Effects of FTO RS9939906 and MC4R RS17782313 on obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and blood pressure in patients with hypertension.
ABSTRACT: Genetic variants of the FTO gene rs9939609 A/T and the MC4R gene rs17782313 C/T have been associated with obesity. Individuals with mutations in MC4R gene have lower blood pressure (BP), independently of obesity. This study aimed to investigate the association of FTO rs9939609 and MC4R rs17782313 with anthropometric indexes, BP, and type 2 diabetes mellitus among hypertensive patients.We genotyped 217 individuals (86 men and 131 women) with hypertension (systolic or diastolic BP???140/90 mmHg or using antihypertensive drugs). Diabetes mellitus was diagnosed according to the American Diabetes Association criteria. Waist and neck circumferences (cm), Body Adiposity Index (BAI,%), Lipid Accumulation Product Index (LAP, cm.mmol.l) and body mass index (BMI, kg/m²) were analyzed using analysis of covariance or modified Poisson's regression.Rare allele frequencies were 0.40 for A for FTO rs9939609 and 0.18 for C for MC4R rs17782313. A positive association of FTO rs9939609 and MC4R rs17782313 with BMI was observed in the overall sample. Among men and women, neck circumference was associated with the FTO genotype and, for women, MC4R genotype. In contrast, in men we found a negative association of MC4R rs17782313 with diastolic BP (TT 90.1 ±12.2, TC/CC 83.2 ±12.1; P?=?0.03) and borderline association for systolic BP after controlling for age and BMI.Common genetic variants of FTO rs9939609 have positive associations with BMI and neck circumference and MC4R rs17782313 in women, but a negative association with diastolic and mean blood pressure in men with hypertension.
Project description:Overweight and obesity are strongly associated with endometrial cancer. Several independent genome-wide association studies recently identified two common polymorphisms, FTO rs9939609 and MC4R rs17782313, that are linked to increased body weight and obesity. We examined the association of FTO rs9939609 and MC4R rs17782313 with endometrial cancer risk in a pooled analysis of nine case-control studies within the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium (E2C2). This analysis included 3601 non-Hispanic white women with histologically-confirmed endometrial carcinoma and 5275 frequency-matched controls. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to assess the relation of FTO rs9939609 and MC4R rs17782313 genotypes to the risk of endometrial cancer. Among control women, both the FTO rs9939609 A and MC4R rs17782313 C alleles were associated with a 16% increased risk of being overweight (p?=?0.001 and p?=?0.004, respectively). In case-control analyses, carriers of the FTO rs9939609 AA genotype were at increased risk of endometrial carcinoma compared to women with the TT genotype [odds ratio (OR) ?=?1.17; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-1.32, p?=?0.01]. However, this association was no longer apparent after adjusting for body mass index (BMI), suggesting mediation of the gene-disease effect through body weight. The MC4R rs17782313 polymorphism was not related to endometrial cancer risk (per allele OR?=?0.98; 95% CI: 0.91-1.06; p?=?0.68). FTO rs9939609 is a susceptibility marker for white non-Hispanic women at higher risk of endometrial cancer. Although FTO rs9939609 alone might have limited clinical or public health significance for identifying women at high risk for endometrial cancer beyond that of excess body weight, further investigation of obesity-related genetic markers might help to identify the pathways that influence endometrial carcinogenesis.
Project description:Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common and complex endocrine-metabolic disease. One of the well-documented characteristics of PCOS is obesity or overweightness. It is possible to be genetically predisposed to becoming obese or overweight, and several potentially causative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), such as rs9939609 (A/T) in the fat mass, and obesity-associated gene (FTO) and rs17782313 (T/C) in the melanocortin-4 receptor gene (MC4R), have been investigated. Further investigation of association between obesity-associated SNPs and PCOS susceptibility will contribute to a better understanding of the disease.In the present study, we enrolled 733 patients with PCOS and 892 control subjects. The common variants FTO rs9939609 and MC4R rs17782313 were genotyped and their relationship with obesity-related traits was evaluated.Rs9939609 and rs17782313 are associated with PCOS and obesity-related traits and profiles. The association found between PCOS and FTO rs9939609 (p=0.0302) was attenuated after adjustment for BMI (p=0.187). MC4R rs17782313 did not confer an increased risk for PCOS (p=0.368) even after adjustments (p=0.715). Interestingly, the interaction of FTO and MC4R polymorphisms was more significantly associated with PCOS (p=0.031, adjusted for age and BMI). The FTO variant rs9939609 is associated with Chinese women with PCOS; however, this association is affected by BMI.The combined pathogenic effect of FTO and MC4R polymorphisms indicates a direct role of the interaction between FTO and MC4R polymorphisms in the development of PCOS.
