Platelet transport rates and binding kinetics at high shear over a thrombus.
ABSTRACT: Thrombus formation over a ruptured atherosclerotic plaque cap can occlude an artery with fatal consequences. We describe a computational model of platelet transport and binding to interpret rate-limiting steps seen in experimental thrombus formation over a collagen-coated stenosis. The model is used to compute shear rates in stenoses with growing boundaries. In the model, moving erythrocytes influence platelet transport based on shear-dependent enhanced diffusivity and a nonuniform platelet distribution. Adhesion is modeled as platelet-platelet binding kinetics. The results indicate that observed thrombus growth rates are limited by platelet transport to the wall for shear rates up to 6000 s(-1). Above 7000 s(-1), the thrombus growth rate is likely limited by binding kinetics (10(-4) m/s). Thrombus growth computed from these rate-limiting steps match the thrombus location and occlusion times for experimental conditions if a lag time for platelet activation is included. Using fitted parameters, the model is then used to predict thrombus size and shape at a higher Reynolds number flow consistent with coronary artery disease.
Project description:Anticoagulant protein S (PS) in platelets (PSplt) resembles plasma PS and is released on platelet activation, but its role in thrombosis has not been elucidated. Here we report that inactivation of PSplt expression using the Platelet factor 4 (Pf4)-Cre transgene (Pros1lox/loxPf4-Cre+) in mice promotes thrombus propensity in the vena cava, where shear rates are low, but not in the carotid artery, where shear rates are high. At a low shear rate, PSplt functions as a cofactor for both activated protein C and tissue factor pathway inhibitor, thereby limiting factor X activation and thrombin generation within the growing thrombus and ensuring that highly activated platelets and fibrin remain localized at the injury site. In the presence of high thrombin concentrations, clots from Pros1lox/loxPf4-Cre- mice contract, but not clots from Pros1lox/loxPf4-Cre+ mice, because of highly dense fibrin networks. Thus, PSplt controls platelet activation as well as coagulation in thrombi in large veins, but not in large arteries.
Project description:Rupture of a vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque causes thrombus formation and precipitates cardiovascular diseases. In addition to the thrombogenic content of a plaque, also the hemodynamic microenvironment plays a major role in thrombus formation. How the altered hemodynamics around a plaque promote pathological thrombus formation is not well understood. In this study, we provide evidence that plaque geometries result in fluid mechanical conditions that promote platelet aggregation and thrombus formation by increased accumulation and activity of von Willebrand factor (vWF) at poststenotic sites. Resonant-scanning multiphoton microscopy revealed that in vivo arterial stenosis of a damaged carotid artery markedly increased platelet aggregate formation in the stenotic outlet region. Complementary in vitro studies using microfluidic stenotic chambers, designed to mimic the flow conditions in a stenotic artery, showed enhanced platelet aggregation in the stenotic outlet region at 60-80% channel occlusion over a range of input wall shear rates. The poststenotic thrombus formation was critically dependent on bloodborne vWF and autocrine platelet stimulation. In stenotic chambers containing endothelial cells, flow provoked increased endothelial vWF secretion in the stenotic outlet region, contributing to exacerbated platelet aggregation. Taken together, this study identifies a role for the shear-sensitive protein vWF in transducing hemodynamic forces that are present around a stenosis to a prothrombogenic microenvironment resulting in spatially confined and exacerbated platelet aggregation in the stenosis outlet region. The developed stenotic microfluidic chamber offers a realistic platform for in vitro evaluation of shear-dependent thrombus formation in the setting of atherosclerosis.
Project description:Modeling the transport, activation, and adhesion of platelets is crucial in predicting thrombus formation and growth following a thrombotic event in normal or pathological conditions. We propose a shear-dependent platelet adhesive model based on the Morse potential that is calibrated by existing in vivo and in vitro experimental data and can be used over a wide range of flow shear rates ([Formula: see text]). We introduce an Eulerian-Lagrangian model where hemodynamics is solved on a fixed Eulerian grid, while platelets are tracked using a Lagrangian framework. A force coupling method is introduced for bidirectional coupling of platelet motion with blood flow. Further, we couple the calibrated platelet aggregation model with a tissue-factor/contact pathway coagulation cascade, representing the relevant biology of thrombin generation and the subsequent fibrin deposition. The range of shear rates covered by the proposed model encompass venous and arterial thrombosis, ranging from low-shear-rate conditions in abdominal aortic aneurysms and thoracic aortic dissections to thrombosis in stenotic arteries following plaque rupture, where local shear rates are extremely high.
