Linking plant nutritional status to plant-microbe interactions.
ABSTRACT: Plants have developed a wide-range of adaptations to overcome nutrient limitation, including changes to the quantity and composition of carbon-containing compounds released by roots. Root-associated bacteria are largely influenced by these compounds which can be perceived as signals or substrates. Here, we evaluate the effect of root exudates collected from maize plants grown under nitrogen (N), phosphate (P), iron (Fe) and potassium (K) deficiencies on the transcriptome of the plant growth promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42. The largest shifts in gene expression patterns were observed in cells exposed to exudates from N-, followed by P-deficient plants. Exudates from N-deprived maize triggered a general stress response in FZB42 in the exponential growth phase, which was evidenced by the suppression of numerous genes involved in protein synthesis. Exudates from P-deficient plants induced bacterial genes involved in chemotaxis and motility whilst exudates released by Fe and K deficient plants did not cause dramatic changes in the bacterial transcriptome during exponential growth phase. Global transcriptional changes in bacteria elicited by nutrient deficient maize exudates were significantly correlated with concentrations of the amino acids aspartate, valine and glutamate in root exudates suggesting that transcriptional profiling of FZB42 associated with metabolomics of N, P, Fe and K-deficient maize root exudates is a powerful approach to better understand plant-microbe interactions under conditions of nutritional stress.
Project description:Transcription profiles of Bacillus amyloliquefacs FZB42 (cultured to an optical densit of 1.0 or 3.0) in response to root exudates from nutrient-sufficient maize plants and plants starved of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium or iron.
Project description:Transcription profiling by array of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain FZB42 after interaction exudates (IE) treatment, at OD600=1.0 and at OD600=1.0 respectively. IE was the root exudates prepared from maize plants growing with FZB42. The reference was treated with the root exudates (RE), prepared from maize plants grown in an axenic system.
Project description:Fe chlorosis is considered as one of the major constraints on crop growth and yield worldwide, being particularly worse when associated with S shortage, due to the tight link between Fe and S. Plant adaptation to inadequate nutrient availabilities often relies on the release of root exudates that enhance nutrients, mobilization from soil colloids and favour their uptake by roots. This work aims at characterizing the exudomic profile of hydroponically grown tomato plants subjected to either single or combined Fe and S deficiency, as well as at shedding light on the regulation mechanisms underlying Fe and S acquisition processes by plants. Root exudates have been analysed by untargeted metabolomics, through liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry as well as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry following derivatization. More than 200 metabolites could be putatively annotated. Venn diagrams show that 23%, 10% and 21% of differential metabolites are distinctively modulated by single Fe deficiency, single S deficiency or combined Fe-S deficiency, respectively. Interestingly, for the first time, a mugineic acid derivative is detected in dicot plants root exudates. The results seem to support the hypothesis of the co-existence of the two Fe acquisition strategies in tomato plants.
Project description:Root secretion of coumarin-phenolic type compounds has been recently shown to be related to Arabidopsis thaliana tolerance to Fe deficiency at high pH. Previous studies revealed the identity of a few simple coumarins occurring in roots and exudates of Fe-deficient A. thaliana plants, and left open the possible existence of other unknown phenolics. We used HPLC-UV/VIS/ESI-MS(TOF), HPLC/ESI-MS(ion trap) and HPLC/ESI-MS(Q-TOF) to characterize (identify and quantify) phenolic-type compounds accumulated in roots or secreted into the nutrient solution of A. thaliana plants in response to Fe deficiency. Plants grown with or without Fe and using nutrient solutions buffered at pH 5.5 or 7.5 enabled to identify an array of phenolics. These include several coumarinolignans not previously reported in A. thaliana (cleomiscosins A, B, C, and D and the 5'-hydroxycleomiscosins A and/or B), as well as some coumarin precursors (ferulic acid and coniferyl and sinapyl aldehydes), and previously reported cathecol (fraxetin) and non-cathecol coumarins (scopoletin, isofraxidin and fraxinol), some of them in hexoside forms not previously characterized. The production and secretion of phenolics were more intense when the plant accessibility to Fe was diminished and the plant Fe status deteriorated, as it occurs when plants are grown in the absence of Fe at pH 7.5. Aglycones and hexosides of the four coumarins were abundant in roots, whereas only the aglycone forms could be quantified in the nutrient solution. A comprehensive quantification of coumarins, first carried out in this study, revealed that the catechol coumarin fraxetin was predominant in exudates (but not in roots) of Fe-deficient A. thaliana plants grown at pH 7.5. Also, fraxetin was able to mobilize efficiently Fe from a Fe(III)-oxide at pH 5.5 and pH 7.5. On the other hand, non-catechol coumarins were much less efficient in mobilizing Fe and were present in much lower concentrations, making unlikely that they could play a role in Fe mobilization. The structural features of the array of coumarin type-compounds produced suggest some can mobilize Fe from the soil and others can be more efficient as allelochemicals.
