A tudor domain protein SPINDLIN1 interacts with the mRNA-binding protein SERBP1 and is involved in mouse oocyte meiotic resumption.
ABSTRACT: Mammalian oocytes are arrested at prophase I of meiosis, and resume meiosis prior to ovulation. Coordination of meiotic arrest and resumption is partly dependent on the post-transcriptional regulation of maternal transcripts. Here, we report that, SPINDLIN1 (SPIN1), a maternal protein containing Tudor-like domains, interacts with a known mRNA-binding protein SERBP1, and is involved in regulating maternal transcripts to control meiotic resumption. Mouse oocytes deficient for Spin1 undergo normal folliculogenesis, but are defective in resuming meiosis. SPIN1, via its Tudor-like domain, forms a ribonucleoprotein complex with SERBP1, and regulating mRNA stability and/or translation. The mRNA for the cAMP-degrading enzyme, PDE3A, is reduced in Spin1 mutant oocytes, possibly contributing to meiotic arrest. Our study demonstrates that Spin1 regulates maternal transcripts post-transcriptionally and is involved in meiotic resumption.
Project description:Increasing maternal age in mammals is associated with poorer oocyte quality, involving higher aneuploidy rates and decreased developmental competence. Prior to resumption of meiosis, fully developed mammalian oocytes become transcriptionally silent until the onset of zygotic genome activation. Therefore, meiotic progression and early embryogenesis are driven largely by translational utilization of previously synthesized mRNAs. We report that genome-wide translatome profiling reveals considerable numbers of transcripts that are differentially translated in oocytes obtained from aged compared to young females. Additionally, we show that a number of aberrantly translated mRNAs in oocytes from aged females are associated with cell cycle. Indeed, we demonstrate that four specific maternal age-related transcripts (Sgk1, Castor1, Aire and Eg5) with differential translation rates encode factors that are associated with the newly forming meiotic spindle. Moreover, we report substantial defects in chromosome alignment and cytokinesis in the oocytes of young females, in which candidate CASTOR1 and SGK1 protein levels or activity are experimentally altered. Our findings indicate that improper translation of specific proteins at the onset of meiosis contributes to increased chromosome segregation problems associated with female ageing.
Project description:Mammalian oocytes are arrested at prophase I until puberty when hormonal signals induce the resumption of meiosis I and progression to meiosis II. Meiotic progression is controlled by CDK1 activity and is accompanied by dynamic epigenetic changes. Although the signalling pathways regulating CDK1 activity are well defined, the functional significance of epigenetic changes remains largely unknown. Here we show that LSD1, a lysine demethylase, regulates histone H3 lysine 4 di-methylation (H3K4me2) in mouse oocytes and is essential for meiotic progression. Conditional deletion of Lsd1 in growing oocytes results in precocious resumption of meiosis and spindle and chromosomal abnormalities. Consequently, most Lsd1-null oocytes fail to complete meiosis I and undergo apoptosis. Mechanistically, upregulation of CDC25B, a phosphatase that activates CDK1, is responsible for precocious meiotic resumption and also contributes to subsequent spindle and chromosomal defects. Our findings uncover a functional link between LSD1 and the major signalling pathway governing meiotic progression.
Project description:Meiotic maturation in oocytes is a prolonged process that is unique because of cell cycle arrests at prophase of meiosis I (MI) and at metaphase of meiosis II (MII). Fluctuations in cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1/CDC2A) activity govern meiotic progression, yet little is known about how these fluctuations are achieved. CDC14 is a highly conserved dual-specificity phosphatase that counteracts the function of proteins phosphorylated by CDK. Mammals contain two CDC14 homologs, CDC14A and CDC14B. We report that CDC14B localizes with the meiotic spindle in mouse oocytes, and (unlike somatic cells) it does not localize in the nucleolus. Oocytes that overexpress CDC14B are significantly delayed in resuming meiosis and fail to progress to MII, whereas oocytes depleted of CDC14B spontaneously resume meiosis under conditions that normally inhibit meiotic resumption. Depletion of FZR1 (CDH1), a regulatory subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome that targets cyclin B1 (CCNB1) for ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, partially restores normal timing of meiotic resumption in oocytes with excess CDC14B. These studies also reveal that experimentally altering CDC14B levels generates eggs with abnormal spindles and with chromosome alignment perturbations. Our data indicate that CDC14B is a negative regulator of meiotic resumption and may regulate MI in mouse oocytes.
