Detection of IMP metallo-?-lactamase in carbapenem-nonsusceptible Enterobacteriaceae and non-glucose-fermenting Gram-negative rods by immunochromatography assay.
ABSTRACT: Metallo-?-lactamases (MBLs) are transmissible carbapenemases of increasing prevalence in Gram-negative bacteria among health care facilities worldwide. Control of the further spread of these carbapenem-resistant bacteria relies on clinical microbiological laboratories correctly identifying and classifying the MBLs. In this study, we evaluated a simple and rapid method for detecting IMP, the most prevalent MBL in Japan. We used an immunochromatography (IC) assay for 181 carbapenem-nonsusceptible (CNS) (nonsusceptible to imipenem or meropenem) strains comprising 74 IMP-producing and 33 non-IMP-producing strains of non-glucose-fermenting Gram-negative rods (NFGNR), as well as 64 IMP-producing and 10 non-IMP-producing Enterobacteriaceae strains. The IC assay results were compared to those from the double-disk synergy test (DDST), the MBL Etest, and the modified Hodge test (MHT) (only for Enterobacteriaceae). The IMP type was confirmed by specific PCR and direct sequencing. The IC assay detected all of the IMP-type MBLs, including IMP-1, -2, -6, -7, -10, -11, -19, -20, and -22 and IMP-40, -41, and -42 (new types), with 100% specificity and sensitivity against all strains tested. Although the sensitivity and specificity values for the DDST and MHT were equivalent to those for the IC assay, the MBL Etest was positive for only 87% of NFGNR and 31% of Enterobacteriaceae due to the low MIC of imipenem, causing an indeterminate evaluation. These results indicated that the IC assay might be a useful alternative to PCR for IMP MBL detection screening.
Project description:Production of metallo-?-lactamases (MBLs), which hydrolyze carbapenems, is a cause of carbapenem resistance in Enterobacteriaceae Development of effective inhibitors for MBLs is one approach to restore carbapenem efficacy in carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). We report here that sulfamoyl heteroarylcarboxylic acids (SHCs) can competitively inhibit the globally spreading and clinically relevant MBLs (i.e., IMP-, NDM-, and VIM-type MBLs) at nanomolar to micromolar orders of magnitude. Addition of SHCs restored meropenem efficacy against 17/19 IMP-type and 7/14 NDM-type MBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae to satisfactory clinical levels. SHCs were also effective against IMP-type MBL-producing Acinetobacter spp. and engineered Escherichia coli strains overproducing individual minor MBLs (i.e., TMB-2, SPM-1, DIM-1, SIM-1, and KHM-1). However, SHCs were less effective against MBL-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa Combination therapy with meropenem and SHCs successfully cured mice infected with IMP-1-producing E. coli and dually NDM-1/VIM-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates. X-ray crystallographic analyses revealed the inhibition mode of SHCs against MBLs; the sulfamoyl group of SHCs coordinated to two zinc ions, and the carboxylate group coordinated to one zinc ion and bound to positively charged amino acids Lys224/Arg228 conserved in MBLs. Preclinical testing revealed that the SHCs showed low toxicity in cell lines and mice and high stability in human liver microsomes. Our results indicate that SHCs are promising lead compounds for inhibitors of MBLs to combat MBL-producing CRE.IMPORTANCE Carbapenem antibiotics are the last resort for control of severe infectious diseases, bloodstream infections, and pneumonia caused by Gram-negative bacteria, including Enterobacteriaceae However, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) strains have spread globally and are a critical concern in clinical settings because CRE infections are recognized as a leading cause of increased mortality among hospitalized patients. Most CRE produce certain kinds of serine carbapenemases (e.g., KPC- and GES-type ?-lactamases) or metallo-?-lactamases (MBLs), which can hydrolyze carbapenems. Although effective MBL inhibitors are expected to restore carbapenem efficacy against MBL-producing CRE, no MBL inhibitor is currently clinically available. Here, we synthesized 2,5-diethyl-1-methyl-4-sulfamoylpyrrole-3-carboxylic acid (SPC), which is a potent inhibitor of MBLs. SPC is a remarkable lead compound for clinically useful MBL inhibitors and can potentially provide a considerable benefit to patients receiving treatment for lethal infectious diseases caused by MBL-producing CRE.
