EGFR-dependent pancreatic carcinoma cell metastasis through Rap1 activation.
ABSTRACT: Tyrosine kinase receptors have an essential role in various aspects of tumor progression. In particular, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its ligands have been implicated in the growth and dissemination of a wide array of human carcinomas. Here, we describe an EGFR-mediated signaling pathway that regulates human pancreatic carcinoma cell invasion and metastasis, yet does not influence the growth of primary tumors. In fact, ligation/activation of EGFR induces Src-dependent phosphorylation of two critical tyrosine residues of p130CAS, leading to the assembly of a Crk-associated substrate (CAS)/Nck1 complex that promotes Ras-associated protein-1 (Rap1) signaling. Importantly, GTP loading of Rap1 is specifically required for pancreatic carcinoma cell migration on vitronectin but not on collagen. Furthermore, Rap1 activation is required for EGFR-mediated metastasis in vivo without impacting primary tumor growth. These findings identify a molecular pathway that promotes the invasive/metastatic properties of human pancreatic carcinomas driven by EGFR.
Project description:Tyrosine kinase receptors and integrins play essential roles in tumor cell invasion and metastasis. Previously, we showed that epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation of pancreatic carcinoma cells led to invasion and metastasis that was blocked by antagonists of integrin alpha(v)beta(5). Here, we show that EGF stimulates metastasis of carcinoma cells via a Src-dependent phosphorylation of p130 CAS leading to activation of Rap1, a small GTPase involved in integrin activation. Specifically, EGF receptor (EGFR)-induced Src activity leads to phosphorylation of a region within the CAS substrate domain, which is essential for Rap1 and alpha(v)beta(5) activation. This pathway induces alpha(v)beta(5)-mediated invasion and metastasis in vivo yet does not influence primary tumor growth or activation of other integrins on these cells. These findings show cross-talk between a tyrosine kinase receptor and an integrin involved in carcinoma cell invasion and metastasis and may explain in part how inhibitors of EGFR affect malignant disease.
Project description:The expression of Prostate Specific-Membrane Antigen (PSMA) increases in high-grade prostate carcinoma envisaging a role in growth and progression. We show here that clustering PSMA at LNCaP or PC3-PSMA cell membrane activates AKT and MAPK pathways thus promoting proliferation and survival. PSMA activity was dependent on the assembly of a macromolecular complex including filamin A, beta1 integrin, p130CAS, c-Src and EGFR. Within this complex beta1 integrin became activated thereby inducing a c-Src-dependent EGFR phosphorylation at Y1086 and Y1173 EGF-independent residues. Silencing or blocking experiments with drugs demonstrated that all the complex components were required for full PSMA-dependent promotion of cell growth and/or survival in 3D culture, but that p130CAS and EGFR exerted a major role. All PSMA complex components were found assembled in multiple samples of two high-grade prostate carcinomas and associated with EGFR phosphorylation at Y1086. The expression of p130CAS and pEGFRY1086 was thus analysed by tissue micro array in 16 castration-resistant prostate carcinomas selected from 309 carcinomas and stratified from GS 3+4 to GS 5+5. Patients with Gleason Score ?5 resulted negative whereas those with GS?5 expressed p130CAS and pEGFRY1086 in 75% and 60% of the cases, respectively.Collectively, our results demonstrate for the first time that PSMA recruits a functionally active complex which is present in high-grade patients. In addition, two components of this complex, p130CAS and the novel pEGFRY1086, correlate with progression in castration-resistant patients and could be therefore useful in therapeutic or surveillance strategies of these patients.
