CEP120 interacts with CPAP and positively regulates centriole elongation.
ABSTRACT: Centriole duplication begins with the formation of a single procentriole next to a preexisting centriole. CPAP (centrosomal protein 4.1-associated protein) was previously reported to participate in centriole elongation. Here, we show that CEP120 is a cell cycle-regulated protein that directly interacts with CPAP and is required for centriole duplication. CEP120 levels increased gradually from early S to G2/M and decreased significantly after mitosis. Forced overexpression of either CEP120 or CPAP not only induced the assembly of overly long centrioles but also produced atypical supernumerary centrioles that grew from these long centrioles. Depletion of CEP120 inhibited CPAP-induced centriole elongation and vice versa, implying that these proteins work together to regulate centriole elongation. Furthermore, CEP120 was found to contain an N-terminal microtubule-binding domain, a C-terminal dimerization domain, and a centriolar localization domain. Overexpression of a microtubule binding-defective CEP120-K76A mutant significantly suppressed the formation of elongated centrioles. Together, our results indicate that CEP120 is a CPAP-interacting protein that positively regulates centriole elongation.
Project description:Centrosomal protein 120 (CEP120) was originally identified as a daughter centriole-enriched protein that participates in centriole elongation. Recent studies showed that CEP120 gene mutations cause complex ciliopathy phenotypes in humans, including Joubert syndrome and Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy, suggesting that CEP120 plays an additional role in ciliogenesis. To investigate the potential roles of CEP120 in centriole elongation and cilia formation, we knocked out the CEP120 gene in p53-deficient RPE1 cells using the CRISPR/Cas9 editing system, and performed various analyses. We herein report that loss of CEP120 produces short centrioles with no apparent distal and subdistal appendages. CEP120 knockout was also associated with defective centriole elongation, impaired recruitment of C2CD3 and Talpid3 to the distal ends of centrioles, and consequent defects in centriole appendage assembly and cilia formation. Interestingly, wild-type CEP120 interacts with C2CD3 and Talpid3, whereas a disease-associated CEP120 mutant (I975S) has a low affinity for C2CD3 binding and perturbs cilia assembly. Together, our findings reveal a novel role of CEP120 in ciliogenesis by showing that it interacts with C2CD3 and Talpid3 to assemble centriole appendages and by illuminating the molecular mechanism through which the CEP120 (I975S) mutation causes complex ciliopathies.
Project description:The two centrioles of the centrosome in quiescent cells are inherently asymmetric structures that differ in age, morphology and function. How these asymmetric properties are established and maintained during quiescence remains unknown. Here, we show that a daughter centriole-associated ciliopathy protein, Cep120, plays a critical inhibitory role at daughter centrioles. Depletion of Cep120 in quiescent mouse and human cells causes accumulation of pericentriolar material (PCM) components including pericentrin, Cdk5Rap2, ninein and Cep170. The elevated PCM levels result in increased microtubule-nucleation activity at the centrosome. Consequently, loss of Cep120 leads to aberrant dynein-dependent trafficking of centrosomal proteins, dispersal of centriolar satellites, and defective ciliary assembly and signaling. Our results indicate that Cep120 helps to maintain centrosome homeostasis by inhibiting untimely maturation of the daughter centriole, and defines a potentially new molecular defect underlying the pathogenesis of ciliopathies such as Jeune Asphyxiating Thoracic Dystrophy and Joubert syndrome.
Project description:Centriole duplication is the process by which two new daughter centrioles are generated from the proximal end of preexisting mother centrioles. Accurate centriole duplication is important for many cellular and physiological events, including cell division and ciliogenesis. Centrosomal protein 4.1-associated protein (CPAP), centrosomal protein of 152 kDa (CEP152), and centrobin are known to be essential for centriole duplication. However, the precise mechanism by which they contribute to centriole duplication is not known. In this study, we show that centrobin interacts with CEP152 and CPAP, and the centrobin-CPAP interaction is critical for centriole duplication. Although depletion of centrobin from cells did not have an effect on the centriolar levels of CEP152, it caused the disappearance of CPAP from both the preexisting and newly formed centrioles. Moreover, exogenous expression of the CPAP-binding fragment of centrobin also caused the disappearance of CPAP from both the preexisting and newly synthesized centrioles, possibly in a dominant negative manner, thereby inhibiting centriole duplication and the PLK4 overexpression-mediated centrosome amplification. Interestingly, exogenous overexpression of CPAP in the centrobin-depleted cells did not restore CPAP localization to the centrioles. However, restoration of centrobin expression in the centrobin-depleted cells led to the reappearance of centriolar CPAP. Hence, we conclude that centrobin-CPAP interaction is critical for the recruitment of CPAP to procentrioles to promote the elongation of daughter centrioles and for the persistence of CPAP on preexisting mother centrioles. Our study indicates that regulation of CPAP levels on the centrioles by centrobin is critical for preserving the normal size, shape, and number of centrioles in the cell.
