Monocytes mediate metastatic breast tumor cell adhesion to endothelium under flow.
ABSTRACT: Endothelial adhesion is necessary for the hematogenous dissemination of tumor cells. However, the metastatic breast tumor cell MDA-MB-231 does not bind to the endothelium under physiological flow conditions, suggesting alternate mechanisms of adhesion. Since monocytes are highly represented in the tumor microenvironment, and also bind to endothelium during inflammation, we hypothesized that the monocytes assist in the arrest of MDA-MB-231 on the endothelium. Using in vitro models of the dynamic shear environment of the vasculature, we show that TNF-?-activated THP1/primary human monocytes and MDA-MB-231 cells form stable aggregates, and that the monocytes in these aggregates mediate the adhesion of otherwise nonadherent MDA-MB-231 cells to inflamed endothelium under flow (55±2.4 vs. 1.7±0.82 at a shear stress of 0.5 dyn/cm(2), P<0.01). We also show that the hydrodynamic forces determine the size and orientation of aggregates adhered to the endothelium, and strongly favor the attachment of small aggregates with tumor cells downstream of flow (74-86% doublets at 0.5-2 dyn/cm(2), P<0.01). The 5-fold up-regulation of ICAM-1 on TNF-?-activated MDA-MB-231 cells through the Nf-?B pathway was found to be critical in MDA-MB-231-monocyte aggregation and endothelial adhesion. Our results demonstrate that, under inflammatory conditions, monocytes may serve to disseminate tumor cells through circulation, and the tumor-monocyte-endothelial axis may represent a new therapeutic target to reduce cancer metastasis.
Project description:Mammary tumors and malignant breast cancer cell lines over-express the coagulation factor, tissue factor (TF). High expression of TF is associated with a poor prognosis in breast cancer. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), the endogenous inhibitor of TF, is constitutively expressed on the endothelium. We hypothesized that TF-expressing tumor cells can bind to immobilized recombinant TFPI, leading to arrest of the tumor cells under shear in vitro. We evaluated the adhesion of breast cancer cells to immobilized TFPI under static and shear conditions (0.35 - 1.3 dyn/cm2). We found that high-TF-expressing breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231 (with a TF density of 460,000/cell), but not low TF-expressing MCF-7 (with a TF density of 1,400/cell), adhered to recombinant TFPI, under static and shear conditions. Adhesion of MDA-MB-231 cells to TFPI required activated factor VII (FVIIa), but not FX, and was inhibited by a factor VIIa-blocking anti-TF antibody. Under shear, adhesion to TFPI was dependent on the TFPI-coating concentration, FVIIa concentration and shear stress, with no observed adhesion at shear stresses greater than 1.0 dyn/cm2. This is the first study showing that TF-expressing tumor cells can be captured by immobilized TFPI, a ligand constitutively expressed on the endothelium, under low shear in vitro. Based on our results, we hypothesize that TFPI could be a novel ligand mediating the arrest of TF-expressing tumor cells in high TFPI-expressing vessels under conditions of low shear during metastasis.
Project description:Successful adhesion of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) to microvascular endothelium of distant metastatic tissue is the key starting step of metastatic cascade that could be effectively chemoprevented as we demonstrated previously. Here, we hypothesize that the hetero-adhesion may produce secretory biomarkers that may be important for both premetastatic diagnosis and chemoprevention. We show that co-incubation of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell line MDA-MB-231 with human pulmonary microvascular endothelial monolayers (HPMEC) secretes Cyr61 (CCN1), primarily from MDA-MB-231. However, addition of metapristone (RU486 metabolite) to the co-incubation system inhibits Cyr61 secretion probably via the Cyr61/integrin ?v?1 signaling pathway without significant cytotoxicity on both MDA-MB-231 and HPMEC. Transfection of MDA-MB-231 with Cyr61-related recombinant plasmid or siRNA enhances or reduces Cyr61 expression, accordingly. The transfection significantly changes hetero-adhesion and migration of MDA-MB-231, and the changed bioactivities by overexpressed CYR61 could be antagonized by metapristone in vitro. Moreover, the circulating MDA-MB-231 develops lung metastasis in mice, which could be effectively prevented by oral metapristone without significant toxicity. The present study, for the first time, demonstrates that co-incubation of MDA-MB-231 with HPMEC secrets CYR61 probably via the CYR61/integrin ?v?1 signaling pathway to promote adhesion-invasion of TNBC (early metastatic step). Metapristone, by interfering the adhesion-invasion process, prevents metastasis from happening.