Project description:Calcium-regulated non-receptor proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) is a critical mediator of endothelin-1 (ET-1) signaling in human glomerular mesangial cells (GMC). We aimed to identify which small G-protein is acting downstream of Pyk2. Dominant interfering Pyk2 construct, termed calcium regulated non kinase (CRNK) or green fluorescent protein (control) were expressed in GMC using adenovirus-mediated gene transfer. ET-1 stimulation resulted in a significant increase of Pyk2 phosphorylation accompanied by GTP-loading of Rap1 and RhoA. CRNK expression inhibited ET-1-induced autophosphorylation of endogenous Pyk2 and diminished Rap1, but not RhoA, activation. The mechanism linking Pyk2 and Rap1 included (1) increased autophosphorylation of Pyk2 associated with p130Cas, (2) augmented p130Cas Y165 and Y249 phosphorylation, and (3) enhanced p130Cas-BCAR3 complex formation. CRNK expression prevented p130Cas phosphorylation and attenuated p130Cas association with BCAR3. Downregulation of endogenous BCAR3 protein expression using an siRNA technique led to a significant decrease in Rap1 activation in response to ET-1. We observed that endogenous Pyk2 was important for GMC adhesion and spreading. Our data suggest that ET-1 stimulated the GTPase Rap1 (but neither RhoA nor Ras) by a mechanism involving Pyk2 activation and recruitment of the p130Cas/BCAR3 complex in GMC.
Project description:Elucidating the mechanisms of prostate cancer (CaP) survival and metastasis are critical to the discovery of novel therapeutic targets. The monomeric G protein Rap1 has been implicated in cancer tumorigenesis. Rap1 signals to pathways involved in cell adhesion, migration, and survival, suggesting Rap1 may promote several processes associated with cancer cell metastasis. Examination of CaP cell lines revealed cells with a high metastatic ability exhibited increased Rap1 activity and reduced expression of the negative regulator Rap1GAP. Rap1 can be further stimulated in these cells by stromal-derived factor (SDF-1), an agonist known to regulate tumor cell metastasis and tropism to bone. Activation of Rap1 increased CaP cell migration and invasion, and inhibition of Rap1A activity via RNAi-mediated knockdown or ectopic expression of Rap1GAP markedly impaired CaP cell migration and invasion. Additional studies implicate integrins alpha4, beta3, and alphavbeta3 in the mechanism of Rap1-mediated CaP migration and invasion. Extending the effect of Rap1 activity in CaP metastasis in vivo, introduction of activated Rap1 into CaP cells dramatically enhanced the rate and incidence of CaP metastasis in a xenograft mouse model. These studies provide compelling evidence to support a role for aberrant Rap1 activation in CaP progression, and suggest that targeting Rap1 signaling could provide a means to control metastatic progression of this cancer.
Project description:Rap1 is a member of the Ras superfamily of small GTP-binding proteins and is localized on pancreatic zymogen granules. The current study was designed to determine whether GTP-Rap1 is involved in the regulation of amylase secretion. Rap1A/B and the two Rap1 guanine nucleotide exchange factors, Epac1 and CalDAG-GEF III, were identified in mouse pancreatic acini. A fraction of both Rap1 and Epac1 colocalized with amylase in zymogen granules, but only Rap1 was integral to the zymogen granule membranes. Stimulation with cholecystokinin (CCK), carbachol, and vasoactive intestinal peptide all induced Rap1 activation, as did calcium ionophore A23187, phorbol ester, forskolin, 8-bromo-cyclic AMP, and the Epac-specific cAMP analog 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP. The phospholipase C inhibitor U-73122 abolished carbachol- but not forskolin-induced Rap1 activation. Co-stimulation with carbachol and 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP led to an additive effect on Rap1 activation, whereas a synergistic effect was seen on amylase release. Although the protein kinase A inhibitor H-89 abolished forskolin-stimulated CREB phosphorylation, it did not modify forskolin-induced GTP-Rap1 levels, excluding PKA participation. Overexpression of Rap1 GTPase-activating protein, which blocked Rap1 activation, reduced the effect of 8-bromo-cyclic AMP, 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP, and vasoactive intestinal peptide on amylase release by 60% and reduced CCK- as well as carbachol-stimulated pancreatic amylase release by 40%. These findings indicate that GTP-Rap1 is required for pancreatic amylase release. Rap1 activation not only mediates the cAMP-evoked response via Epac1 but is also involved in CCK- and carbachol-induced amylase release, with their action most likely mediated by CalDAG-GEF III.
