-ATPase expressed in COS-1 cells. It was validated by measuring the Ca(2+) binding properties of unphosphorylated Ca(2+)-ATPase. The method was then applied to the isomerization of the phosphorylated intermediate associated with the Ca(2+) release process E1PCa2 ? E2PCa2 ? E2P + 2Ca(2+). In the wild type, Ca(2+) release occurs concomitantly with EP isomerization fitting with rate-limiting isomerization (E1PCa2 ? E2PCa2) followed by very rapid Ca(2+) release. In contrast, with alanine mutants of Leu(119) and Tyr(122) on the cytoplasmic part of the second transmembrane helix (M2) and Ile(179) on the A domain, Ca(2+) release in 10 ?m Ca(2+) lags EP isomerization, indicating the presence of a transient E2P state with bound Ca(2+). The results suggest that these residues function in Ca(2+) affinity reduction in E2P, likely via a structural rearrangement at the cytoplasmic part of M2 and a resulting association with the A and P domains, therefore leading to Ca(2+) release.
Project description:Electrostatic interactions play a pivotal role in enzymatic catalysis and are increasingly modeled explicitly in computational enzyme design; nevertheless, they are challenging to measure experimentally. Using vibrational Stark effect (VSE) spectroscopy, we have measured electric fields inside the active site of the enzyme ketosteroid isomerase (KSI). These studies have shown that these fields can be unusually large, but it has been unclear to what extent they specifically stabilize the transition state (TS) relative to a ground state (GS). In the following, we use crystallography and computational modeling to show that KSI's intrinsic electric field is nearly perfectly oriented to stabilize the geometry of its reaction's TS. Moreover, we find that this electric field adjusts the orientation of its substrate in the ground state so that the substrate needs to only undergo minimal structural changes upon activation to its TS. This work provides evidence that the active site electric field in KSI is preorganized to facilitate catalysis and provides a template for how electrostatic preorganization can be measured in enzymatic systems.
Project description:Integrating different steps on a chip for cell manipulations and sample preparation is of foremost importance to fully take advantage of microfluidic possibilities, and therefore make tests faster, cheaper and more accurate. We demonstrated particle manipulation in an integrated microfluidic device by applying hydrodynamic, electroosmotic (EO), electrophoretic (EP), and dielectrophoretic (DEP) forces. The process involves generation of fluid flow by pressure difference, particle trapping by DEP force, and particle redirect by EO and EP forces. Both DC and AC signals were applied, taking advantages of DC EP, EO and AC DEP for on-chip particle manipulation. Since different types of particles respond differently to these signals, variations of DC and AC signals are capable to handle complex and highly variable colloidal and biological samples. The proposed technique can operate in a high-throughput manner with thirteen independent channels in radial directions for enrichment and separation in microfluidic chip. We evaluated our approach by collecting Polystyrene particles, yeast cells, and E. coli bacteria, which respond differently to electric field gradient. Live and dead yeast cells were separated successfully, validating the capability of our device to separate highly similar cells. Our results showed that this technique could achieve fast pre-concentration of colloidal particles and cells and separation of cells depending on their vitality. Hydrodynamic, DC electrophoretic and DC electroosmotic forces were used together instead of syringe pump to achieve sufficient fluid flow and particle mobility for particle trapping and sorting. By eliminating bulky mechanical pumps, this new technique has wide applications for in situ detection and analysis.
Project description:Electric fields can be a powerful tool to interact with enzymes or proteins, with an intriguing perspective to allow protein manipulation. Recently, researchers have focused the interest on intracellular enzyme modifications triggered by the application of nanosecond pulsed electric fields. These findings were also supported by theoretical predictions from molecular dynamics simulations focussing on significant variations in protein secondary structures. In this work, a theoretical study utilizing molecular dynamics simulations is proposed to explore effects of electric fields of high intensity and very short nanosecond duration applied to the superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD or SOD-1), an important enzyme involved in the cellular antioxidant defence mechanism. The effects of 100-nanosecond pulsed electric fields, with intensities ranging from 108 to 7x108 V/m, on a single SOD1 enzyme are presented. We demonstrated that the lowest intensity of 108 V/m, although not inducing structural changes, can produce electrostatic modifications on the reaction centre of the enzyme, as apparent from the dipolar response and the electric field distribution of the protein active site. Electric pulses above 5x108 V/m produced a fast transition between the folded and a partially denatured state, as inferred by the secondary structures analysis. Finally, for the highest field intensity used (7x108 V/m), a not reversible transition toward an unfolded state was observed.
Project description:The most outstanding feature of scanning force microscopy (SFM) is its capability to detect various different short and long range interactions. In particular, magnetic force microscopy (MFM) is used to characterize the domain configuration in ferromagnetic materials such as thin films grown by physical techniques or ferromagnetic nanostructures. It is a usual procedure to separate the topography and the magnetic signal by scanning at a lift distance of 25-50 nm such that the long range tip-sample interactions dominate. Nowadays, MFM is becoming a valuable technique to detect weak magnetic fields arising from low dimensional complex systems such as organic nanomagnets, superparamagnetic nanoparticles, carbon-based materials, etc. In all these cases, the magnetic nanocomponents and the substrate supporting them present quite different electronic behavior, i.e., they exhibit large surface potential differences causing heterogeneous electrostatic interaction between the tip and the sample that could be interpreted as a magnetic interaction. To distinguish clearly the origin of the tip-sample forces we propose to use a combination of Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and MFM. The KPFM technique allows us to compensate in real time the electrostatic forces between the tip and the sample by minimizing the electrostatic contribution to the frequency shift signal. This is a great challenge in samples with low magnetic moment. In this work we studied an array of Co nanostructures that exhibit high electrostatic interaction with the MFM tip. Thanks to the use of the KPFM/MFM system we were able to separate the electric and magnetic interactions between the tip and the sample.