Critical role of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 (S1PR2) in acute vascular inflammation.
ABSTRACT: The endothelium, as the interface between blood and all tissues, plays a critical role in inflammation. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid, highly abundant in plasma, that potently regulates endothelial responses through interaction with its receptors (S1PRs). Here, we studied the role of S1PR2 in the regulation of the proadhesion and proinflammatory phenotype of the endothelium. By using genetic approaches and a S1PR2-specific antagonist (JTE013), we found that S1PR2 plays a key role in the permeability and inflammatory responses of the vascular endothelium during endotoxemia. Experiments with bone marrow chimeras (S1pr2(+/+) ? S1pr2(+/+), S1pr2(+/+) ? S1pr2(-/-), and S1pr2(-/-) ? S1pr2(+/+)) indicate the critical role of S1PR2 in the stromal compartment, in the regulation of vascular permeability and vascular inflammation. In vitro, JTE013 potently inhibited tumor necrosis factor ?-induced endothelial inflammation. Finally, we provide detailed mechanisms on the downstream signaling of S1PR2 in vascular inflammation that include the activation of the stress-activated protein kinase pathway that, together with the Rho-kinase nuclear factor kappa B pathway (NF-kB), are required for S1PR2-mediated endothelial inflammatory responses. Taken together, our data indicate that S1PR2 is a key regulator of the proinflammatory phenotype of the endothelium and identify S1PR2 as a novel therapeutic target for vascular disorders.
Project description:The use and effectiveness of current stroke reperfusion therapies are limited by the complications of reperfusion injury, which include increased cerebrovascular permeability and haemorrhagic transformation. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is emerging as a potent modulator of vascular integrity via its receptors (S1PR). By using genetic approaches and a S1PR2 antagonist (JTE013), here we show that S1PR2 plays a critical role in the induction of cerebrovascular permeability, development of intracerebral haemorrhage and neurovascular injury in experimental stroke. In addition, inhibition of S1PR2 results in decreased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 activity in vivo and lower gelatinase activity in cerebral microvessels. S1PR2 immunopositivity is detected only in the ischemic microvessels of wild-type mice and in the cerebrovascular endothelium of human brain autopsy samples. In vitro, S1PR2 potently regulates the responses of the brain endothelium to ischaemic and inflammatory injury. Therapeutic targeting of this novel pathway could have important translational relevance to stroke patients.
Project description:<b>Aims:</b> It is important to understand the mechanism that regulates post-ischemic angiogenesis and to explore a new therapeutic target for an effective improvement of revascularization in peripheral artery disease (PAD) patients. Post-ischemic angiogenesis is a highly orchestrated process, which involves vascular endothelial cells (ECs) proliferation, migration and assembly into capillaries. We found a significant reduction of S1pr2 (sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 2) in endothelial cells after hindlimb ischemia (HLI). We thus hypothesized that EC-S1pr2 might be involved in the regulation of post-ischemic angiogenesis and blood flow recovery during peripheral arterial disease (PAD). <b>Methods and Results:</b> We generated both EC-specific S1pr2 loss-of-function and S1pr2 gain-of-function mice. Our study showed that EC-specific S1pr2 loss-of-function significantly enhanced post-ischemic angiogenesis and improved blood flow recovery upon femoral artery ligation, whereas the EC-specific S1pr2 gain-of-function severely hindered post-ischemic angiogenesis and reduced blood flow recovery in ischemic limbs. We next identified that S1pr2 inhibited AKT/eNOS signaling pathway, and thus inhibited EC proliferation/migration and angiogenic activity. As expected, pharmacological inhibition of S1pr2 by JTE013 improved post-ischemic angiogenesis and improved blood flow perfusion after femoral artery ligation. Moreover, we developed RGD-peptide magnetic nanoparticles packaging S1pr2-siRNA which specifically targeted ECs and achieved an efficient silencing of S1pr2 expression in ECs <i>in vivo</i>. This EC-targeted strategy to dampen S1pr2 significantly enhanced post-ischemic angiogenesis and boosted blood perfusion after HLI, supplying a novel therapy target for patients with peripheral arterial disease. <b>Conclusions:</b> This present study demonstrates that EC-expressing S1pr2 tightly controls post-ischemic angiogenesis and blood flow perfusion recovery. This research provides a novel strategy for EC-target knockdown of S1pr2 as a new therapeutic intervention for patients with peripheral artery disease.