Project description:To confirm that Rap1-depletion resulted in decreased binding of Rap1 to its target sites, we performed compared Rap1 ChIP-chip experiments in respiratory cells (pre-meiotic/YPA 20 hours) depleted (plus doxycycline for 12 hours) or not depleted (minus doxycycline) of Rap1. There is growing recognition that the binding of a transcription factor near a gene does not always indicate regulatory function, and further that a single factor may function to either activate or repress its targets depending on the cellular context. We examined these issues through a series of experiments involving the S. cerevisiae transcription factor Rap1, and its function throughout critical metabolic and developmental transitions between vegetative growth, respiratory growth, meiosis and sporulation. We simultaneously monitored the expression of all genes and the genomic binding locations of Rap1 throughout the timecourse. Genes downstream of Rap1 binding were activated and repressed dynamically, but a change - or lack of change - in Rap1 binding status was not predictive of activation, repression, or no change in regulation. Despite this, we show that Rap1 is required, at a given point in time, for both activation and repression of different gene targets, within the same cell. Specification of the transcriptional consequences of Rap1 binding is thus highly promoter-specific. The presence of other transcription factor binding motifs, the subtype of Rap1 motif, and the underlying chromatin structure of the promoter cannot fully account for the observed transcriptional outcomes. There is a better accounting for the dynamic binding behavior of Rap1 including specification of an expanded meiotic target set through a Tup1- dependent nucleosome-loss mechanism. The variable and dynamic association between binding and transcription in this simple unicellular system portends a similarly volatile relationship in more complex eukaryotes. Biological interpretations of transcription factor occupancy should be made cautiously and in conjunction with supporting data obtained under the precise condition of interest. SK1 yeast strain SHy20 (MATa/MATalpha lys2/lys2 ura3/ura3 ho::LYS2/ho::LYS2 leu2::hisG/leu2::hisG his4x/his4b URA3::CMV-tetTA/URA3::CMV-tetTA RAP1promoter::kanR-tetO7-TATA/RAP1promoter::kanR-tetO7-TATA). An overnight culture of YPD was used to innoculate a YPA culture (minus doxycycline; Rap1 on). The YPA culture was grown for 8 hours and then split into minus doxycyline (Rap1 on) and plus doxycylcine (Rap1 depleted) samples. Minus and plus doxycyline samples were collected after an additional 12 hours in YPA (respiratory growth/pre-meiotic; YPA 20 hours). 6 separate biological replicates were used. Labeled ChIP DNA from Rap1 depeleted and non-depleted samples were competitively hybridized to yeast whole genome PCR based spotted arrays (resolution ~1kb). The Rap1-depletion ChIP and RNA abundance/expression analysis were carried out on the same biological samples. The three replicates of Rap1-depletion RNA abundance/expression analysis correspond to replicates 2, 3, and 5 of the Rap1-depletion Rap1 ChIP experiment.
Project description:The small GTPase Rap1 affects cell adhesion and cell motility in numerous developmental contexts. Loss of Rap1 in the Drosophila wing epithelium disrupts adherens junction localization, causing mutant cells to disperse, and dramatically alters epithelial cell shape. While the adhesive consequences of Rap1 inactivation have been well described in this system, the effects on cell signaling, cell fate specification, and tissue differentiation are not known. Here we demonstrate that Egfr-dependent cell types are lost from Rap1 mutant tissue as an indirect consequence of DE-cadherin mislocalization. Cells lacking Rap1 in the developing wing and eye are capable of responding to an Egfr signal, indicating that Rap1 is not required for Egfr/Ras/MAPK signal transduction. Instead, Rap1 regulates adhesive contacts necessary for maintenance of Egfr signaling between cells, and differentiation of wing veins and photoreceptors. Rap1 is also necessary for planar cell polarity in these tissues. Wing hair alignment and ommatidial rotation, functional readouts of planar cell polarity in the wing and eye respectively, are both affected in Rap1 mutant tissue. Finally, we show that Rap1 acts through the effector Canoe to regulate these developmental processes.