Project description:Cancer metastasis involves the adhesion of cancer cells to the endothelium. This process can be mediated by integrins which are surface receptors responsible for interactions with ECM proteins. Integrins ?1 and ?V?3 represent factors are involved in cancer progression and metastasis. Activation of integrins can be promoted by thiol-disulfide exchanges initiated by Protein Disulfide Isomerase (PDI). The purpose of this study was to prove the involvement of disulfide rearrangements in the molecules of integrins in the course of cancer cell adhesion and migration through the endothelium. We present the evidence which proves that highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines adhere to endothelial cells are more effective than non-invasive MCF-10A and MCF-7 cell lines and that the attachment of MDA-MB-231 to the endothelium can be attenuated either by the agents blocking free thiol groups (DTNB, cystamine or PCMBS) or by PDI inhibitors (Q3Rut, 16F16 or PACMA-31). Furthermore, we prove that the transendothelial migration of MDA-MB-231 cells and contraction of collagen can be blocked by thiol blockers or PDI inhibitors and that these factors affect exposition of free thiols on integrin molecules.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Extracellular nucleotides are released and detectable in a high concentration within the tumor microenvironment. G protein-coupled P2Y2 nucleotide receptor (P2Y2R) is activated equipotently by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP), which mediate proinflammatory responses such as cell migration and proliferation. However, the role of P2Y2R in the process of cancer metastasis remains unclear. This study aimed to determine the role of P2Y2R in the proliferation, migration and invasion of highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells through crosstalk with endothelial cells (ECs). METHODS: ATP release and P2Y2R activity between high metastatic breast cancer cell MDA-MB-231 and low metastatic breast cancer cell MCF-7 were compared. Then, the role of P2Y2R on tumor growth and invasion via crosstalk with ECs was examined in vitro, using MDA-MB-231 cells and ECs transfected with control- or P2Y2R-siRNA, and in vivo, using an animal model injected with control-shRNA- or P2Y2R-shRNA-transfected MDA-MB-231 cells. RESULTS: We found that this highly metastatic breast cancer cell line released higher levels of ATP and showed a higher P2Y2R activity in comparison to a low metastatic breast cancer cell line, MCF-7. In MDA-MB-231 cells, P2Y2R activation by ATP or UTP increased proliferation at 24 or 72 hours, which was abolished by P2Y2R knock-down. In addition, the adhesion of MDA-MB-231 cells to ECs and cell migration were both significantly increased by ATP or UTP through the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in MDA-MB-231 or ECs but not in cells where P2Y2R was knocked down. Furthermore, ATP- or UTP-mediated activation of P2Y2R induced MDA-MB-231 invasion through ECs, increased matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production in MDA-MB-231 and induced the phosphorylation of vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin in ECs. Tumor growth and metastasis to other tissues were dramatically reduced, and body weight was increased in mice injected with P2Y2R-shRNA-transfected MDA-MB-231 cells compared to mice injected with control shRNA-transfected MDA-MB-231 cells. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that P2Y2R may play an important role in cancer metastasis via modulation of the crosstalk between cancer cells and ECs.
