Structural elucidation of diglycosyl diacylglycerol and monoglycosyl diacylglycerol from Streptococcus pneumoniae by multiple-stage linear ion-trap mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization.
ABSTRACT: The cell wall of the pathogenic bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae contains glucopyranosyl diacylglycerol (GlcDAG) and galactoglucopyranosyldiacylglycerol (GalGlcDAG). The specific GlcDAG consisting of vaccenic acid substituent at sn-2 was recently identified as another glycolipid antigen family recognized by invariant natural killer T-cells. Here, we describe a linear ion-trap multiple-stage (MS(n) ) mass spectrometric approach towards structural analysis of GalGlcDAG and GlcDAG. Structural information derived from MS(n) (n?=?2, 3) on the [M?+?Li](+) adduct ions desorbed by electrospray ionization affords identification of the fatty acid substituents, assignment of the fatty acyl groups on the glycerol backbone, as well as the location of double bond along the fatty acyl chain. The identification of the fatty acyl groups and determination of their regio-specificity were confirmed by MS(n) (n?=?2, 3) on the [M?+?NH(4) ](+) ions. We establish the structures of GalGlcDAG and GlcDAG isolated from S. pneumoniae, in which the major species consists of a 16:1- or 18:1-fatty acid substituent mainly at sn-2, and the double bond of the fatty acid is located at ?-7 (n-7). More than one isomers were found for each mass in the family. This mass spectrometric approach provides a simple method to achieve structure identification of this important lipid family that would be very difficult to define using the traditional method.
Project description:Phosphatidylglycerol (PG) is the major phospholipid of plant chloroplasts. PG from Arabidopsis thaliana has an unusual fatty acyl chain, 3-trans-hexadecenoyl (Delta(3)16:1) in the sn-2 position of the major 18:3/Delta(3)16:1-PG species, as well as in 18:2/Delta(3)16:1-PG and 16:0/Delta(3)16:1-PG. Upon low-energy collisionally activated dissociation (CAD) in a tandem quadrupole or in an ion-trap mass spectrometer, the [M - H]- ions of the PG molecules containing Delta(3)16:1 give product-ion spectra that are readily distinguishable from those arising from PGs without the Delta(3)16:1 species. The Delta(3)16:1-fatty acyl-containing PGs are characterized by MS(2) product-ion mass spectra that contain predominant [M - H - 236]- ions arising from loss of the Delta(3)16:1-fatty acyl substituent as a ketene. This is attributable to the fact that the alpha-hydrogen of the Delta(3)16:1-fatty acid substituent involved in the ketene loss is an allylic hydrogen, which is very labile. This leads to preferential neutral loss of 236 and drastic decline in the neutral loss of 254 (i.e., loss as a fatty acid), the unique features that signify the presence of Delta(3)16:1-fatty acyl containing PGs. The neutral loss scan of 236, thus, provides a sensitive tandem quadrupole mass spectrometric means to identify Delta(3)16:1-containing PG species in lipid mixtures. This low-energy tandem mass spectrometric approach also permits the structures of the Arabidopsis PGs that consist of two isomeric structures to be unveiled.