Project description:Ras oncoproteins play pivotal roles in both the development and maintenance of many tumor types. Unfortunately, these proteins are difficult to directly target using traditional pharmacological strategies, in part due to their lack of obvious binding pockets or allosteric sites. This obstacle has driven a considerable amount of research into pursuing alternative ways to effectively inhibit Ras, examples of which include inducing mislocalization to prevent Ras maturation and inactivating downstream proteins in Ras-driven signaling pathways. Ras proteins are archetypes of a superfamily of small GTPases that play specific roles in the regulation of many cellular processes, including vesicle trafficking, nuclear transport, cytoskeletal rearrangement, and cell cycle progression. Several other superfamily members have also been linked to the control of normal and cancer cell growth and survival. For example, Rap1 has high sequence similarity to Ras, has overlapping binding partners, and has been demonstrated to both oppose and mimic Ras-driven cancer phenotypes. Rap1 plays an important role in cell adhesion and integrin function in a variety of cell types. Mechanistically, Ras and Rap1 cooperate to initiate and sustain ERK signaling, which is activated in many malignancies and is the target of successful therapeutics. Here we review the role activated Rap1 in ERK signaling and other downstream pathways to promote invasion and cell migration and metastasis in various cancer types.
Project description:Metastasis is known as the most life-threatening event in cancer patients. In principle, the immune system can prevent tumor development. However, dysfunctional T cells may fail to eliminate the tumor cells effectively and provide additional survival advantages for tumor proliferation and metastasis. Constitutive activation of Ras-associated protein1 (Rap1) has not only led to T cell anergy, but also inhibited autophagy and supported cancer progression through various oncogenic events. Inhibition of Rap1 activity with its negative regulator, Rap1GAP, impairs tumor progression. However, active Rap1 reduces tumor invasion in some cancers, indicating that the pleiotropic effects of Rap1 signaling in cancers could be cancer-specific. All in all, targeting Rap1 signaling and its regulators could potentially control carcinogenesis, metastasis, chemoresistance and immune evasion. Rap1GAP could be a promising therapeutic target in combating cancer.
Project description:To investigate the genome-wide binding dynamics of Rap1 during the transition from vegetative growth to meiosis, we performed Rap1 ChIP-chip experiments in vegetative cells (YPD), respiratory cells (pre-meiotic/YPA 8 hours), and in cells undergoing synchronous meiosis/sporulation in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. There is growing recognition that the binding of a transcription factor near a gene does not always indicate regulatory function, and further that a single factor may function to either activate or repress its targets depending on the cellular context. We examined these issues through a series of experiments involving the S. cerevisiae transcription factor Rap1, and its function throughout critical metabolic and developmental transitions between vegetative growth, respiratory growth, meiosis and sporulation. We simultaneously monitored the expression of all genes and the genomic binding locations of Rap1 throughout the timecourse. Genes downstream of Rap1 binding were activated and repressed dynamically, but a change - or lack of change - in Rap1 binding status was not predictive of activation, repression, or no change in regulation. Despite this, we show that Rap1 is required, at a given point in time, for both activation and repression of different gene targets, within the same cell. Specification of the transcriptional consequences of Rap1 binding is thus highly promoter-specific. The presence of other transcription factor binding motifs, the subtype of Rap1 motif, and the underlying chromatin structure of the promoter cannot fully account for the observed transcriptional outcomes. There is a better accounting for the dynamic binding behavior of Rap1 including specification of an expanded meiotic target set through a Tup1- dependent nucleosome-loss mechanism. The variable and dynamic association between binding and transcription in this simple unicellular system portends a similarly volatile relationship in more complex eukaryotes. Biological interpretations of transcription factor occupancy should be made cautiously and in conjunction with supporting data obtained under the precise condition of interest. SK1 yeast strain SHy002 (MATa/MATÎ± ho::LYS2/ho::LYS2 leu2::hisG/leu2::hisG lys2/lys2 ura3/ura3). Meiosis timecourse with samples collected during vegetative growth (YPD), respiratory growth (pre-meiotic/YPA 8 hours) and 0 hr, 1.5hr, 3hr, 4.5hr, 6hr, 9hr and 12hr after transfer to sporulation media (SM). 7 separate biological replicates were used for each condition/time-point. Labeled ChIP and input samples were competitively hybridized to yeast whole genome PCR based spotted arrays (resolution ~1kb). The Rap1 ChIP, RNA abundance/expression analysis, and FAIRE analysis were all carried out on the same biological samples. The two Mock Rap1 ChIP timecourse replicates correspond to timecourse replicates 3 and 4.