Project description:AIMS:Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 (S1PR2) is a G-protein-coupled receptor that regulates sphingosine-1-phosphate-triggered cellular response. However, the role of S1PR2 in diabetes-induced glomerular endothelial cell dysfunction remains unclear. This study aims to investigate the effect of S1PR2 blockade on the morphology and function of mitochondria in human renal glomerular endothelial cells (HRGECs). METHODS:HRGECs were pretreated with a S1PR2 antagonist (JTE-013) or a Rho-associated coiled coil-containing protein kinase 1 (ROCK1) inhibitor (Y27632) for 30?min and then cultured with normal glucose (5.5?mM) or high glucose (30?mM) for 72?h. The protein expression levels of RhoA, ROCK1, and Dynmin-related protein-1(Drp1) were evaluated by immunoblotting; mitochondrial morphology was observed by electron microscopy; intracellular levels of ATP, ROS, and Ca2+ were measured by ATPlite, DCF-DA, and Rhod-2?AM assays, respectively. Additionally, the permeability, apoptosis, and migration of cells were determined to evaluate the effects of S1PR2 and ROCK1 inhibition on high glucose-induced endothelial dysfunction. RESULTS:High glucose induced mitochondrial fission and dysfunction, indicated by increased mitochondrial fragmentation, ROS generation, and calcium overload but decreased ATP production. High glucose also induced endothelial cell dysfunction, indicated by increased permeability and apoptosis but decreased migration. However, inhibition of either S1PR2 or ROCK1 almost completely blocked these high glucose-mediated cellular responses. Furthermore, inhibiting S1PR2 resulted in the deceased expression of RhoA, ROCK1, and Drp1 while inhibiting ROCK1 led to the downregulated expression of Drp1. CONCLUSIONS:S1PR2 antagonist modulates the morphology and function of mitochondria in HRGECs via the positive regulation of the RhoA/ROCK1/Drp1 signaling pathway, suggesting that the S1PR2/ROCK1 pathway may play a crucial role in high glucose milieu.
Project description:Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and S1P receptors (S1PRs) regulate migration of lymphocytes out of thymus to blood and lymph nodes (LNs) to efferent lymph, whereas their role in other tissue sites is not known. Here, we investigated the question of how these molecules regulate leukocyte migration from tissues through afferent lymphatics to draining LNs (dLNs). S1P, but not other chemokines, selectively enhanced human and murine CD4 T cell migration across lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs). T cell S1PR1 and S1PR4, and LEC S1PR2, were required for migration across LECs and into lymphatic vessels and dLNs. S1PR1 and S1PR4 differentially regulated T cell motility and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) binding. S1PR2 regulated LEC layer structure, permeability, and expression of the junction molecules VE-cadherin, occludin, and zonulin-1 through the ERK pathway. S1PR2 facilitated T cell transcellular migration through VCAM-1 expression and recruitment of T cells to LEC migration sites. These results demonstrated distinct roles for S1PRs in comodulating T cell and LEC functions in migration and suggest previously unknown levels of regulation of leukocytes and endothelial cells during homeostasis and immunity.
