Inverse modulation of plant immune and brassinosteroid signaling pathways by the receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase BIK1.
ABSTRACT: Maintaining active growth and effective immune responses is often costly for a living organism to survive. Fine-tuning the shared cross-regulators is crucial for metazoans and plants to make a trade-off between growth and immunity. The Arabidopsis regulatory receptor-like kinase BAK1 complexes with the receptor kinases FLS2 in bacterial flagellin-triggered immunity and BRI1 in brassinosteroid (BR)-mediated growth. BR homeostasis and signaling unidirectionally modulate FLS2-mediated immune responses at multiple levels. We have shown previously that BIK1, a receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase, is directly phosphorylated by BAK1 and associates with FLS2/BAK1 complex in transducing flagellin signaling. In contrast to its positive role in plant immunity, we report here that BIK1 acts as a negative regulator in BR signaling. The bik1 mutant displays various BR hypersensitive phenotypes accompanied with increased accumulation of de-phosphorylated BES1 proteins and transcriptional regulation of BZR1 and BES1 target genes. BIK1 associates with BRI1, and is released from BRI1 receptor upon BR treatment, which is reminiscent of FLS2-BIK1 complex dynamics in flagellin signaling. The ligand-induced release of BIK1 from receptor complexes is associated with BIK1 phosphorylation. However, in contrast to BAK1-dependent FLS2-BIK1 dissociation, BAK1 is dispensable for BRI1-BIK1 dissociation. Unlike FLS2 signaling which depends on BAK1 to phosphorylate BIK1, BRI1 directly phosphorylates BIK1 to transduce BR signaling. Thus, BIK1 relays the signaling in plant immunity and BR-mediated growth via distinct phosphorylation by BAK1 and BRI1, respectively. Our studies indicate that BIK1 mediates inverse functions in plant immunity and development via dynamic association with specific receptor complexes and differential phosphorylation events.
Project description:Plants and animals rely on innate immunity to prevent infections by detection of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) through pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs). The plant PRR FLS2, a leucine-rich repeat-receptor kinase, recognizes bacterial flagellin and initiates immune signaling by association with another leucine-rich repeat-receptor-like kinase, BAK1. It remains unknown how the FLS2/BAK1 receptor complex activates intracellular signaling cascades. Here we identified the receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase BIK1 that is rapidly phosphorylated upon flagellin perception, depending on both FLS2 and BAK1. BIK1 associates with FLS2 and BAK1 in vivo and in vitro. BIK1 is phosphorylated by BAK1, and BIK1 also directly phosphorylates BAK1 and FLS2 in vitro. The flagellin phosphorylation site Thr(237) of BIK1 is required for its phosphorylation on BAK1 and FLS2, suggesting that BIK1 is likely first phosphorylated upon flagellin perception and subsequently transphosphorylates FLS2/BAK1 to propagate flagellin signaling. Importantly, bik1 mutants are compromised in diverse flagellin-mediated responses and immunity to the nonpathogenic bacterial infection. Thus, BIK1 is an essential component in MAMP signal transduction, which links the MAMP receptor complex to downstream intracellular signaling.
Project description:Flagellin-sensing 2 (FLS2) is a leucine-rich repeat/transmembrane domain/protein kinase (LRR-RLK) that is the plant receptor for bacterial flagellin or the flagellin-derived flg22 peptide. Previous work has shown that after flg22 binding, FLS2 releases BIK1 kinase and homologs and associates with BAK1 kinase, and that FLS2 kinase activity is critical for FLS2 function. However, the detailed mechanisms for activation of FLS2 signaling remain unclear. The present study initially identified multiple FLS2 in vitro phosphorylation sites and found that Serine-938 is important for FLS2 function in vivo. FLS2-mediated immune responses are abolished in transgenic plants expressing FLS2(S938A), while the acidic phosphomimic mutants FLS2(S938D) and FLS2(S938E) conferred responses similar to wild-type FLS2. FLS2-BAK1 association and FLS2-BIK1 disassociation after flg22 exposure still occur with FLS2(S938A), demonstrating that flg22-induced BIK1 release and BAK1 binding are not sufficient for FLS2 activity, and that Ser-938 controls other aspects of FLS2 activity. Purified BIK1 still phosphorylated purified FLS2(S938A) and FLS2(S938D) mutant kinase domains in vitro. Phosphorylation of BIK1 and homologs after flg22 exposure was disrupted in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants expressing FLS2(S938A) or FLS2(D997A) (a kinase catalytic site mutant), but was normally induced in FLS2(S938D) plants. BIK1 association with FLS2 required a kinase-active FLS2, but FLS2-BAK1 association did not. Hence FLS2-BIK1 dissociation and FLS2-BAK1 association are not sufficient for FLS2-mediated defense activation, but the proposed FLS2 phosphorylation site Ser-938 and FLS2 kinase activity are needed both for overall defense activation and for appropriate flg22-stimulated phosphorylation of BIK1 and homologs.