Project description:New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1(NDM-1) is a novel type of metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) which inactivates all β-lactam antibiotics except aztreonam. Enterobacteriaceae expressing NDM-1 have been identified worldwide. The aim of this study was to detect MBLs in carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates obtained from patients hospitalized in one of the university hospitals in Isfahan, Iran.Of the 112 isolates obtained from various clinical samples, 49 were selected for carbapenemase detection based on their reduced susceptibility to imipenem or meropenem according to the disc diffusion method. These isolates were screened for carbapenemase and MBL production using the Modiﬁed Hodge Test (MHT) and Epsilometer test (E-test) MBL strips. Polymerase chain reaction was performed on all 49 isolates using specific primers to detect genes encoding IMP (active on imipenem), VIM (Verona integron-encoded metallo-β-lactamase), SPM-1 (Sao Paulo metallo-β-lactamase) and NDM-1.Among 49 carbapenem-resistant isolates, 32 (65.3 %) were positive for MHT and 6 (12.2 %) were found positive for blaNDM-1. Other MBL genes were not detected.This is the second report on the detection of blaNDM-1 in Iran since it was first reported by Shahcheraghi and colleagues in 2012. This study indicated that resistance to carbapenems and isolation of bacteria producing NDM-1 is increasing. Therefore, the rapid detection of isolates expressing NDM-1 is essential to control their spread. Hippokratia 2015; 19 (3): 205-209.
Project description:Metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs) can confer resistance to most beta-lactams, including carbapenems. Their emergence in gram-negative pathogens is a matter of major concern. Italy was the first European country to report the presence of acquired MBLs in gram-negative pathogens and is one of the countries where MBL producers have been detected repeatedly. Here, we present the results of the first Italian nationwide survey of acquired MBLs in gram-negative pathogens. Of 14,812 consecutive nonreplicate clinical isolates (12,245 Enterobacteriaceae isolates and 2,567 gram-negative nonfermenters) screened for reduced carbapenem susceptibility during a 4-month period (September to December 2004), 30 isolates (28 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, 1 Pseudomonas putida isolate, and 1 Enterobacter cloacae isolate) carried acquired MBL determinants. MBL producers were detected in 10 of 12 cities, with a predominance of VIM-type enzymes over IMP-type enzymes (4:1). Although having an overall low prevalence (1.3%) and significant geographical differences, MBL-producing P. aeruginosa strains appeared to be widespread in Italy, with a notable diversity of clones, enzymes, and integrons carrying MBL gene cassettes.
Project description:The worldwide spread of metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL)-producing gram-negative bacilli represents a great concern nowadays. Sensitive assays for their specific detection are increasingly demanded to aid infection control and to prevent their dissemination. We have developed a novel microbiological assay employing crude bacterial extracts, designated EDTA-imipenem microbiological assay (EIM), to identify MBLs in nonfermentative gram-negative clinical strains. We also evaluated the ability of EIM to detect MBLs in comparison to those of other currently employed screening methods, such as the EDTA disk synergy test (EDS) with imipenem as a substrate and the Etest method. The sensitivities of EIM and Etest were similar (1 versus 0.92, respectively) and much higher than that of EDS (0.67). Moreover, both EIM and Etest displayed the maximum specificity. Modifications were introduced to EDS, including the simultaneous testing of three different beta-lactams (imipenem, meropenem, and ceftazidime) and two different EDTA concentrations. This resulted in a sensitivity improvement (0.92), albeit at a cost to its specificity. A simple strategy to accurately detect MBL producers is proposed; this strategy combines (i) an initial screening of the isolates by the extended EDS assay to select the potential candidates and (ii) confirmation of the true presence of MBL activity by EIM.
Project description:Metallo-?-lactamases (MBLs) in Enterobacteriaceae are an increasing problem worldwide. This report describes the isolation of Citrobacter freundii carrying IMP-8 MBL from three patients during the period from March 2012 until March 2013 in Germany. The bla IMP-8 enzyme is predominantly found in Asia, where IMP-8 has spread to various enterobacterial species causing serious infections. To our best knowledge, this is the first report of bla IMP-8 habouring Enterobacteriaceae in Europe.