Project description:The endothelial cell barrier regulates the passage of fluid between the bloodstream and underlying tissues, and barrier function impairment exacerbates the severity of inflammatory insults. To understand how inflammation alters vessel permeability, we studied the effects of the proinflammatory cytokine TNFα on transendothelial permeability and electrophysiology in ex vivo murine veins and arteries. We found that TNFα specifically decreased the barrier function of venous endothelium without affecting that of arterial endothelium. On the basis of RNA expression profiling and protein analysis, we found that claudin-11 (CLDN11) was the predominant claudin in venous endothelial cells and that there was little, if any, CLDN11 in arterial endothelial cells. Consistent with a difference in claudin composition, TNFα increased the permselectivity of Cl<sup>-</sup> over Na<sup>+</sup> in venous but not arterial endothelium. The vein-specific effects of TNFα also required the activation of Pannexin 1 (Panx1) channels and the CD39-mediated hydrolysis of ATP to adenosine, which subsequently stimulated A<sub>2A</sub> adenosine receptors. Moreover, the increase in vein permeability required the activation of the Ca<sup>2+</sup> channel TRPV4 downstream of Panx1 activation. Panx1-deficient mice resisted the pathologic effects of sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture on life span and lung vascular permeability. These data provide a targetable pathway with the potential to promote vein barrier function and prevent the deleterious effects of vascular leak in response to inflammation.
Project description:Endothelial cells are important constituents of blood vessels that play critical roles in cardiovascular homeostasis by regulating blood fluidity and fibrinolysis, vascular tone, angiogenesis, monocyte/leukocyte adhesion, and platelet aggregation. The normal vascular endothelium is taken as a gatekeeper of cardiovascular health, whereas abnormality of vascular endothelium is a major contributor to a plethora of cardiovascular ailments, such as atherosclerosis, aging, hypertension, obesity, and diabetes. Endothelial dysfunction is characterized by imbalanced vasodilation and vasoconstriction, elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS), and proinflammatory factors, as well as deficiency of nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. The occurrence of endothelial dysfunction disrupts the endothelial barrier permeability that is a part of inflammatory response in the development of cardiovascular diseases. As such, abrogation of endothelial cell activation/inflammation is of clinical relevance. Recently, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), an entry as a gasotransmitter, exerts diverse biological effects through acting on various targeted signaling pathways. Within the cardiovascular system, the formation of H2S is detected in smooth muscle cells, vascular endothelial cells, and cardiomyocytes. Disrupted H2S bioavailability is postulated to be a new indicator for endothelial cell inflammation and its associated endothelial dysfunction. In this review, we will summarize recent advances about the roles of H2S in endothelial cell homeostasis, especially under pathological conditions, and discuss its putative therapeutic applications in endothelial inflammation-associated cardiovascular disorders.
Project description:Vascular endothelium is a dynamic cellular interface that displays a unique phenotypic plasticity. This plasticity is critical for vascular function and when dysregulated is pathogenic in several diseases. Human genotype-phenotype studies of endothelium are limited by the unavailability of patient-specific endothelial cells. To establish a cellular platform for studying endothelial biology, we have generated vascular endothelium from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) exhibiting the rich functional phenotypic plasticity of mature primary vascular endothelium. These endothelial cells respond to diverse proinflammatory stimuli, adopting an activated phenotype including leukocyte adhesion molecule expression, cytokine production, and support for leukocyte transmigration. They maintain dynamic barrier properties responsive to multiple vascular permeability factors. Importantly, biomechanical or pharmacological stimuli can induce pathophysiologically relevant atheroprotective or atheroprone phenotypes. Our results demonstrate that iPSC-derived endothelium possesses a repertoire of functional phenotypic plasticity and is amenable to cell-based assays probing endothelial contributions to inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases.