Project description:The plasma membrane-localized BRI1-ASSOCIATED KINASE1 (BAK1) functions as a co-receptor with several receptor kinases including the brassinosteroid (BR) receptor BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1), which is involved in growth, and the receptors for bacterial flagellin and EF-Tu, FLAGELLIN-SENSING 2 (FLS2) and EF-TU RECEPTOR (EFR), respectively, which are involved in immunity. BAK1 is a dual specificity protein kinase that can autophosphorylate on serine, threonine and tyrosine residues. It was previously reported that phosphorylation of Tyr-610 in the carboxy-terminal domain of BAK1 is required for its function in BR signaling and immunity. However, the functional role of Tyr-610 in vivo has recently come under scrutiny. Therefore, we have generated new BAK1 (Y610F) transgenic plants for functional studies. We first produced transgenic Arabidopsis lines expressing BAK1 (Y610F)-Flag in the homozygous bak1-4 bkk1-1 double null background. In a complementary approach, we expressed untagged BAK1 and BAK1 (Y610F) in the bak1-4 null mutant. Neither BAK1 (Y610F) transgenic line had any obvious growth phenotype when compared to wild-type BAK1 expressed in the same background. In addition, the BAK1 (Y610F)-Flag plants responded similarly to plants expressing BAK1-Flag in terms of brassinolide (BL) inhibition of root elongation, and there were only minor changes in gene expression between the two transgenic lines as monitored by microarray analysis and quantitative real-time PCR. In terms of plant immunity, there were no significant differences between plants expressing BAK1 (Y610F)-Flag and BAK1-Flag in the growth of the non-pathogenic hrpA- mutant of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Furthermore, untagged BAK1 (Y610F) transgenic plants were as responsive as plants expressing BAK1 (in the bak1-4 background) and wild-type Col-0 plants toward treatment with the EF-Tu- and flagellin-derived peptide epitopes elf18- and flg22, respectively, as measured by reactive oxygen species production, mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, and seedling growth inhibition. These new results do not support any involvement of Tyr-610 phosphorylation in either BR or immune signaling.
Project description:Metazoans and plants use pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to sense conserved microbial-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) in the extracellular environment. In plants, the bacterial MAMPs flagellin and elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) activate distinct, phylogenetically related cell surface pattern recognition receptors of the leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase (LRR-RK) family called FLS2 and EF-Tu receptor, respectively. BAK1 is an LRR-RK coreceptor for both FLS2 and EF-Tu receptor. BAK1 is also a coreceptor for the plant brassinosteroid (BR) receptor, the LRR-RK BRI1. Binding of BR to BRI1 primarily promotes cell elongation. Here, we tune the BR pathway response to establish how plant cells can generate functionally different cellular outputs in response to MAMPs and pathogens. We demonstrate that BR can act antagonistically or synergistically with responses to MAMPs. We further show that the synergistic activities of BRs on MAMP responses require BAK1. Our results highlight the importance of plant steroid homeostasis as a critical step in the establishment of plant immunity. We propose that tradeoffs associated with plasticity in the face of infection are layered atop plant steroid developmental programs.
Project description:Brassinosteroids (BRs) are important plant growth hormones that regulate a wide range of plant growth and developmental processes. The BR signals are perceived by two cell surface-localized receptor kinases, Brassinosteroid-Insensitive1 (BRI1) and BRI1-Associated receptor Kinase (BAK1), and reach the nucleus through two master transcription factors, bri1-EMS suppressor1 (BES1) and Brassinazole-resistant1 (BZR1). The intracellular transmission of the BR signals from BRI1/BAK1 to BES1/BZR1 is inhibited by a constitutively active kinase Brassinosteroid-Insensitive2 (BIN2) that phosphorylates and negatively regulates BES1/BZR1. Since their initial discoveries, further studies have revealed a plethora of biochemical and cellular mechanisms that regulate their protein abundance, subcellular localizations, and signaling activities. In this review, we provide a critical analysis of the current literature concerning activation, inactivation, and other regulatory mechanisms of three key kinases of the BR signaling cascade, BRI1, BAK1, and BIN2, and discuss some unresolved controversies and outstanding questions that require further investigation.
Project description:BAK1 is a leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase that functions as a coreceptor with the brassinosteroid (BR) receptor BRI1 and the flagellin receptor FLS2, and as a negative regulator of programmed cell death. BAK1 has been shown to autophosphorylate on numerous serine/threonine sites in vitro as well as to transphosphorylate associated receptor kinases both in vitro and in planta. In the present study we identify Tyr-610 in the carboxyl-terminal domain of BAK1 as a major site of autophosphorylation that is brassinolide-induced in vivo and requires a kinase-active BAK1. Expression of BAK1(Y610F)-Flag in transgenic plants lacking the endogenous bak1 and its functional paralogue, bkk1, produced plants that were viable but extremely small and generally resembled BR signaling mutants, whereas an acidic substitution for Tyr-610 to mimic phosphorylation restored normal growth. Several lines of evidence support the notion that BR signaling is impaired in the BAK1(Y610F)-Flag plants, and are consistent with the recently proposed sequential transphosphorylation model for BRI1/BAK1 interaction and activation. In contrast, the FLS2-mediated inhibition of seedling growth by the flg22 elicitor occurred normally in the Y610F-directed mutant. However, expression of many defense genes was dramatically reduced in BAK1(Y610F) plants and the nonpathogenic hrpA mutant of Pseudomonas syringae was able to grow rapidly in the mutant. These results indicate that phosphorylation of Tyr-610 is required for some but not all functions of BAK1, and adds significantly to the emerging notion that tyrosine phosphorylation could play an important role in plant receptor kinase signaling.