Project description:Mammalian oocytes are stored in the ovary, where they are arrested in prophase for prolonged periods. The mechanisms that abrogate the prophase arrest in mammalian oocytes and reinitiate meiosis are not well understood. Here, we identify and characterize an essential pathway for the resumption of meiosis that relies on the protein phosphatase DUSP7. DUSP7-depleted oocytes either fail to resume meiosis or resume meiosis with a significant delay. In the absence of DUSP7, Cdk1/CycB activity drops below the critical level required to reinitiate meiosis, precluding or delaying nuclear envelope breakdown. Our data suggest that DUSP7 drives meiotic resumption by dephosphorylating and thereby inactivating cPKC isoforms. In addition to controlling meiotic resumption, DUSP7 has a second function in chromosome segregation: DUSP7-depleted oocytes that enter meiosis show severe chromosome alignment defects and progress into anaphase prematurely. Altogether, these findings establish the phosphatase DUSP7 as an essential regulator of multiple steps in oocyte meiosis.
Project description:Fully grown oocytes in the ovary are arrested at prophase of meiosis I because of high levels of intraoocyte cAMP that maintain increased levels of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) activity. Following the luteinizing hormone surge at the time of ovulation, cAMP levels drop, resulting in a reduction in PKA activity that triggers meiotic resumption. Although much is known about the molecular mechanisms of how PKA activity fluctuations initiate the oocyte's reentry into meiosis, significantly less is known about the requirement for PKA activity in the oocyte after exit from the prophase I arrest. Here we show that although PKA activity decreases in the oocyte upon meiotic resumption, it increases throughout meiotic progression from the time of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) until the metaphase II (MII) arrest. Blocking this meiotic maturation-associated increase in PKA activity using the pharmacological inhibitor H89 resulted in altered kinetics of GVBD, defects in chromatin and spindle dynamics, and decreased ability of oocytes to reach MII. These effects appear to be largely PKA specific because inhibitors targeting other kinases did not have the same outcomes. To determine potential proteins that may require PKA phosphorylation during meiosis, we separated oocyte protein extracts on an SDS-PAGE gel, extracted regions of the gel that had corresponding immune reactivity towards an anti-PKA substrate antibody, and performed mass spectrometry and microsequencing. Using this approach, we identified transducin-like enhancer of split-6 (TLE6)-a maternal effect gene that is part of the subcortical maternal complex-as a putative PKA substrate. TLE6 localized to the oocyte cortex throughout meiosis in a manner that is spatially and temporally consistent with the localization of critical PKA subunits. Moreover, we demonstrated that TLE6 becomes phosphorylated in a narrow window following meiotic resumption, and H89 treatment can completely block this phosphorylation when added prior to GVBD but not after. Taken together, these results highlight the importance of oocyte-intrinsic PKA in regulating meiotic progression after the prophase I arrest and offer new insights into downstream targets of its activity.
Project description:Oocytes are indispensable for mammalian life. Thus, it is important to understand how mature oocytes are generated. As a critical stage of oocytes development, meiosis has been extensively studied, yet how chromatin remodeling contributes to this process is largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling factor Snf2h (also known as Smarca5) plays a critical role in regulating meiotic cell cycle progression. Females with oocyte-specific depletion of Snf2h are infertile and oocytes lacking Snf2h fail to undergo meiotic resumption. Mechanistically, depletion of Snf2h results in dysregulation of meiosis-related genes, which causes failure of maturation-promoting factor (MPF) activation. ATAC-seq analysis in oocytes revealed that Snf2h regulates transcription of key meiotic genes, such as Prkar2b, by increasing its promoter chromatin accessibility. Thus, our studies not only demonstrate the importance of Snf2h in oocyte meiotic resumption, but also reveal the mechanism underlying how a chromatin remodeling factor can regulate oocyte meiosis.