Project description:Delphinidin-3-glucoside (Dp-3-g) is one of the predominant bioactive compounds of anthocyanins in many plant foods. Although several anthocyanin compounds have been reported to be protective against cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), the direct effect of anthocyanins on platelets, the key players in atherothrombosis, has not been studied. The roles of Dp-3-g in platelet function are completely unknown. The present study investigated the effects of Dp-3-g on platelet activation and several thrombosis models in vitro and in vivo. We found that Dp-3-g significantly inhibited human and murine platelet aggregation in both platelet-rich plasma and purified platelets. It also markedly reduced thrombus growth in human and murine blood in perfusion chambers at both low and high shear rates. Using intravital microscopy, we observed that Dp-3-g decreased platelet deposition, destabilized thrombi, and prolonged the time required for vessel occlusion. Dp-3-g also significantly inhibited thrombus growth in a carotid artery thrombosis model. To elucidate the mechanisms, we examined platelet activation markers via flow cytometry and found that Dp-3-g significantly inhibited the expression of P-selectin, CD63, CD40L, which reflect platelet ?- and ?-granule release, and cytosol protein secretion, respectively. We further demonstrated that Dp-3-g downregulated the expression of active integrin ?IIb?3 on platelets, and attenuated fibrinogen binding to platelets following agonist treatment, without interfering with the direct interaction between fibrinogen and integrin ?IIb?3. We found that Dp-3-g reduced phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, which may contribute to the observed inhibitory effects on platelet activation. Thus, Dp-3-g significantly inhibits platelet activation and attenuates thrombus growth at both arterial and venous shear stresses, which likely contributes to its protective roles against thrombosis and CVDs.
Project description:Computer simulations were performed to study the transport of red blood cells and platelets in high shear flows, mimicking earlier published in vitro experiments in microfluidic devices with high affinity for platelet aggregate formation. The goal is to understand and predict where thrombus formation starts. Additionally, the need of cell-based modelling in these microfluidic devices is demonstrated by comparing our results with macroscopic models, wherein blood is modelled as a continuous fluid. Hemocell, a cell-based blood flow simulation framework is used to investigate the transport physics in the microfluidic devices. The simulations show an enlarged cell-depleted layer at the site where a platelet aggregate forms in the experiments. In this enlarged cell-depleted layer, the probability to find a platelet is higher than in the rest of the microfluidic device. In addition, the shear rates are sufficiently high to allow for the von Willebrand factor to elongate in this region. We hypothesize that the enlarged cell-depleted layer combined with a sufficiently large platelet flux and sufficiently high shear rates result in an haemodynamic environment that is a preferred location for initial platelet aggregation.
Project description:Platelets can become activated in response to changes in flow-induced shear; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not clearly understood. Here we present new techniques for experimentally measuring the flow-induced shear rate experienced by platelets prior to adhering to a thrombus. We examined the dynamics of blood flow around experimentally grown thrombus geometries using a novel combination of experimental (ex vivo) and numerical (in silico) methodologies. Using a microcapillary system, platelet aggregate formation was analysed at elevated shear rates in the presence of coagulation inhibitors, where thrombus formation is predominantly platelet-dependent. These approaches permit the resolution and quantification of thrombus parameters at the scale of individual platelets (2 ?m) in order to quantify real time thrombus development. Using our new techniques we can correlate the shear rate experienced by platelets with the extent of platelet adhesion and aggregation. The techniques presented offer the unique capacity to determine the flow properties for a temporally evolving thrombus field in real time.
Project description:Dabigatran and rivaroxaban are novel oral anticoagulants that specifically inhibit thrombin and factor Xa, respectively. The aim of this study is to elucidate antithrombotic properties of these anticoagulant agents under arterial and venous shear conditions. Whole blood samples treated with dabigatran or rivaroxaban at 250, 500, and 1000 nM, with/without aspirin and AR-C66096, a P2Y12 antagonist, were perfused over a microchip coated with collagen and tissue thromboplastin at shear rates of 240 and 600 s(-1). Fibrin-rich platelet thrombus formation was quantified by monitoring flow pressure changes. Dabigatran at higher concentrations (500 and 1000 nM) potently inhibited thrombus formation at both shear rates, whereas 1000 nM of rivaroxaban delayed, but did not completely inhibit, thrombus formation. Dual antiplatelet agents weakly suppressed thrombus formation at both shear rates, but intensified the anticoagulant effects of dabigatran and rivaroxaban. The anticoagulant effects of dabigatran and rivaroxaban were also evaluated under static conditions using thrombin generation (TG) assay. In platelet-poor plasma, dabigatran at 250 and 500 nM efficiently prolonged the lag time (LT) and moderately reduce peak height (PH) of TG, whereas rivaroxaban at 250 nM efficiently prolonged LT and reduced PH of TG. In platelet-rich plasma, however, both anticoagulants efficiently delayed LT and reduced PH of TG. Our results suggest that dabigatran and rivaroxaban may exert distinct antithrombotic effects under flow conditions, particularly in combination with dual antiplatelet therapy.