Project description:The centrosome is the principal microtubule organizing center (MTOC) of animal cells. Accurate centrosome duplication is fundamental for genome integrity and entails the formation of one procentriole next to each existing centriole, once per cell cycle. The procentriole then elongates to eventually reach the same size as the centriole. The mechanisms that govern elongation of the centriolar cylinder and their potential relevance for cell division are not known. Here, we show that the SAS-4-related protein CPAP is required for centrosome duplication in cycling human cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that CPAP overexpression results in the formation of abnormally long centrioles. This also promotes formation of more than one procentriole in the vicinity of such overly long centrioles, eventually resulting in the presence of supernumerary MTOCs. This in turn leads to multipolar spindle assembly and cytokinesis defects. Overall, our findings suggest that centriole length must be carefully regulated to restrict procentriole number and thus ensure accurate cell division.
Project description:Centriole duplication is coordinated such that a single round of duplication occurs during each cell cycle. Disruption of this synchrony causes defects including supernumerary centrosomes in cancer and perturbed ciliary signaling [1-5]. To preserve the normal number of centrioles, the level, localization, and post-translational modification of centriole proteins is regulated so that, when centriole protein expression and/or activity are increased, centrioles self-assemble. Assembly is initiated by the formation of the cartwheel structure that comprises the base of centrioles [6-11]. SAS-6 constitutes the cartwheel, and SAS-6 levels remain low until centriole assembly is initiated at S phase onset [3, 12, 13]. CEP135 physically links to SAS-6 near the site of microtubule nucleation and binds to CPAP for triplet microtubule formation [13, 14]. We identify two distinct protein isoforms of CEP135 that antagonize each other to modulate centriole duplication: full-length CEP135 (CEP135(full)) promotes new assembly, whereas a short isoform, CEP135(mini), represses it. CEP135(mini) represses centriole duplication by limiting the centriolar localization of CEP135(full) binding proteins (SAS-6 and CPAP) and the pericentriolar localization of ?-tubulin. The CEP135 isoforms exhibit distinct and complementary centrosomal localization during the cell cycle. CEP135(mini) protein decreases from centrosomes upon anaphase onset. We suggest that the decrease in CEP135(mini) from centrosomes promotes centriole assembly. The repression of centriole duplication by a splice isoform of a protein that normally promotes it serves as a novel mechanism to limit centriole duplication.
Project description:The centrosome is the major microtubule-organizing center of most mammalian cells and consists of a pair of centrioles embedded in pericentriolar material. Before mitosis, the two centrioles duplicate and two new daughter centrioles form adjacent to each preexisting maternal centriole. After initiation of daughter centriole synthesis, the procentrioles elongate in a process that is poorly understood. Here, we show that inhibition of cellular proteolysis by Z-L3VS or MG132 induces abnormal elongation of daughter centrioles to approximately 4 times their normal length. This activity of Z-L3VS or MG132 was found to correlate with inhibition of intracellular protease-mediated substrate cleavage. Using a small interfering RNA screen, we identified a total of nine gene products that either attenuated (seven) or promoted (two) abnormal Z-L3VS-induced daughter centriole elongation. Our hits included known regulators of centriole length, including CPAP and CP110, but, interestingly, several proteins involved in microtubule stability and anchoring as well as centrosome cohesion. This suggests that nonproteasomal functions, specifically inhibition of cellular proteases, may play an important and underappreciated role in the regulation of centriole elongation. They also highlight the complexity of daughter centriole length control and provide a framework for future studies to dissect the molecular details of this process.