Project description:In this study we investigated the association of FTO rs9939609 and MC4R rs17782313 with elevated blood pressure in the Chinese Han population, and analysed the relationship between the rs9939609 and rs17782313 variants.We tested the rs9939609 and rs17782313 variants with the sequence-retrieval method.The increase in odds ratios of the A allele of rs9939609 and the C allele of rs17782313 for nocturnal blood pressure were 1.37 and 1.69. The nocturnal blood pressure of participants simultaneously carrying the A and C alleles was significantly higher than the blood pressure of those carrying neither FTO nor MC4R risk alleles (p < 0.05), and that of the controls carrying only the A or C alleles (p < 0.05). No association between the FTO or MC4R genes with daytime hypertension was found in this Chinese population (p > 0.05).Our data suggest that the rs9939609 and rs17782313 variants may be significantly associated with nocturnal but not daytime blood pressure levels and their combined effects were significant in this Chinese Han population.
Project description:Metabolic disorders, including MetS, obesity, and lipid disorders, may be related to genetic factors. Metabolic disorders are associated with decreased TS levels in aging men. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between FTO rs9939609, MC4R rs17782313, and PPARγ rs1801282 polymorphisms and the presence of MetS and its components, the concurrent lipid disorders, as well as sex hormone concentrations.This study involved 272 men of Caucasian descent aged 50-75 years. Lipid profile, including TCh, LDL, HDL, and TG, was evaluated by spectrophotometric method. Anthropometric measurements concerned WC and blood pressure. MetS was diagnosed according to the criteria of the IDF. Sex hormone profile, including TST, FTS, E2, DHEAS, and SHBG, was examined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Polymorphisms within FTO, MC4R, and PPARγ genes were identified using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragments length polymorphism.This study did not show links between the analyzed genetic polymorphisms and the presence of MetS, T2DM, HT, and obesity. However, higher concentrations of TCh and LDL were found in men with the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism in the recessive mode of inheritance (P=0.03 and P=0.05, respectively). Lower WC was found to be associated with MC4R rs17782313 gene inherited in the same model (P=0.005).FTO rs9939609, MC4R rs17782313, and PPARγ rs1801282 polymorphisms seem to have little effect on the incidence of metabolic malfunctions and no effect on androgen-related disorders in the examined middle-aged and elderly men.
Project description:Although the fat mass and obesity (FTO) and melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) genes have been consistently associated with obesity risk, the association between the obesity-risk alleles with type 2 diabetes is still controversial. In some recent meta-analyses in which significant results have been reported, the associations disappeared after adjustment for body mass index (BMI). However gene-diet interactions with dietary patterns have not been investigated. Our main aim was to analyze whether these associations are modulated by the level of adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet).Case-control study in 7,052 high cardiovascular risk subjects (3,430 type 2 diabetes cases and 3,622 non-diabetic subjects) with no differences in BMI. Diet was assessed by validated questionnaires. FTO-rs9939609 and MC4R-rs17782313 were determined. An aggregate genetic score was calculated to test additive effects. Gene-diet interactions were analyzed.Neither of the polymorphisms was associated with type 2 diabetes in the whole population. However, we found consistent gene-diet interactions with adherence to the MedDiet both for the FTO-rs9939609 (P-interaction=0.039), the MC4R-rs17782313 (P-interaction=0.009) and for their aggregate score (P-interaction=0.006). When adherence to the MedDiet was low, carriers of the variant alleles had higher type 2 diabetes risk (OR=1.21, 95%CI: 1.03-1.40; P=0.019 for FTO-rs9939609 and OR=1.17, 95%CI:1.01-1.36; P=0.035 for MC4R-rs17782313) than wild-type subjects. However, when adherence to the MedDiet was high, these associations disappeared (OR=0.97, 95%CI: 0.85-1.16; P=0.673 for FTO-rs9939609 and OR=0.89, 95%CI:0.78-1.02; P=0.097 for MC4R-rs17782313). These gene-diet interactions remained significant even after adjustment for BMI. As MedDiet is rich in folate, we also specifically examined folate intake and detected statistically significant interaction effects on fasting plasma glucose concentrations in non-diabetic subjects. However these findings should be interpreted with caution because folate intake may simply reflect a healthy dietary pattern.These novel results suggest that the association of the FTO-rs9939609 and the MC4R-rs17782313 polymorphisms with type 2 diabetes depends on diet and that a high adherence to the MedDiet counteracts the genetic predisposition.