Project description:The role of tumor-proximal factors in tumor plasticity during chemoresistance and metastasis following chemotherapy is well studied. However, the role of endothelial cell (EC) derived paracrine factors in tumor plasticity, their effect on chemotherapeutic outcome, and the mechanism by which these paracrine factors modulate the tumor microenvironment are not well understood. In this study, we report a novel mechanism by which endothelial miR-125a and let-7e-mediated regulation of interleukin-6 (IL-6) signaling can manipulate vasculogenic mimicry (VM) formation of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. We found that endothelial IL-6 levels were significantly higher in response to cisplatin treatment, whereas levels of IL-6 upon cisplatin exposure remained unchanged in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. We additionally found an inverse correlation between IL-6 and miR-125a/let-7e expression levels in cisplatin treated ECs. Interestingly, IL-6, IL-6 receptor (IL-6R), and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) genes in the IL-6 pathway are closely regulated by miR-125a and let-7e, which directly target its 3' untranslated region. Functional analyses revealed that endothelial miR-125a and let-7e inhibit IL-6-induced adhesion of monocytes to ECs. Furthermore, conditioned medium from cisplatin treated ECs induced a significantly higher formation of VM in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells as compared to that from intact ECs; this effect of cisplatin treatment was abrogated by concurrent overexpression of miR-125a and let-7e. Overall, this study reveals a novel EC-tumor cell crosstalk mediated by the endothelial miR-125a/let-7e-IL-6 signaling axis, which might improve chemosensitivity and provide potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of cancer. [BMB Reports 2019; 52(3): 214-219].
Project description:Tumor lymphatic vessels (LV) serve as a conduit of tumor cell dissemination, due to their leaky nature and secretion of tumor-recruiting factors. Though lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC) lining the LV express distinct factors (also called lymphangiocrine factors), these factors and their roles in the tumor microenvironment are not well understood. Here we employ LEC, microvascular endothelial cells (MEC), and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) cultured in triple-negative MDA-MB-231 tumor-conditioned media (TCM) to determine the factors that may be secreted by various EC in the MDA-MB-231 breast tumor. These factors will serve as endothelium derived signaling molecules in the tumor microenvironment. We co-injected these EC with MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells into animals and showed that LEC support tumor growth, HUVEC have no significant effect on tumor growth, whereas MEC suppress it. Focusing on LEC-mediated tumor growth, we discovered that TCM-treated LEC ('tumor-educated LEC') secrete high amounts of EGF and PDGF-BB, compared to normal LEC. LEC-secreted EGF promotes tumor cell proliferation. LEC-secreted PDGF-BB induces pericyte infiltration and angiogenesis. These lymphangiocrine factors may support tumor growth in the tumor microenvironment. This study shows that LV serve a novel role in the tumor microenvironment apart from their classical role as conduits of metastasis.
Project description:Tissue factor (TF) has been extensively studied for tumor metastasis, but its role in mediating cancer cell adhesion to vasculature remains unknown. This study aimed to measure the ability of TF to mediate the adhesion of breast cancer cells to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). MDA-MB-231 cells expressed the highest TF level and adhered more to HUVECs under static and flow conditions, a neutralizing TF antibody abolished the enhanced adhesion of MDA-MB-231 cells to HUVECs. Recombinant human soluble TF (rTF) bonded β1integrin on HUVECs surfaces, β1 or α3integrin antibody combined with TF antibody abolished more cell-cell adhesion. These data suggested that TF mediated adhesion of breast cancer cells to endothelial cells may rely on β1integrin on HUVECs surfaces.