Project description:Pericentriolar material (PCM) recruitment to centrioles forms a key step in centrosome biogenesis. Deregulation of this process leads to centrosome aberrations causing disorders, one of which is autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH), a neurodevelopmental disorder where brain size is reduced. During PCM recruitment, the conserved centrosomal protein Sas-4/CPAP/MCPH6, known to play a role in centriole formation, acts as a scaffold for cytoplasmic PCM complexes to bind and then tethers them to centrioles to form functional centrosomes. To understand Sas-4's tethering role, we determined the crystal structure of its T complex protein 10 (TCP) domain displaying a solvent-exposed single-layer of ?-sheets fold. This unique feature of the TCP domain suggests that it could provide an "extended surface-like" platform to tether the Sas-4-PCM scaffold to a centriole. Functional studies in Drosophila, human cells, and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells were used to test this hypothesis, where point mutations within the 9-10th ?-strands (?9-10 mutants including a MCPH-associated mutation) perturbed PCM tethering while allowing Sas-4/CPAP to scaffold cytoplasmic PCM complexes. Specifically, the Sas-4 ?9-10 mutants displayed perturbed interactions with Ana2, a centrosome duplication factor, and Bld-10, a centriole microtubule-binding protein, suggesting a role for the ?9-10 surface in mediating protein-protein interactions for efficient Sas-4-PCM scaffold centriole tethering. Hence, we provide possible insights into how centrosomal protein defects result in human MCPH and how Sas-4 proteins act as a vehicle to tether PCM complexes to centrioles independent of its well-known role in centriole duplication.
Project description:Centrioles are microtubule-based, barrel-shaped structures that initiate the assembly of centrosomes and cilia. How centriole length is precisely set remains elusive. The microcephaly protein CPAP (also known as MCPH6) promotes procentriole growth, whereas the oral-facial-digital (OFD) syndrome protein OFD1 represses centriole elongation. Here we uncover a new subtype of OFD with severe microcephaly and cerebral malformations and identify distinct mutations in two affected families in the evolutionarily conserved C2CD3 gene. Concordant with the clinical overlap, C2CD3 colocalizes with OFD1 at the distal end of centrioles, and C2CD3 physically associates with OFD1. However, whereas OFD1 deletion leads to centriole hyperelongation, loss of C2CD3 results in short centrioles without subdistal and distal appendages. Because C2CD3 overexpression triggers centriole hyperelongation and OFD1 antagonizes this activity, we propose that C2CD3 directly promotes centriole elongation and that OFD1 acts as a negative regulator of C2CD3. Our results identify regulation of centriole length as an emerging pathogenic mechanism in ciliopathies.
Project description:Ciliopathies are a group of genetic disorders caused by a failure to form functional cilia. Due to a lack of structural information, it is currently poorly understood how ciliopathic mutations affect protein functionality to give rise to the underlying disease. Using X-ray crystallography, we show that the ciliopathy-associated centriolar protein CEP120 contains three C2 domains. The point mutations V194A and A199P, which cause Joubert syndrome (JS) and Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (JATD), respectively, both reduce the thermostability of the second C2 domain by targeting residues that point toward its hydrophobic core. Genome-engineered cells homozygous for these mutations have largely normal centriole numbers but show reduced CEP120 levels, compromised recruitment of distal centriole markers, and deficient cilia formation. Our results provide insight into the disease mechanism of two ciliopathic mutations in CEP120, identify putative binding partners of CEP120 C2B, and suggest a complex genotype-phenotype relation of the CEP120 ciliopathy alleles.
Project description:Centrioles are cylindrical structures that are usually composed of nine triplets of microtubules (MTs) organized around a cartwheel-shaped structure. Recent studies have proposed a structural model of the SAS-6-based cartwheel, yet we do not know the molecular detail of how the cartwheel participates in centriolar MT assembly. In this study, we demonstrate that the human microcephaly protein, CEP135, directly interacts with hSAS-6 via its carboxyl-terminus and with MTs via its amino-terminus. Unexpectedly, CEP135 also interacts with another microcephaly protein CPAP via its amino terminal domain. Depletion of CEP135 not only perturbed the centriolar localization of CPAP, but also blocked CPAP-induced centriole elongation. Furthermore, CEP135 depletion led to abnormal centriole structures with altered numbers of MT triplets and shorter centrioles. Overexpression of a CEP135 mutant lacking the proper interaction with hSAS-6 had a dominant-negative effect on centriole assembly. We propose that CEP135 may serve as a linker protein that directly connects the central hub protein, hSAS-6, to the outer MTs, and suggest that this interaction stabilizes the proper cartwheel structure for further CPAP-mediated centriole elongation.