Project description:Metallo-?-lactamases (MBLs) hydrolyze all classes of ?-lactams except monobactams and are not inhibited by classic serine ?-lactamase inhibitors. Gram-negative pathogens isolated from patient infections were collected from 202 medical centers in 40 countries as part of a global surveillance study from 2012 to 2014. Carbapenem-nonsusceptible Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were characterized for bla genes encoding VIM, IMP, NDM, SPM, and GIM variants using PCR and sequencing. A total of 471 MBL-positive isolates included the following species (numbers of isolates are in parentheses): P. aeruginosa (308), Klebsiella spp. (85), Enterobacter spp. (39), Proteeae (16), Citrobacter freundii (12), Escherichia coli (6), and Serratia marcescens (5) and were submitted by sites from 34 countries. Of these, 69.6% were collected in 9 countries (numbers of isolates are in parentheses): Russia (72), Greece (61), Philippines (54), Venezuela (29), and Kuwait, Nigeria, Romania, South Africa, and Thailand (20 to 25 isolates each). Thirty-two different MBL variants were detected (14 VIM, 14 IMP, and 4 NDM enzymes). Seven novel MBL variants were encountered in the study, each differing from a previously reported variant by one amino acid substitution: VIM-42 (VIM-1 [V223I]), VIM-43 (VIM-4 [A24V]), VIM-44 (VIM-2 [K257N]), VIM-45 (VIM-2 [T35I]), IMP-48 (IMP-14 [I69T]), IMP-49 (IMP-18 [V49F]), and NDM-16 (NDM-1 [R264H]). The in vitro activities of all tested antibiotics against MBL-positive Enterobacteriaceae were significantly reduced with the exception of that of aztreonam-avibactam (MIC90, 0.5 to 1 ?g/ml), whereas colistin was the most effective agent against MBL-positive P. aeruginosa isolates (>97% susceptible). Although the global percentage of isolates encoding MBLs remains relatively low, their detection in 12 species, 34 countries, and all regions participating in this surveillance study is concerning.
Project description:?-Lactams are the most successful antibacterials, but their effectiveness is threatened by resistance, most importantly by production of serine- and metallo-?-lactamases (MBLs). MBLs are of increasing concern because they catalyze the hydrolysis of almost all ?-lactam antibiotics, including recent-generation carbapenems. Clinically useful serine-?-lactamase inhibitors have been developed, but such inhibitors are not available for MBLs. l-Captopril, which is used to treat hypertension via angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition, has been reported to inhibit MBLs by chelating the active site zinc ions via its thiol(ate). We report systematic studies on B1 MBL inhibition by all four captopril stereoisomers. High-resolution crystal structures of three MBLs (IMP-1, BcII, and VIM-2) in complex with either the l- or d-captopril stereoisomer reveal correlations between the binding mode and inhibition potency. The results will be useful in the design of MBL inhibitors with the breadth of selectivity required for clinical application against carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and other organisms causing MBL-mediated resistant infections.
Project description:Metallo-?-lactamases (MBLs) hydrolyze almost all ?-lactam antibiotics and are unaffected by clinically available ?-lactamase inhibitors (?LIs). Active-site architecture divides MBLs into three classes (B1, B2, and B3), complicating development of ?LIs effective against all enzymes. Bisthiazolidines (BTZs) are carboxylate-containing, bicyclic compounds, considered as penicillin analogs with an additional free thiol. Here, we show both l- and d-BTZ enantiomers are micromolar competitive ?LIs of all MBL classes in vitro, with Kis of 6-15 µM or 36-84 µM for subclass B1 MBLs (IMP-1 and BcII, respectively), and 10-12 µM for the B3 enzyme L1. Against the B2 MBL Sfh-I, the l-BTZ enantiomers exhibit 100-fold lower Kis (0.26-0.36 µM) than d-BTZs (26-29 µM). Importantly, cell-based time-kill assays show BTZs restore ?-lactam susceptibility of Escherichia coli-producing MBLs (IMP-1, Sfh-1, BcII, and GOB-18) and, significantly, an extensively drug-resistant Stenotrophomonas maltophilia clinical isolate expressing L1. BTZs therefore inhibit the full range of MBLs and potentiate ?