Structure of Rev-erbalpha bound to N-CoR reveals a unique mechanism of nuclear receptor-co-repressor interaction.
ABSTRACT: Repression of gene transcription by the nuclear receptor Rev-erbalpha plays an integral role in the core molecular circadian clock. We report the crystal structure of a nuclear receptor-co-repressor (N-CoR) interaction domain 1 (ID1) peptide bound to truncated human Rev-erbalpha ligand-binding domain (LBD). The ID1 peptide forms an unprecedented antiparallel beta-sheet with Rev-erbalpha, as well as an alpha-helix similar to that seen in nuclear receptor ID2 crystal structures but out of register by four residues. Comparison with the structure of Rev-erbbeta bound to heme indicates that ID1 peptide and heme induce substantially different conformational changes in the LBD. Although heme is involved in Rev-erb repression, the structure suggests that Rev-erbalpha could also mediate repression via ID1 binding in the absence of heme. The previously uncharacterized secondary structure induced by ID1 peptide binding advances our understanding of nuclear receptor-co-repressor interactions.
Project description:Heme is a ligand for the human nuclear receptors (NR) REV-ERBalpha and REV-ERBbeta, which are transcriptional repressors that play important roles in circadian rhythm, lipid and glucose metabolism, and diseases such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, inflammation, and cancer. Here we show that transcription repression mediated by heme-bound REV-ERBs is reversed by the addition of nitric oxide (NO), and that the heme and NO effects are mediated by the C-terminal ligand-binding domain (LBD). A 1.9 A crystal structure of the REV-ERBbeta LBD, in complex with the oxidized Fe(III) form of heme, shows that heme binds in a prototypical NR ligand-binding pocket, where the heme iron is coordinately bound by histidine 568 and cysteine 384. Under reducing conditions, spectroscopic studies of the heme-REV-ERBbeta complex reveal that the Fe(II) form of the LBD transitions between penta-coordinated and hexa-coordinated structural states, neither of which possess the Cys384 bond observed in the oxidized state. In addition, the Fe(II) LBD is also able to bind either NO or CO, revealing a total of at least six structural states of the protein. The binding of known co-repressors is shown to be highly dependent upon these various liganded states. REV-ERBs are thus highly dynamic receptors that are responsive not only to heme, but also to redox and gas. Taken together, these findings suggest new mechanisms for the systemic coordination of molecular clocks and metabolism. They also raise the possibility for gas-based therapies for the many disorders associated with REV-ERB biological functions.
Project description:Heme is the endogenous ligand for the constitutively repressive REV-ERB nuclear receptors, REV-ERB? (NR1D1) and REV-ERB? (NR1D2), but how heme regulates REV-ERB activity remains unclear. Cellular studies indicate that heme is required for the REV-ERBs to bind the corepressor NCoR and repress transcription. However, fluorescence-based biochemical assays suggest that heme displaces NCoR; here, we show that this is due to a heme-dependent artifact. Using ITC and NMR spectroscopy, we show that heme binding remodels the thermodynamic interaction profile of NCoR receptor interaction domain (RID) binding to REV-ERB? ligand-binding domain (LBD). We solved two crystal structures of REV-ERB? LBD cobound to heme and NCoR peptides, revealing the heme-dependent NCoR binding mode. ITC and chemical cross-linking mass spectrometry reveals a 2:1 LBD:RID stoichiometry, consistent with cellular studies showing that NCoR-dependent repression of REV-ERB transcription occurs on dimeric DNA response elements. Our findings should facilitate renewed progress toward understanding heme-dependent REV-ERB activity.
Project description:The nuclear receptors REV-ERBalpha (encoded by NR1D1) and REV-ERBbeta (NR1D2) have remained orphans owing to the lack of identified physiological ligands. Here we show that heme is a physiological ligand of both receptors. Heme associates with the ligand-binding domains of the REV-ERB receptors with a 1:1 stoichiometry and enhances the thermal stability of the proteins. Results from experiments of heme depletion in mammalian cells indicate that heme binding to REV-ERB causes the recruitment of the co-repressor NCoR, leading to repression of target genes including BMAL1 (official symbol ARNTL), an essential component of the circadian oscillator. Heme extends the known types of ligands used by the human nuclear receptor family beyond the endocrine hormones and dietary lipids described so far. Our results further indicate that heme regulation of REV-ERBs may link the control of metabolism and the mammalian clock.