Project description:CDK1 is a pivotal regulator of resumption of meiosis and meiotic maturation of oocytes. CDC25A/B/C are dual-specificity phosphatases and activate cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). Although CDC25C is not essential for either mitotic or meiotic cell cycle regulation, CDC25B is essential for CDK1 activation during resumption of meiosis. Cdc25a -/- mice are embryonic lethal and therefore a role for CDC25A in meiosis is unknown. We report that activation of CDK1 results in a maturation-associated decrease in the amount of CDC25A protein, but not Cdc25a mRNA, such that little CDC25A is present by metaphase I. In addition, expression of exogenous CDC25A overcomes cAMP-mediated maintenance of meiotic arrest. Microinjection of Gfp-Cdc25a and Gpf-Cdc25b mRNAs constructs reveals that CDC25A is exclusively localized to the nucleus prior to nuclear envelope breakdown (NEBD). In contrast, CDC25B localizes to cytoplasm in GV-intact oocytes and translocates to the nucleus shortly before NEBD. Over-expressing GFP-CDC25A, which compensates for the normal maturation-associated decrease in CDC25A, blocks meiotic maturation at MI. This MI block is characterized by defects in chromosome congression and spindle formation and a transient reduction in both CDK1 and MAPK activities. Lastly, RNAi-mediated reduction of CDC25A results in fewer oocytes resuming meiosis and reaching MII. These data demonstrate that CDC25A behaves differently during female meiosis than during mitosis, and moreover, that CDC25A has a function in resumption of meiosis, MI spindle formation and the MI-MII transition. Thus, both CDC25A and CDC25B are critical for meiotic maturation of oocytes.
Project description:The oocyte faces a particular challenge in terms of gene regulation. When oocytes resume meiosis at the end of the growth phase and prior to ovulation, the condensed chromatin state prevents the transcription of genes as they are required. Transcription is effectively silenced from the late germinal vesicle (GV) stage until embryonic genome activation (EGA) following fertilisation. Therefore, during its growth, the oocyte must produce the mRNA transcripts needed to fulfil its protein requirements during the active period of meiotic completion, fertilisation, and the maternal-to zygote-transition (MZT). After meiotic resumption, gene expression control can be said to be transferred from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, from transcriptional regulation to translational regulation. Maternal RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are the mediators of translational regulation and their role in oocyte maturation and early embryo development is vital. Understanding these mechanisms will provide invaluable insight into the oocyte's requirements for developmental competence, with important implications for the diagnosis and treatment of certain types of infertility. Here, we give an overview of post-transcriptional regulation in the oocyte, emphasising the current knowledge of mammalian RBP mechanisms, and develop the roles of these mechanisms in the timely activation and elimination of maternal transcripts.
Project description:Oocytes develop the competence for meiosis and early embryogenesis during their growth. Setdb1 is a histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methyltransferase required for post-implantation development and has been implicated in the transcriptional silencing of genes and endogenous retroviral elements (ERVs). To address its role in oogenesis and pre-implantation development, we conditionally deleted Setdb1 in growing oocytes. Loss of Setdb1 expression greatly impaired meiosis. It delayed meiotic resumption, altered the dynamics of chromatin condensation, and impaired kinetochore-spindle interactions, bipolar spindle organization, and chromosome segregation in more mature oocytes. The observed phenotypes related to changes in abundance of specific transcripts in mutant oocytes. Setdb1 maternally deficient embryos arrested during pre-implantation development and showed comparable defects during cell cycle progression and in chromosome segregation. Finally, transcriptional profiling data indicate that Setdb1 down-regulates rather than silences expression of ERVK and ERVL-MaLR retrotransposons and associated chimearic transcripts during oogenesis. Our results identify Setdb1 as a novel meiotic and embryonic competence factor in meiosis and mitosis, safeguarding genome integrity at the onset of life. We performed expression profiling on pools of 16 denuded GV-oocytes isolated per mouse. We used oocytes from 4 Setdb1 f/+; Zp3-cre mice and 2 Setdb1 f/- mice as controls and oocytes from 4 Setdb1 f/-; Zp3-cre mice as mutant.
Project description:Mammalian oocytes are arrested at the prophase of the first meiotic division for months and even years, depending on species. Meiotic resumption of fully grown oocytes requires activation of M-phase-promoting factor (MPF), which is composed of Cyclin B1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1). It has long been believed that Cyclin B1 synthesis/accumulation and its interaction with CDK1 is a prerequisite for MPF activation in oocytes. In this study, we revealed that oocyte meiotic resumption occurred in the absence of Cyclin B1. <i>Ccnb1</i>-null oocytes resumed meiosis and extruded the first polar body. Without Cyclin B1, CDK1 could be activated by up-regulated Cyclin B2. <i>Ccnb1</i> and <i>Ccnb2</i> double knockout permanently arrested the oocytes at the prophase of the first meiotic division. Oocyte-specific <i>Ccnb1</i>-null female mice were infertile due to failed MPF activity elevation and thus premature interphase-like stage entry in the second meiotic division. These results have revealed a hidden compensatory mechanism between Cyclin B1 and Cyclin B2 in regulating MPF and oocyte meiotic resumption.