Project description:The timing of associations between common genetic variants for weight or body mass index (BMI) across the life course may provide insights into the aetiology of obesity. We genotyped variants in FTO (rs9939609) and near MC4R (rs17782313) in 1240 men and 1239 women born in 1946 and participating in the MRC National Survey of Health and Development. Birth weight was recorded and height and weight were measured or self-reported repeatedly at 11 time-points between ages 2 and 53 years. Hierarchical mixed models were used to test whether genetic associations with weight or BMI standard deviation scores (SDS) changed with age during childhood and adolescence (2-20 years) or adulthood (20-53 years). The association between FTO rs9939609 and BMI SDS strengthened during childhood and adolescence (rate of change: 0.007 SDS/A-allele/year; 95% CI: 0.003-0.010, P < 0.001), reached a peak strength at age 20 years (0.13 SDS/A-allele, 0.08-0.19), and then weakened during adulthood (-0.003 SDS/A-allele/year, -0.005 to -0.001, P = 0.001). MC4R rs17782313 showed stronger associations with weight than BMI; its association with weight strengthened during childhood and adolescence (0.005 SDS/C-allele/year; 0.001-0.008, P = 0.006), peaked at age 20 years (0.13 SDS/C-allele, 0.07-0.18), and weakened during adulthood (-0.002 SDS/C-allele/year, -0.004 to 0.000, P = 0.05). In conclusion, genetic variants in FTO and MC4R showed similar biphasic changes in their associations with BMI and weight, respectively, strengthening during childhood up to age 20 years and then weakening with increasing adult age. Studies of the aetiology of obesity spanning different age groups may identify age-specific determinants of weight gain.
Project description:PURPOSE:Evaluate the relationship of leptin receptor (LEPR) rs1137101, fat mass obesity-associated (FTO) receptors 9939609, melanocortin-4 receptors (MC4R) rs2229616 and rs17782313, and proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARG) rs1801282 with clinical and metabolic phenotypes in prepubertal children. RESEARCH QUESTION:What is the effect of polymorphisms on clinical and metabolic phenotypes in prepubertal children? METHODS:A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed to evaluate anthropometric features, percentage body fat (%BF), biochemical parameters, and genotype in 773 prepubertal children. RESULTS:FTO rs9939609 was associated with an increase in body mass index (BMI) and BMI z-score (zBMI). MC4R rs17782313 was associated with a decrease in BMI and +0.06 units in zBMI. LEPR, and PPARG-2 polymorphisms were associated with decreases in BMI and an increase and decrease units in zBMI, respectively. The homozygous SNPs demonstrated increases (FTO rs993609 and MC4R rs17782313) and decreases (LEPR rs1137101, PPARG rs1801282) in zBMI than the homozygous form of the major allele. In the overweight/obese group, the MC4R rs17782313 CC genotype showed higher average weight, zBMI, waist circumference, waist-circumference-to-height ratio, and waist-hip ratio, and lower BMI, mid-upper arm circumference, calf circumference, and %BF (P< 0.05). FTO rs9939609 AT and AA genotypes were associated with lower triglycerides (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:We showed that MC4R rs17782313 and FTO rs9939609 were positively associated with zBMI, with weak and very weak effects, respectively, suggesting a very scarce contribution to childhood obesity. LEPR rs1137101 and PPARG-2 rs1801282 had weak and medium negative effects on zBMI, respectively, and may slightly protect against childhood obesity.