Project description:Nuclear receptors E75, which regulates development in Drosophila melanogaster, and Rev-erbbeta, which regulates circadian rhythm in humans, bind heme within their ligand binding domains (LBD). The heme-bound ligand binding domains of E75 and Rev-erbbeta were studied using electronic absorption, MCD, resonance Raman, and EPR spectroscopies. Both proteins undergo redox-dependent ligand switching and CO- and NO-induced ligand displacement. In the Fe(III) oxidation state, the nuclear receptor hemes are low spin and 6-coordinate with cysteine(thiolate) as one of the two axial heme ligands. The sixth ligand is a neutral donor, presumably histidine. When the heme is reduced to the Fe(II) oxidation state, the cysteine(thiolate) is replaced by a different neutral donor ligand, whose identity is not known. CO binds to the Fe(II) heme in both E75(LBD) and Rev-erbbeta(LBD) opposite a sixth neutral ligand, plausibly the same histidine that served as the sixth ligand in the Fe(III) state. NO binds to the heme of both proteins; however, the NO-heme is 5-coordinate in E75 and 6-coordinate in Rev-erbbeta. These nuclear receptors exhibit coordination characteristics that are similar to other known redox and gas sensors, suggesting that E75 and Rev-erbbeta may function in heme-, redox-, or gas-regulated control of cellular function.
Project description:FGF21 is a hormone produced in liver and fat that dramatically improves peripheral insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism. We show here that obese mice with genetically reduced levels of a key hepatic transcriptional coactivator, PGC-1alpha, have improved whole-body insulin sensitivity with increased levels of hepatic and circulating FGF21. Gain- and loss-of-function studies in primary mouse hepatocytes show that hepatic FGF21 levels are regulated by the expression of PGC-1alpha. Importantly, PGC-1alpha-mediated reduction of FGF21 expression is dependent on Rev-Erbalpha and the expression of ALAS-1. ALAS-1 is a PGC-1alpha target gene and the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of heme, a ligand for Rev-Erbalpha. Modulation of intracellular heme levels mimics the effect of PGC-1alpha on FGF21 expression, and inhibition of heme biosynthesis completely abrogates the down-regulation of FGF21 in response to PGC-1alpha. Thus, PGC-1alpha can impact hepatic and systemic metabolism by regulating the levels of a nuclear receptor ligand.
Project description:The nuclear hormone receptor, REV-ERB, plays an essential role in adipogenesis. Rev-erbalpha expression is induced in 3T3-L1 cells during adipogenesis, and overexpression of this receptor leads to expression of adipogenic genes. We recently demonstrated that the porphyrin heme functions as a ligand for REV-ERB, and binding of heme is required for the receptor's activity. We therefore hypothesized that REV-ERB ligands may play a role in regulation of adipogenesis. We detected an increase intracellular heme levels during 3T3-L1 adipogenesis that correlated with induction of aminolevulinic acid synthase 1 (Alas1) expression, the rate-limiting enzyme in heme biosynthesis. If the increase in Alas1 expression was blocked, adipogenesis was severely attenuated, indicating that induction of expression of Alas1 and the increase in heme synthesis is critical for differentiation. Inhibition of heme synthesis during adipogenesis leads to decreased recruitment of nuclear receptor corepressor to the promoter of a REV-ERB target gene, suggesting alteration of REV-ERB activity. Treatment of 3T3-L1 cells with a synthetic REV-ERB ligand, SR6452, resulted in induction of adipocyte differentiation to a similar extent as treatment with the peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonist, rosiglitazone. Combination of SR6452 and rosiglitazone had an additive effect on stimulation of adipocyte differentiation. These results suggest that heme, functioning as a REV-ERB ligand, is an important signaling molecule for induction of adipogenesis. Moreover, synthetic small molecule ligands for REV-ERB are effective modulators of adipogenesis and may be useful for treatment of metabolic diseases.
Project description:Circadian rhythms are observed in nearly all aspects of physiology and behavior. In mammals, such biological rhythms are supported by a complex network of self-sustained transcriptional loops and posttranslational modifications, which regulate timely controlled production and degradation of critical factors on a 24-h basis. Among these factors, the orphan nuclear receptor rev-erbalpha plays an essential role by linking together positive and negative regulatory loops. As an essential part of the circadian core clock mechanism, REV-ERBalpha expression shows a precisely scheduled oscillation reflecting the tight control of its production and degradation. In previous studies, we identified two alternative transcripts encoding two protein variants referred to as REV-ERBalpha1 and -alpha2. Interestingly, recent work identified structural elements present only in REV-ERBalpha1 that controls its turnover and thereby influences circadian oscillations. In the present work, we comparatively analyze the two variants and show that REV-ERBalpha2 exhibits a half-life incompatible with a circadian function, suggesting that this variant exerts different biological functions. However, our comparative study clearly indicates undistinguishable DNA-binding properties and transcriptional repression activity as well as a similar regulation mechanism. The only consistent difference appears to be the relative expression level of the two transcripts, rev-erbalpha1 being one to 100 times more expressed than alpha2 depending on tissue and circadian time. Taking this finding into consideration, we reassessed REV-ERBalpha2 turnover and were able to show that this variant exhibits a reduced half-life when coexpressed with REV-ERBalpha1. We propose that the relative expression levels of the two REV-ERBalpha variants fine-tune the circadian period length by regulating REV-ERBalpha half-life.