Project description:Shotgun lipidomics has recently gained popularity for lipid analysis. Conventionally, shotgun analysis of glycerophospholipids via direct electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) provides glycerophospholipid (GPL) class (i.e., headgroup composition) and fatty acyl composition. Reliant on low-energy collision-induced dissociation (CID), traditional ESI-MS/MS fails to define fatty acyl regiochemistry along the glycerol backbone or carbon-carbon double bond position(s) in unsaturated fatty acyl substituents. Therefore, isomeric GPLs are often unresolved, representing a significant challenge for shotgun-MS approaches. We developed a top-down shotgun-MS method utilizing gas-phase ion/ion charge inversion chemistry that provides near-complete GPL structural identification. First, in negative ion mode, CID of mass-selected GPL anions generates fatty acyl carboxylate anions via fragmentation of ester bonds linking the fatty acyl substituents at the <i>sn</i>-1 and <i>sn</i>-2 positions of the glycerol backbone. Product anions, including fatty acyl carboxylate ions, were then derivatized in the mass spectrometer via an ion/ion charge inversion reaction with tris-phenanthroline magnesium dications. Subsequent CID of charge-inverted fatty acyl complex cations yielded isomer-specific product ion spectra that permit (i) unambiguous assignment of carbon-carbon double bond position(s) and (ii) relative quantitation of isomeric fatty acyl substituents. The outlined strategy was applied to the analysis of targeted GPLs extracted from human plasma, including several proposed plasma biomarkers. A single experiment thus facilitates assignment of the GPL headgroup, fatty acyl composition, carbon-carbon double bond position(s) in unsaturated fatty acyl chains, and, in some cases, fatty acyl <i>sn</i>-position and relative abundances for isomeric fatty acyl substituents. Ultimately, this MS<i><sup>n</sup></i> platform paired with ion/ion chemistry permitted identification of major, and some minor, isomeric contributors that are unresolved using conventional ESI-MS/MS.
Project description:Two major glycolipids, which comprise approximately 36% of the total lipid mass from Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiological agent of Lyme disease, were investigated. We determined the fatty acid type, sugar identity, anomeric configuration, and substituent type and position. The structures were identified as cholesteryl 6-O-acyl-beta-d-galactopyranoside (B. burgdorferi glycolipid 1, BbGL-I), and 1,2-di-O-acyl-3-O-alpha-d-galactopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (BbGL-II). The major fatty acids were palmitate and oleate. The structures were corroborated by gas-liquid chromatography MS, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight spectroscopy, fast atom bombardment MS, detailed NMR spectrometry, and metabolic labeling. This is a previously undescribed demonstration of a cholesteryl galactoside in bacteria. Lipopolysaccharide was not detected in B. burgdorferi. The two glycolipids have several properties suggesting they may function as lipopolysaccharide: both are main components of the bacterial membrane, surface exposed, and have a three-domain structure. BbGL-I elicited specific antibodies in mice and rabbits, and BbGL-II elicited antibodies that reacted with both glycolipids.
Project description:Microsomal preparations from the developing cotyledons of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) catalyse the acylation of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate in the presence of acyl-CoA. Under these conditions the radioactive glycerol in sn-glycerol 3-phosphate accumulates in phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylcholine, diacyl- and tri-acylglycerol. The incorporation of glycerol into phosphatidylcholine is via diacylglycerol and probably involves a cholinephosphotransferase. The results show that the glycerol moiety and the acyl components in phosphatidylcholine exchange with the diacylglycerol during the biosynthesis of diacylglycerol from phosphatidic acid. The continuous reversible transfer of diacylglycerol with phosphatidylcholine, which operates during active triacylglycerol synthesis, will control in part the polyunsaturated-fatty-acid quality of the final seed oil.
Project description:We investigated the diacyglycerol kinase species present in several baboon tissues using the substrates sn-1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl diacylglycerol and sn-1,2-didecanoyl diacylglycerol. Chromatography of octyl glucoside extracts of the baboon (Papio cynocephalus papio) tissues on hydroxyapatite columns revealed the presence of three diacylglycerol kinase species with different substrate preferences. One species markedly 'preferred' the substrate sn-1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoylglycerol, the two other species preferred sn-1,2-didecanoylglycerol. Measurement of the activity of the baboon brain diacylglycerol kinases toward diacylglycerols with a range of different fatty acid chains revealed a strict preference of the arachidonoyl diacylglycerol kinase for sn-1-acyl-2-arachidonoyl diacylglycerol, whereas the other enzymes showed no preference toward several long-chain-fatty-acid-containing diacylglycerols. The arachidonoyl diacylglycerol kinase was particularly abundant in brain and testis, whereas liver was practically devoid of this enzyme. The arachidonoyl diacylglycerol kinase from baboon brain was found to be predominantly associated with the particulate fraction and exhibited an apparent molecular mass of 130 kDa.