Project description:Obesity is a well-established risk factor for large artery atherosclerotic (LAA) stroke. The aim of the study was to explore whether obesity genes, such as MC4R and FTO, contribute to LAA stroke risk in the Chinese Han population.322 LAA stroke patients and 473 controls were recruited. Gene polymorphism of MC4R (rs17782313) and FTO (rs8050136 and rs9939609) were genotyped.No differences were observed in genotype frequencies of variants of FTO (rs8050136 and rs9939609) or MC4R (rs17782313) between LAA stroke patients and control subjects. However, rs17782313 of the MC4R gene was associated with LAA stroke susceptibility in smokers (rs17782313: p = 0.020, OR (95% CI) = 1.55 (1.07-2.23)) in the stratified analysis. Furthermore, multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis revealed that the combination of MC4R variant (rs17782313), hypertension and smoking habit was significantly associated with increased risk of LAA stroke (p < 0.0001, OR (95% CI) = 6.57 (4.79-9.01)).Our study indicated that the synergistic effects of MC4R variants, hypertension, and smoking habit contribute significantly to the risk of LAA stroke in the Chinese Han population. The finding revealed that obesity gene MC4R contribute to the risk of LAA stroke via a synergistic mechanism, which will provide new insight into the genetic architecture of LAA stroke.
Project description:Objectives:Obesity is a significant risk factor for a number of chronic diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Obesity usually results from a combination of causes and contributing factors, including genetics and lifestyle choices. Many studies have shown an association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) and the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) genes with body mass index (BMI). Therefore, recognizing the main genes and their relevant genetic variants will aid prediction of obesity risk. The aim of our study was to investigate the frequency of rs9939609 and rs17782313 polymorphisms in FTO and MC4R genes in an Iranian population. Methods:We enrolled 130 obese patients and 83 healthy weight controls and calculated their BMI. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood and the frequency of rs9939609 and rs17782313 polymorphisms in FTO and MC4R genes was determined using the tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR). Results:Significant associations were found between FTO rs9939609 and BMI. Where homozygous risk allele carriers (A-A) have significant higher odds ratio (OR) of being obese than individuals with normal BMI (OR = 6.927, p < 0.005, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.48-13.78). No significant correlation between MC4R rs17782313 and obesity were observed when compared to healthy weight individuals. Although subjects with C-C genotype had higher odds of obesity (OR = 1.889, p = 0.077, 95%CI: 0.92-3.84). Conclusions:This study shows a relationship between FTO polymorphism and increased BMI, therefore, SNP in the FTO gene influence changes in BMI and can be considered a prognostic marker of obesity risk.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Recent genome-wide association studies have identified many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with body mass index (BMI)/generalized obesity. In this study, we aimed to examine the associations of identified SNPs with risk of central obesity in a child population from China.<h4>Methods</h4>We genotyped 11 SNPs (FTO rs9939609, MC4R rs17782313, GNPDA2 rs10938397, BDNF rs6265, FAIM2 rs7138803, NPC1 rs1805081, SEC16B rs10913469, SH2B1 rs4788102, PCSK1rs6235, KCTD15 rs29941, BAT2 rs2844479) in the Chinese children (N?=?3502, age range 6-18 years) from the Beijing Child and Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome (BCAMS). Based on the age- and sex- specific waist circumference (WC) standards generated in the BCAMS study, 1196 central obese cases and 2306 controls were identified.<h4>Results</h4>Of 11 studied SNPs, four SNPs and genetic risk score (GRS) based on them were statistically significantly associated with central obesity by WC criteria (FTO rs9939609: OR?=?1.29, 95%CI?=?1.10-1.50, p?=?0.001; MC4R rs17782313: OR?=?1.27, 95%CI?=?1.12-1.44, p?=?1.32×10??; GNPDA2 rs10938397: OR?=?1.22, 95%CI?=?1.09-1.37, p?=?4.09×10??; BDNF rs6265: OR?=?1.20, 95%CI?=?1.08-1.34, p?=?8.86×10??; GRS: OR?=?1.25, 95%CI 1.16-1.34, p?=?2.58×10??) after adjustment for sex, age, pubertal stage, physical activity and family history of obesity. Similar observations were made using weight-to-height ratio (WHtR) criterion. However, other SNPs were not associated with central obesity by WC as well as WHtR criterion.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our study replicates the statistically significant association of four SNPs (FTO rs9939609, MC4R rs17782313, GNPDA2 rs10938397, BDNF rs6265) with risk of central obesity in the Chinese children.