Project description:Rev-erbalpha is a ubiquitously expressed orphan nuclear receptor which functions as a constitutive transcriptional repressor and is expressed in vertebrates according to a robust circadian rhythm. We report here that two Rev-erbalpha mRNA isoforms, namely Rev-erbalpha1 and Rev-erbalpha 2, are generated through alternative promoter usage and that both show a circadian expression pattern in an in vitro system using serum-shocked fibroblasts. Both promoter regions P1 (Rev-erbalpha1) and P2 (Rev-erbalpha2) contain several E-box DNA sequences which function as response elements for the core circadian-clock components: CLOCK and BMAL1. The CLOCK-BMAL1 heterodimer stimulates the activity of both P1 and P2 promoters in transient transfection assay by 3-6-fold. This activation was inhibited by the overexpression of CRY1, a component of the negative limb of the circadian transcriptional loop. Critical E-box elements were mapped within both promoters. This regulation is conserved in vertebrates since we found that the CLOCK-BMAL1 heterodimer also regulates the zebrafish Rev-erbalpha gene. In line with these data Rev-erbalpha circadian expression was strongly impaired in the livers of Clock mutant mice and in the pineal glands of zebrafish embryos treated with Clock and Bmal1 antisense oligonucleotides. Together these data demonstrate that CLOCK is a critical regulator of Rev-erbalpha circadian gene expression in evolutionarily distant vertebrates and suggest a role for Rev-erbalpha in the circadian clock output.
Project description:In mammals, many aspects of behavior and physiology, and in particular cellular metabolism, are coordinated by the circadian timing system. Molecular clocks are thought to rely on negative feedback loops in clock gene expression that engender oscillations in the accumulation of transcriptional regulatory proteins, such as the orphan receptor REV-ERBalpha. Circadian transcription factors then drive daily rhythms in the expression of clock-controlled output genes, for example genes encoding enzymes and regulators of cellular metabolism. To gain insight into clock output functions of REV-ERBalpha, we carried out genome-wide transcriptome profiling experiments with liver RNA from wild-type mice, Rev-erbalpha knock-out mice, or REV-ERBalpha overexpressing mice. On the basis of these genetic loss- and gain-of-function experiments, we concluded that REV-ERBalpha participates in the circadian modulation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) activity, and thereby in the daily expression of SREBP target genes involved in cholesterol and lipid metabolism. This control is exerted via the cyclic transcription of Insig2, encoding a trans-membrane protein that sequesters SREBP proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum membranes and thereby interferes with the proteolytic activation of SREBPs in Golgi membranes. REV-ERBalpha also participates in the cyclic expression of cholesterol-7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the rate-limiting enzyme in converting cholesterol to bile acids. Our findings suggest that this control acts via the stimulation of LXR nuclear receptors by cyclically produced oxysterols. In conclusion, our study suggests that rhythmic cholesterol and bile acid metabolism is not just driven by alternating feeding-fasting cycles, but also by REV-ERBalpha, a component of the circadian clockwork circuitry.
Project description:Heme is the endogenous ligand for the constitutively repressive REV-ERB nuclear receptors, REV-ERBα (NR1D1) and REV-ERBβ (NR1D2), but how heme regulates REV-ERB activity remains unclear. While cellular studies indicate heme is required for the REV-ERBs to bind the corepressor NCoR and repress transcription, fluorescence-based biochemical assays and crystal structures suggest that heme displaces NCoR. Here, we found that heme artifactually influences detection of NCoR interaction in fluorescence-based assays. Using fluorescence-independent methods, including isothermal titration calorimetry, NMR spectroscopy, and XL-MS, we determined that heme remodels the thermodynamic profile of NCoR binding to REV-ERBβ ligand-binding domain (LBD) and directly increases LBD binding affinity for an NCoR interaction motif. We further report two crystal structures of REV-ERBβ LBD cobound to heme and NCoR peptides, which reveal the heme-dependent NCoR binding mode. By resolving previous contradictory biochemical, structural, and cellular studies, our findings should facilitate renewed progress toward understanding heme-dependent REV-ERB activity.