Project description:The aspects of cellular metabolism controlled by phosphatidylinositol phosphates (PtdInsPs) have been broadly expanded, and these phospholipids have drawn tremendous attention as pleiotropic signaling molecules. PtdInsPs analysis using LC/MS/MS has remained challenging due to the strong hydrophilicity of these lipids. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) or a neutral loss scan has been performed to quantitatively measure PtdInsPs after chemical derivatization on the phosphate groups of inositol moieties. Only predefined PtdInsPs can be measured in MRM mode, and fatty acyl compositions of sn-1 and sn-2 positions of PtdInsPs cannot be obtained from a neutral loss scan. In our present study, we developed a simple LC/MS/MS method for structural identification of sn-1 and sn-2 fatty acids of PtdInsPs and their relative quantitation. Precursor ion scans of sn-1 monoacylglycerols (MAGs) of PtdInsPs provided structural information about the lipids, and ammonium adduction enhanced signal intensities of PtdInsPs. The relative amount of observed PtdInsPs in biological samples could be compared using chromatographic peak areas from the neutral loss scans. Using precursor ion scans of sn-1 MAG and neutral loss scans of headgroups, major PtdInsPs in cells and tissues were successfully identified with structural information of sn-1 and sn-2 fatty acids, and their relative amounts in different samples were compared.
Project description:Diacyl glycerophospholipids (GPs) belong to the most abundant lipid species in living organisms and consist of a glycerol backbone with fatty acyl groups in sn-1 and sn-2 and a polar head group in the sn-3 position. Regioisomeric mixed diacyl GPs have the same fatty acyl composition but differ in their allocation to sn-1 or sn-2 of the glycerol unit. In-depth analysis of regioisomeric mixed diacyl GP species composed of fatty acyl moieties that are similar in length and degree of saturation typically requires either chemical derivatization or sophisticated analytical instrumentation, since these types of regioisomers are not well resolved under standard ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) conditions. Here, we introduce a simple and fast method for diacyl GP regioisomer analysis employing UPLC tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). This GP regioisomer analysis is based both on minor chromatographic retention time shifts and on major differences in relative abundances of the two fatty acyl anion fragments observed in MS/MS. To monitor these differences with optimal precision, MS/MS spectra are recorded continuously over the UPLC elution profile of the lipid species of interest. Quantification of relative abundances of the regioisomers was performed by algorithms that we have developed for this purpose. The method was applied to commercially available mixed diacyl GP standards and to total lipid extracts of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and bovine liver. To validate our results, we determined regioisomeric ratios of phosphatidylcholine (PC) standards using phospholipase A2-specific release of fatty acids from the sn-2 position of the glycerol backbone. Our results show that most analyzed mixed diacyl GPs of biological origin exhibit significantly higher regioisomeric purity than synthetic lipid standards. In summary, this method can be implemented in routine LC-MS/MS-based lipidomics workflows without the necessity for additional chemical additives, derivatizations, or instrumentation.