Project description:Platelet transport through arterial constrictions is one of the controlling processes influencing their adhesive functions and the formation of thrombi. We perform high-fidelity mesoscopic simulations of blood flow in microchannels with constriction, resembling arterial stenoses. The wall shear rates inside the constrictions reach levels as high as ?8000 s(-1), similar to those encountered in moderate atherosclerotic plaques. Both red blood cells and platelets are resolved at sub-cellular resolution using the Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) method. We perform a systematic study on the red blood cell and platelet transport by considering different levels of constriction, blood hematocrit and flow rates. We find that higher levels of constriction and wall shear rates lead to significantly enhanced margination of platelets, which may explain the experimental observations of enhanced post-stenosis platelet aggregation. We also observe similar margination effects for stiff particles of spherical shapes such as leukocytes. To our knowledge, such numerical simulations of dense blood through complex geometries have not been performed before, and our quantitative findings could shed new light on the associated physiological processes such as ATP release, plasma skimming, and thrombus formation.
Project description:Background:The multimeric glycoprotein von Willebrand factor (VWF) mediates platelet adhesion and aggregation at the site of vessel injury. The adhesive activity of VWF is influenced by its multimer length which is regulated by the metalloprotease ADAMTS13. The ability of ADAMTS13 to regulate platelet thrombus growth in a shear-dependent manner has been described, however, the mechanistic basis of this action has not been well characterized. Methods:We developed an mCherry-tagged murine ADAMTS13 protein and utilized an ex vivo flow chamber system to visualize the localization of ADAMTS13 within the platelet thrombus under different conditions of shear. Using this system, we also assessed the influence of platelet-mediated tensile force on ADAMTS13 localization within the thrombus using gain-of-function GPIb binding and loss-of-function GPIIbIIIa binding mutants in VWF/ADAMTS13 DKO mice. Results:ADAMTS13 was visualized on the growing platelet thrombus under very high shear using ADAMTS13-mcherry. ADAMTS13-mCherry localized particularly at the top portion of the thrombus and reduced thrombus size as it grew to occlusion. At the pathological high shear of 7500 s-1, platelet-mediated tensile force, involving GPIb but not GPIIbIIIa receptors, influenced localization of ADAMTS13 to the thrombus under conditions of shear. Conclusions:Tensile force applied on VWF produced by shear stress and platelet GPIb binding has a crucial role in ADAMTS13 activity at the site of thrombus formation. These results suggest that ADAMTS13 activity at the site of platelet thrombus formation is regulated by a shear stress and platelet-dependent feedback mechanism to prevent vessel occlusion and pathological thrombosis.
Project description:In this study we have examined the mechanism of platelet aggregation under physiological flow conditions using an in vitro flow-based platelet aggregation assay and an in vivo rat thrombosis model. Our studies demonstrate an unexpected complexity to the platelet aggregation process in which platelets in flowing blood continuously tether, translocate, and/or detach from the luminal surface of a growing platelet thrombus at both arterial and venous shear rates. Studies of platelets congenitally deficient in von Willebrand factor (vWf) or integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3) demonstrated a key role for platelet vWf in mediating platelet tethering and translocation, whereas integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3) mediated cell arrest. Platelet aggregation under flow appears to be a multistep process involving: (a) exposure of vWf on the surface of immobilized platelets; (b) a reversible phase of platelet aggregation mediated by the binding of GPIbalpha on the surface of free-flowing platelets to vWf on the surface of immobilized platelets; and (c) an irreversible phase of aggregation dependent on integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3). Studies of platelet thrombus formation in vivo demonstrate that this multistep adhesion mechanism is indispensable for platelet aggregation in arterioles and also appears to promote platelet aggregate formation in venules. Together, our studies demonstrate an important role for platelet vWf in initiating the platelet aggregation process under flow and challenge the currently accepted view that the vWf-GPIbalpha interaction is exclusively involved in initiating platelet aggregation at elevated shear rates.