Project description:Interactions between polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and tumor cells have been reported to facilitate the adhesion and subsequent extravasation of tumor cells through the endothelium under blood flow, both of which are mediated by binding ?(2)-integrin to intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). Here the adhesions between human WM9 metastatic melanoma cells, PMNs, and human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMECs) were quantified by a gas-driven micropipette aspiration technique (GDMAT). Our data indicated that the cellular binding affinity of PMN-WM9 pair was 3.9-fold higher than that of the PMN-HPMEC pair. However, the effective binding affinities per molecular pair were comparable between the two cell pairs no matter whether WM9 cells or HPMECs were quiescent or cytokine-activated, indicating that the stronger adhesion between PMN-WM9 pair is mainly attributed to the high expression of ICAM-1 on WM9 cells. These results proposed an alternative mechanism, where WM9 melanoma cells adhere first with PMNs near vessel-wall regions and then bind to endothelial cells via PMNs under blood flow. In contrast, the adhesions between human MDA-MB-231 metastatic breast carcinoma cells and PMNs showed a comparable cellular binding affinity to PMN-HPMEC pair because the ICAM-1 expressions on MDA-MB-231 cells and HPMECs are similar. Furthermore, differences were observed in the intrinsic forward and reverse rates of the ?(2)-integrin-ICAM-1 bond between PMN-TC and PMN-EC pairs. This GDMAT assay enables us to quantify the binding kinetics of cell adhesion molecules physiologically expressed on nucleated cells. The findings also further the understanding of leukocyte-facilitated tumor cell adhesion from the viewpoint of molecular binding kinetics.
Project description:Tumor microenvironmental hypoxia induces hypoxia inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) overexpression, leading to the release of lysyl oxidase (LOX), which crosslinks collagen at distant sites to facilitate environmental changes that allow cancer cells to easily metastasize. Our previous study showed that activation of the P2Y2 receptor (P2Y2R) by ATP released from MDA-MB-231 cells increased MDA-MB-231 cell invasion through endothelial cells. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the role of P2Y2R in breast cancer cell metastasis to distant sites. ATP or UTP released from hypoxia-treated MDA-MB-231 cells induced HIF-1? expression and LOX secretion by the activation of P2Y2R, and this phenomenon was significantly reduced in P2Y2R-depleted MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, P2Y2R-mediated LOX release induced collagen crosslinking in an in vitro model. Finally, nude mice injected with MDA-MB-231 cells showed high levels of LOX secretion, crosslinked collagen and CD11b+ BMDC recruitment in the lung; however, mice that were injected with P2Y2R-depleted MDA-MB-231 cells did not exhibit these changes. These results demonstrate that P2Y2R plays an important role in activation of the HIF-1?-LOX axis, the induction of collagen crosslinking and the recruitment of CD11b+ BMDCs. Furthermore, P2Y2R activation by nucleotides recruits THP-1 monocytes, resulting in primary tumor progression and pre-metastatic niche formation.
Project description:Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC), a rare form of breast cancer associated with increased angiogenesis and metastasis, is largely driven by tumor-stromal interactions with the vasculature and the extracellular matrix (ECM). However, there is currently a lack of understanding of the role these interactions play in initiation and progression of the disease. In this study, we developed the first three-dimensional, in vitro, vascularized, microfluidic IBC platform to quantify the spatial and temporal dynamics of tumor-vasculature and tumor-ECM interactions specific to IBC. Platforms consisting of collagen type 1 ECM with an endothelialized blood vessel were cultured with IBC cells, MDA-IBC3 (HER2+) or SUM149 (triple negative), and for comparison to non-IBC cells, MDA-MB-231 (triple negative). Acellular collagen platforms with endothelialized blood vessels served as controls. SUM149 and MDA-MB-231 platforms exhibited a significantly (p < .05) higher vessel permeability and decreased endothelial coverage of the vessel lumen compared to the control. Both IBC platforms, MDA-IBC3 and SUM149, expressed higher levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (p < .05) and increased collagen ECM porosity compared to non-IBCMDA-MB-231 (p < .05) and control (p < .01) platforms. Additionally, unique to the MDA-IBC3 platform, we observed progressive sprouting of the endothelium over time resulting in viable vessels with lumen. The newly sprouted vessels encircled clusters of MDA-IBC3 cells replicating a key feature of in vivo IBC. The IBC in vitro vascularized platforms introduced in this study model well-described in vivo and clinical IBC phenotypes and provide an adaptable, high throughput tool for systematically and quantitatively investigating tumor-stromal mechanisms and dynamics of tumor progression.