Project description:<b>Background:</b> Numerous pieces of evidence have indicated that thoracic aortic dissection (TAD) is an inflammatory disease. Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 (S1PR2) signaling is a driver in multiple inflammatory diseases. Here, we examined the S1PR2 expression in TAD lesions and explored the effect of interfering with S1PR2 on TAD formation and progression. <b>Methods:</b> Aorta specimens and blood samples were collected from patients with TAD and matched controls. The expression of S1PR1, S1PR2, and S1PR3 was examined. The effect of inhibiting S1PR2 on TAD was evaluated in a TAD mouse model induced by β-aminopropionitrile fumarate (BAPN) and AngII. The presence of sphingosine kinase 1 (SPHK1), S1P, and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) was investigated. Further, the possible association between S1PR2 signaling and NETs in TAD was analyzed. <b>Results:</b> In the aortic tissues of patients with TAD and a mouse model, the S1PR2 expression was significantly up-regulated. In the TAD mouse model, JTE013, a specific S1PR2 antagonist, not only blunted the TAD formation and aortic rupture, but also preserved the elastic fiber architecture, reduced the smooth muscle cells apoptosis level, and mitigated the aortic wall inflammation. Augmented tissue protein expression of SPHK1, citrullinated histone H3 (CitH3, a specific marker of NETs), and serum S1P, CitH3 were detected in TAD patients. Surgical repair normalized the serum S1P and CitH3 levels. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that S1PR2 colocalized with NETs. The protein expression levels of SPHK1 and serum S1P levels positively correlated with the protein expression and serum levels of CitH3, separately. Furthermore, JTE013 treatment reduced NETs accumulation. <b>Conclusion:</b> Inhibiting S1PR2 attenuates TAD formation and prevents aortic rupture. Targeting S1PR2 may provide a promising treatment strategy against TAD.
Project description:Vascular permeability is frequently associated with inflammation and it is triggered by chemokines and by a cohort of secreted permeability factors, such as VEGF. In contrast, here we showed that the physiological vascular permeability that precedes implantation is directly controlled by progesterone receptor (PR) and it is independent of VEGF. Both global and endothelial-specific deletion of PR block physiological vascular permeability in the uterus while misexpression of PR in the endothelium of other organs results in ectopic vascular leakage. Integration of genome-wide transcriptional profile of endothelium and ChIP-sequencing revealed that PR induces a NR4A1 (Nur77/TR3) specific transcriptional program that broadly regulates vascular permeability in response to progesterone. This program triggers concurrent suppression of several junctional proteins and leads to an effective, timely and venule-specific regulation of vascular barrier function. Silencing NR4A1 blocks PR-mediated permeability responses indicating a direct link between PR and NR4A1. These results reveal a previously unknown function for progesterone receptor on endothelial cell biology with consequences to physiological vascular permeability and implications to the clinical use of progestins and anti-progestins on blood vessel integrity. Examination of PR target genes in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) using RNA-seq (PR infected only -PR only and PR infected followed by ligand treatment-PR+P)
Project description:Loss of endothelial integrity promotes capillary leakage in numerous diseases, including sepsis, but there are no effective therapies for preserving endothelial barrier function. Angiopoietin-2 (ANGPT2) is a context-dependent regulator of vascular leakage that signals via both endothelial TEK receptor tyrosine kinase (TIE2) and integrins. Here, we show that antibodies against ?1-integrin decrease LPS-induced vascular leakage in murine endotoxemia, as either a preventative or an intervention therapy. ?1-integrin inhibiting antibodies bound to the vascular endothelium in vivo improved the integrity of endothelial cell-cell junctions and protected mice from endotoxemia-associated cardiac failure, without affecting endothelial inflammation, serum proinflammatory cytokine levels, or TIE receptor signaling. Moreover, conditional deletion of a single allele of endothelial ?1-integrin protected mice from LPS-induced vascular leakage. In endothelial monolayers, the inflammatory agents thrombin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and IL-1? decreased junctional vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin and induced actin stress fibers via ?1- and ?5-integrins and ANGPT2. Additionally, ?1-integrin inhibiting antibodies prevented inflammation-induced endothelial cell contractility and monolayer permeability. Mechanistically, the inflammatory agents stimulated ANGPT2-dependent translocation of ?5?1-integrin into tensin-1-positive fibrillar adhesions, which destabilized the endothelial monolayer. Thus, ?1-integrin promotes endothelial barrier disruption during inflammation, and targeting ?1-integrin signaling could serve as a novel means of blocking pathological vascular leak.