-lactam activity against producer pathogens. X-ray crystal structures reveal insights into diverse BTZ binding modes, varying with orientation of the carboxylate and thiol moieties. BTZs bind the di-zinc centers of B1 (IMP-1; BcII) and B3 (L1) MBLs via the free thiol, but orient differently depending upon stereochemistry. In contrast, the l-BTZ carboxylate dominates interactions with the monozinc B2 MBL Sfh-I, with the thiol uninvolved. d-BTZ complexes most closely resemble ?-lactam binding to B1 MBLs, but feature an unprecedented disruption of the D120-zinc interaction. Cross-class MBL inhibition therefore arises from the unexpected versatility of BTZ binding.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Pseudomonas aeruginosa is considered as one of the most emerging threats in this century. Serious infections caused by this pathogen are often treated by carbapenems which are the last resource of antibiotics. Metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs) production is one of the most important carbepenem resistance mechanisms and is usually related with nosocomial infections caused by P. aeruginosa. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of MBL genes and distribution pattern of MBLs producing P. aeruginosa strains in Thailand. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Specific primers were designed to detect MBL genes including IMP-, VIM-, and NDM-type MBL genes. Multilocus sequence typing method was used to determine the dissemination pattern of carbapenem-resistance among multidrug-resistant (CR-MDR) P. aeruginosa. RESULTS:A total of 153 P. aeruginosa clinical isolates were characterized as CR-MDR. Among those, 31 P. aeruginosa clinical isolates (20.3%) presented metallo-beta-lactamase genes which could be divided into VIM-type (14 strains) and IMP-type (17 strains). blaIMP-1, blaIMP-13, blaIMP-14a, and blaVIM-2 genes were detected. Moreover, a novel IMP-type MBL, blaIMP-65 was discovered and it was demonstrated to be the unique group of MBLs in Thailand. It was of interest that ST235 was the major ST type in Thailand followed by ST964 and ST111 and ST235 was detected in both MBL harboring and non-MBL harboring strains. CONCLUSION:This study reported the dissemination of MBL gene including novel MBL, blaIMP-65. This study was also demonstrated major ST of P. aeruginosa which was ST235, followed by ST964 and ST111. Moreover, it is also the first report on many P. aeruginosa STs in Thailand: ST273, ST292, ST621, ST1584, and ST1816 which emphasized the dissemination trait difference of MBLs harboring P. aeruginosa in Thailand.
Project description:The combination of the monobactam aztreonam and the non-?-lactam ?-lactamase inhibitor avibactam is currently in clinical development for the treatment of serious infections caused by metallo-?-lactamase (MBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, a difficult-to-treat subtype of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae for which therapeutic options are currently very limited. The present study tested clinically significant isolates of Enterobacteriaceae (n = 51,352) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 11,842) collected from hospitalized patients in 208 medical center laboratories from 40 countries from 2012 to 2015 for in vitro susceptibility to aztreonam-avibactam, aztreonam, and comparator antimicrobial agents using a standard broth microdilution methodology. Avibactam was tested at a fixed concentration of 4 ?g/ml in combination with 2-fold dilutions of aztreonam. The MIC90s of aztreonam-avibactam and aztreonam were 0.12 and 64 ?g/ml, respectively, for all Enterobacteriaceae isolates; >99.9% of all isolates and 99.8% of meropenem-nonsusceptible isolates (n = 1,498) were inhibited by aztreonam-avibactam at a concentration of ?8 ?g/ml. PCR and DNA sequencing identified 267 Enterobacteriaceae isolates positive for MBL genes (NDM, VIM, IMP); all Enterobacteriaceae carrying MBLs demonstrated aztreonam-avibactam MICs of ?8 ?g/ml and a MIC90 of 1 ?g/ml. Against all P. aeruginosa isolates tested, the MIC90 of both aztreonam-avibactam and aztreonam was 32 ?g/ml; against MBL-positive P. aeruginosa isolates (n = 452), MIC90 values for aztreonam-avibactam and aztreonam were 32 and 64 ?g/ml, respectively. The current study demonstrated that aztreonam-avibactam possesses potent in vitro activity against a recent, sizeable global collection of Enterobacteriaceae clinical isolates, including isolates that were meropenem nonsusceptible, and against MBL-positive isolates of Enterobacteriaceae, for which there are few treatment options.