Project description:Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyses the last step in acyl-CoA-dependent triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis and is an important determinant of cellular oil content and quality. In this study, a gene, designated TaDGAT2, encoding a type 2 DGAT (DGAT2)-related enzyme was identified from the oleaginous marine protist Thraustochytrium aureum. The deduced TaDGAT2 sequence contains a ~460 amino acid domain most closely related to DGAT2s from Dictyostelium sp. (45-50% identity). Recombinant TaDGAT2 restored TAG biosynthesis to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae H1246 TAG-deficient mutant, and microsomes from the complemented mutant displayed DGAT activity with C16 and C18 saturated and unsaturated fatty acyl-CoA and diacylglycerol substrates. To examine its biotechnological potential, TaDGAT2 was expressed under control of a strong seed-specific promoter in wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana and the high linoleic acid fad3fae1 mutant. In both backgrounds, little change was detected in seed oil content, but a striking increase in oleic acid content of seeds was observed. This increase was greatest in fad3fae1 seeds, where relative amounts of oleic acid increased nearly 2-fold to >50% of total fatty acids. In addition, >2-fold increase in oleic acid levels was detected in the triacylglycerol sn-2 position and in the major seed phospholipid phosphatidylcholine. These results suggest that increased seed oleic acid content mediated by TaDGAT2 is influenced in part by the fatty acid composition of host cells and occurs not by enhancing oleic acid content at the TAG sn-3 position directly but by increasing total oleic acid levels in seeds, presumably by limiting flux through phosphatidylcholine-based desaturation reactions.
Project description:Linear ion-trap multiple-stage mass spectrometric approach (MS(n)) towards nearly complete structural elucidation of triacylglycerol (TAG) including (1) assignment the fatty acid substituents on the glycerol backbone and (2) location of the double bond(s) on the unsaturated fatty acyl groups is reported. The characterization is established by the findings that MS(2) on the [M + Li](+) ions of TAG yields more abundant ions reflecting losses of the outer fatty acid substituents either as free acids (i.e., [M + Li - R(1)CO(2)H](+) and [M + Li - R(3)CO(2)H](+) ions) or as lithium salts (i.e., [M + Li - R(1)CO(2)Li](+) and [M + Li - R(3)CO(2)Li](+) ions) than the ions reflecting the similar losses of the inner fatty acid substituent (i.e., [M + Li - R(2)CO(2)Li](+) and [M + Li - R(2)CO(2)Li](+) ions). Further dissociation (MS(3) of [M + Li - R(n)CO(2)H](+) (n = 1, 2, or 3) gives rise to the ion series locating the double bonds along the fatty acid chain. These ions arise from charge-remote fragmentations involving beta-cleavage with gamma-H shift, analogous to those seen for the unsaturated long-chain fatty acids characterized as initiated ions. Significant differences in abundances in the ion pairs reflecting the additional losses of the fatty acid moieties, respectively, were also seen in the MS(3) spectra of the [M + Li - R(n)CO(2)H](+) and [M + Li - R(n)CO(2)Li](+) ions, leading to confirmation of the fatty acid substituents on the glycerol backbone. MS(n) on the [M + Na](+) and [M + NH(4)](+) adduct ions also affords location of fatty acid substituents on the glycerol backbone, but not the position of the double bond(s) along the fatty acid chain. Unique ions from internal losses of the glycerol residues were seen in the MS(3) spectra of [M + Alk - R(n)CO(2)H](+) (n = 1, 2, 3) and of [M + Alk - R(n)CO(2)Alk](+) (Alk = Li, Na, NH(4); n = 1, 3). They are signature ions for glycerides and the pathways leading to their formation may involve rearrangements.
Project description:CDP-diacylglycerol synthases (CDS) are critical enzymes that catalyze the formation of CDP-diacylglycerol (CDP-DAG) from phosphatidic acid (PA). Here we show in vitro that the two isoforms of human CDS, CDS1 and CDS2, show different acyl chain specificities for its lipid substrate. CDS2 is selective for the acyl chains at the sn-1 and sn-2 positions, the most preferred species being 1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-phosphatidic acid. CDS1, conversely, shows no particular substrate specificity, displaying similar activities for almost all substrates tested. Additionally, we show that inhibition of CDS2 by phosphatidylinositol is also acyl chain-dependent, with the strongest inhibition seen with the 1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl species. CDS1 shows no acyl chain-dependent inhibition. Both CDS1 and CDS2 are inhibited by their anionic phospholipid end products, with phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate showing the strongest inhibition. Our results indicate that CDS1 and CDS2 could create different CDP-DAG pools that may serve to enrich different phospholipid species with specific acyl chains.