Project description:Plants and animals use innate immunity as a first defense against pathogens, a costly yet necessary tradeoff between growth and immunity. In Arabidopsis, the regulatory leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase (LRR-RLK) BAK1 combines with the LRR-RLKs FLS2 and EFR in pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) and the LRR-RLK BRI1 in brassinosteroid (BR)-mediated growth. Therefore, a potential tradeoff between these pathways mediated by BAK1 is often postulated. Here, we show a unidirectional inhibition of FLS2-mediated immune signaling by BR perception. Unexpectedly, this effect occurred downstream or independently of complex formation with BAK1 and associated downstream phosphorylation. Thus, BAK1 is not rate-limiting in these pathways. BRs also inhibited signaling triggered by the BAK1-independent recognition of the fungal PAMP chitin. Our results suggest a general mechanism operative in plants in which BR-mediated growth directly antagonizes innate immune signaling.
Project description:In plants leucine-rich repeat receptor kinases (LRR-RKs) located at the plasma membrane play a pivotal role in the perception of extracellular signals. For two of these LRR-RKs, the brassinosteroid receptor BRI1 and the flagellin receptor FLS2, interaction with the LRR receptor-like kinase BAK1 (BRI1-associated receptor kinase 1) was shown to be required for signal transduction. Here we report that FLS2.BAK1 heteromerization occurs almost instantaneously after perception of the ligand, the flagellin-derived peptide flg22. Flg22 can induce formation of a stable FLS2.BAK1 complex in microsomal membrane preparations in vitro, and the kinase inhibitor K-252a does not prevent complex formation. A kinase dead version of BAK1 associates with FLS2 in a flg22-dependent manner but does not restore responsiveness to flg22 in cells of bak1 plants, demonstrating that kinase activity of BAK1 is essential for FLS2 signaling. Furthermore, using in vivo phospholabeling, we are able to detect de novo phosphorylation of both FLS2 and BAK1 within 15 s of stimulation with flg22. Similarly, brassinolide induces BAK1 phosphorylation within seconds. Other triggers of plant defense, such as bacterial EF-Tu and the endogenous AtPep1 likewise induce rapid formation of heterocomplexes consisting of de novo phosphorylated BAK1 and proteins representing the ligand-specific binding receptors EF-Tu receptor and Pep1 receptor 1, respectively. Thus, we propose that several LRR-RKs form tight complexes with BAK1 almost instantaneously after ligand binding and that the subsequent phosphorylation events are key initial steps in signal transduction.
Project description:Successful pathogens have evolved strategies to interfere with host immune systems. For example, the ubiquitous plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae injects two sequence-distinct effectors, AvrPto and AvrPtoB, to intercept convergent innate immune responses stimulated by multiple microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). However, the direct host targets and precise molecular mechanisms of bacterial effectors remain largely obscure. We show that AvrPto and AvrPtoB bind the Arabidopsis receptor-like kinase BAK1, a shared signaling partner of both the flagellin receptor FLS2 and the brassinosteroid receptor BRI1. This targeting interferes with ligand-dependent association of FLS2 with BAK1 during infection. It also impedes BAK1-dependent host immune responses to diverse other MAMPs and brassinosteroid signaling. Significantly, the structural basis of AvrPto-BAK1 interaction appears to be distinct from AvrPto-Pto association required for effector-triggered immunity. These findings uncover a unique strategy of bacterial pathogenesis where virulence effectors block signal transmission through a key common component of multiple MAMP-receptor complexes.
Project description:BES1 and BZR1 were originally identified as two key transcription factors specifically regulating brassinosteroid (BR)-mediated gene expression. They belong to a family consisting of six members, BES1, BZR1, BEH1, BEH2, BEH3, and BEH4. bes1 and bzr1 single mutants do not exhibit any characteristic BR phenotypes, suggesting functional redundancy of these proteins. Here, by generating higher order mutants, we show that a quintuple mutant is male sterile due to defects in tapetum and microsporocyte development in anthers. Our genetic and biochemical analyses demonstrate that BES1 family members also act as downstream transcription factors in the EMS1-TPD1-SERK1/2 pathway. Ectopic expression of both TPD1 and EMS1 in bri1-116, a BR receptor null mutant, leads to the accumulation of non-phosphorylated, active BES1, similar to activation of BES1 by BRI1-BR-BAK1 signaling. These data suggest that two distinctive receptor-like kinase-mediated signaling pathways share BES1 family members as downstream transcription factors to regulate different aspects of plant development.