Project description:Under limited iron (Fe) availability maize, a Strategy II plant, improves Fe acquisition through the release of phytosiderophores (PS) into the rhizosphere and the subsequent uptake of Fe-PS complexes into root cells. Occurrence of Strategy-I-like components and interactions with phosphorous (P) nutrition has been hypothesized based on molecular and physiological studies in grasses.In this report transcriptomic analysis (NimbleGen microarray) of Fe deficiency response revealed that maize roots modulated the expression levels of 724 genes (508 up- and 216 down-regulated, respectively). As expected, roots of Fe-deficient maize plants overexpressed genes involved in the synthesis and release of 2'-deoxymugineic acid (the main PS released by maize roots). A strong modulation of genes involved in regulatory aspects, Fe translocation, root morphological modification, primary metabolic pathways and hormonal metabolism was induced by the nutritional stress. Genes encoding transporters for Fe2+ (ZmNRAMP1) and P (ZmPHT1;7 and ZmPHO1) were also up-regulated under Fe deficiency. Fe-deficient maize plants accumulated higher amounts of P than the Fe-sufficient ones, both in roots and shoots. The supply of 1 ?M 59Fe, as soluble (Fe-Citrate and Fe-PS) or sparingly soluble (Ferrihydrite) sources to deficient plants, caused a rapid down-regulation of genes coding for PS and Fe(III)-PS transport, as well as of ZmNRAMP1 and ZmPHT1;7. Levels of 32P absorption essentially followed the rates of 59Fe uptake in Fe-deficient plants during Fe resupply, suggesting that P accumulation might be regulated by Fe uptake in maize plants.The transcriptional response to Fe-deficiency in maize roots confirmed the modulation of known genes involved in the Strategy II and revealed the presence of Strategy I components usually described in dicots. Moreover, data here presented provide evidence of a close relationship between two essential nutrients for plants, Fe and P, and highlight a key role played by Fe and P transporters to preserve the homeostasis of these two nutrients in maize plants.
Project description:Iron deficiency is a yield-limiting factor and a worldwide problem for crop production in many agricultural regions, particularly in aerobic and calcareous soils. Graminaceous species, like maize, improve Fe acquisition through the release of phytosiderophores (PS) into the rhizosphere and the following uptake of Fe(III)-PS complexes through specific transporters. Transcriptional profile obtained by roots 12-d-old maize plants under Fe starvation for 1 week (Fe-deficient; 19-d-old plants) were compared with the transcriptional profile obtained by roots of 12-d-old maize plants grown in a nutrient solution containing 100 μM Fe-EDTA for 1 week (Fe-sufficient; 19-d-old plants). Overall design: 12-d-old maize plants were treated for 7 days with nutrient solution containing 100 μM Fe-EDTA (Fe-sufficient plants) while roots of an other part of 12-d-old maize plants were exposed for 7 days to nutrient solution without 100 μM Fe-EDTA (Fe-deficient plants). Three different biological replicates were used for each sample repeating the experiment three times. All samples were obtained pooling roots of six plants.
Project description:Plant root colonization by rhizobacteria can protect plants against pathogens and promote plant growth, and chemotaxis to root exudates was shown to be an essential prerequisite for efficient root colonization. Since many chemoattractants control the transcript levels of their cognate chemoreceptor genes, we have studied here the transcript levels of the 27 Pseudomonas putida KT2440 chemoreceptor genes in the presence of different maize root exudate (MRE) concentrations. Transcript levels were increased for 10 chemoreceptor genes at low MRE concentrations, whereas almost all receptor genes showed lower transcript levels at high MRE concentrations. The exposure of KT2440 to different MRE concentrations did not alter c-di-GMP levels, indicating that changes in chemoreceptor transcripts are not mediated by this second messenger. Data suggest that rhizosphere colonization unfolds in a temporal fashion. Whereas at a distance to the root, exudates enhance chemoreceptor gene transcript levels promoting in turn chemotaxis, this process is reversed in root vicinity, where the necessity of chemotaxis toward the root may be less important. Insight into KT2440 signaling processes were obtained by analyzing mutants defective in the three cheA paralogous genes. Whereas a mutant in cheA1 showed reduced c-di-GMP levels and impaired biofilm formation, a cheA2 mutant was entirely deficient in MRE chemotaxis, indicating the existence of homologs of the P. aeruginosa wsp and che (chemotaxis) pathways. Signaling through both pathways was important for efficient maize root colonization. Future studies will show whether the MRE concentration dependent effect on chemoreceptor gene transcript levels is a feature shared by other species.
Project description:The effect of the S nutritional status on a plant's capability to cope with Fe shortage was studied in solution cultivation experiments in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Europa). Barley is a Strategy II plant and responds to Fe deficiency by secretion of chelating compounds, phytosiderophores (PS). All PS are derived from nicotianamine whose precursor is methionine. This suggests that a long-term supply of an inadequate amount of S could reduce a plant's capability to respond to Fe deficiency by limiting the rate of PS biosynthesis. The responses of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Europa) plants grown for 12 d on Fe-free nutrient solutions (NS) containing 0 or 1.2 mM SO(4)(2-), was examined after 24 h or 48 h from transfer to NS containing 1.2 mM SO(4)(2-). After the supply of S was restored to S-deprived plants, an increase in PS release in root exudates was evident after 24 h of growth in S-sufficient NS and the increment reached values up to 4-fold higher than the control 48 h after S resupply. When S was supplied to S-deficient plants, leaf ATPS (EC 22.214.171.124) and OASTL (EC 126.96.36.199) activities exhibited a progressive recovery. Furthermore, root HvST1 transcript abundance remained high for 48 h following S resupply and a significant increase in the level of root HvYS1 transcripts was also found after only 24 h of S resupply. Data support the idea that the extent to which the plant is able to cope with Fe starvation is strongly associated with its S nutritional status. In particular, our results are indicative that barley plants fully recover their capability to cope with Fe shortage after the supply of S is restored to S-deficient plants.
Project description:The transcriptomic response of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 to maize root exudates at OD600=3.0. This is a comprehensive analysis using the data of six microarray experiments (Exp1-2-3 and ExpABC respectively, 18 hybridization in total).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Intercropping systems could increase crop diversity and avoid vulnerability to biotic stresses. Most studies have shown that intercropping can provide relief to crops against wind-dispersed pathogens. However, there was limited data on how the practice of intercropping help crops against soil-borne Phytophthora disease. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:Compared to pepper monoculture, a large scale intercropping study of maize grown between pepper rows reduced disease levels of the soil-borne pepper Phytophthora blight. These reduced disease levels of Phytophthora in the intercropping system were correlated with the ability of maize plants to form a "root wall" that restricted the movement of Phytophthora capsici across rows. Experimentally, it was found that maize roots attracted the zoospores of P. capsici and then inhibited their growth. When maize plants were grown in close proximity to each other, the roots produced and secreted larger quantities of 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (DIMBOA) and 6-methoxy-2-benzoxazolinone (MBOA). Furthermore, MBOA, benzothiazole (BZO), and 2-(methylthio)-benzothiazole (MBZO) were identified in root exudates of maize and showed antimicrobial activity against P. capsici. CONCLUSIONS:Maize could form a "root wall" to restrict the spread of P. capsici across rows in maize and pepper intercropping systems. Antimicrobe compounds secreted by maize root were one of the factors that resulted in the inhibition of P. capsici. These results provide new insights into plant-plant-microbe mechanisms involved in intercropping systems.