Analysis of 953 human proteins from a mitochondrial HEK293 fraction by complexome profiling.
ABSTRACT: Complexome profiling is a novel technique which uses shotgun proteomics to establish protein migration profiles from fractionated blue native electrophoresis gels. Here we present a dataset of blue native electrophoresis migration profiles for 953 proteins by complexome profiling. By analysis of mitochondrial ribosomal complexes we demonstrate its potential to verify putative protein-protein interactions identified by affinity purification-mass spectrometry studies. Protein complexes were extracted in their native state from a HEK293 mitochondrial fraction and separated by blue native gel electrophoresis. Gel lanes were cut into gel slices of even size and analyzed by shotgun proteomics. Subsequently, the acquired protein migration profiles were analyzed for co-migration via hierarchical cluster analysis. This dataset holds great promise as a comprehensive resource for de novo identification of protein-protein interactions or to underpin and prioritize candidate protein interactions from other studies. To demonstrate the potential use of our dataset we focussed on the mitochondrial translation machinery. Our results show that mitoribosomal complexes can be analyzed by blue native gel electrophoresis, as at least four distinct complexes. Analysis of these complexes confirmed that 24 proteins that had previously been reported to co-purify with mitoribosomes indeed co-migrated with subunits of the mitochondrial ribosome. Co-migration of several proteins involved in biogenesis of inner mitochondrial membrane complexes together with mitoribosomal complexes suggested the possibility of co-translational assembly in human cells. Our data also highlighted a putative ribonucleotide complex that potentially contains MRPL10, MRPL12 and MRPL53 together with LRPPRC and SLIRP.
Project description:In a comparative genomics study for mitochondrial ribosome-associated proteins, we identified C7orf30, the human homolog of the plant protein iojap. Gene order conservation among bacteria and the observation that iojap orthologs cannot be transferred between bacterial species predict this protein to be associated with the mitochondrial ribosome. Here, we show colocalization of C7orf30 with the large subunit of the mitochondrial ribosome using isokinetic sucrose gradient and 2D Blue Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) analysis. We co-purified C7orf30 with proteins of the large subunit, and not with proteins of the small subunit, supporting interaction that is specific to the large mitoribosomal complex. Consistent with this physical association, a mitochondrial translation assay reveals negative effects of C7orf30 siRNA knock-down on mitochondrial gene expression. Based on our data we propose that C7orf30 is involved in ribosomal large subunit function. Sequencing the gene in 35 patients with impaired mitochondrial translation did not reveal disease-causing mutations in C7orf30.
Project description:MOTIVATION:Complexome profiling combines native gel electrophoresis with mass spectrometry to obtain the inventory, composition and abundance of multiprotein assemblies in an organelle. Applying complexome profiling to determine the effect of a mutation on protein complexes requires separating technical and biological variations from the variations caused by that mutation. RESULTS:We have developed the COmplexome Profiling ALignment (COPAL) tool that aligns multiple complexome profiles with each other. It includes the abundance profiles of all proteins on two gels, using a multi-dimensional implementation of the dynamic time warping algorithm to align the gels. Subsequent progressive alignment allows us to align multiple profiles with each other. We tested COPAL on complexome profiles from control mitochondria and from Barth syndrome (BTHS) mitochondria, which have a mutation in tafazzin gene that is involved in remodeling the inner mitochondrial membrane phospholipid cardiolipin. By comparing the variation between BTHS mitochondria and controls with the variation among either, we assessed the effects of BTHS on the abundance profiles of individual proteins. Combining those profiles with gene set enrichment analysis allows detecting significantly affected protein complexes. Most of the significantly affected protein complexes are located in the inner mitochondrial membrane (mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system, prohibitins), or are attached to it (the large ribosomal subunit). AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION:COPAL is written in python and is available from http://github.com/cmbi/copal. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
Project description:By using negatively charged Coomassie brilliant blue G-250 dye to induce a charge shift on proteins, blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) allows resolution of enzymatically active multiprotein complexes extracted from cellular or subcellular lysates while retaining their native conformation. BN-PAGE was first developed to analyze the size, composition, and relative abundance of the complexes and supercomplexes that form the mitochondrial respiratory chain and OXPHOS system. Here, we present a detailed protocol of BN-PAGE to obtain robust and reproducible results. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Lobo-Jarne et al. (2018) and Timón-Gómez et al. (2020).
Project description:Blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) is a powerful technique for separation and proteomics analysis of high-molecular-weight protein complexes. It is often performed on gradient gels and is widely used for studying mitochondrial membrane complexes involved in electron transportation and oxidative phosphorylation. In this article, we present an alternative BN-PAGE method that uses highly porous, nongradient polyacrylamide gels for separation of rat brain mitochondrial protein complexes. Results demonstrate that this method not only resolves mitochondrial complexes I to V, allowing subsequent analysis by in-gel activity staining and mass spectrometry peptide sequencing, but also identifies Hsp60 polymers and dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLDH). Moreover, with this new method, it is shown for the first time that complex I and DLDH can be detected simultaneously on a single gel strip by in-gel activity staining. Overall, the method provides a simplified, nongradient gel electrophoretic approach that should be useful in functional proteomics studies.
Project description:Mitochondria are composed of many small proteins that control protein synthesis, complex assembly, metabolism, and ion and reactive oxygen species (ROS) handling. We show that a skeletal muscle- and heart-enriched long non-coding RNA, LINC00116, encodes a highly conserved 56-amino-acid microprotein that we named mitoregulin (Mtln). Mtln localizes to the inner mitochondrial membrane, where it binds cardiolipin and influences protein complex assembly. In cultured cells, Mtln overexpression increases mitochondrial membrane potential, respiration rates, and Ca2+ retention capacity while decreasing mitochondrial ROS and matrix-free Ca2+. Mtln-knockout mice display perturbations in mitochondrial respiratory (super)complex formation and activity, fatty acid oxidation, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzymes, and Ca2+ retention capacity. Blue-native gel electrophoresis revealed that Mtln co-migrates alongside several complexes, including the complex I assembly module, complex V, and supercomplexes. Under denaturing conditions, Mtln remains in high-molecular-weight complexes, supporting its role as a sticky molecular tether that enhances respiratory efficiency by bolstering protein complex assembly and/or stability.
Project description:Sampling the phloem of higher plants is often laborious and significantly dependent on the plant species. However, proteome studies under denaturing conditions could be achieved in different plant species. Native protein:protein and protein:nucleic acid complexes from phloem samples have as yet scarcely been analyzed, although they might play important roles in maintenance of this specialized compartment or in long-distance signaling. Large molecular assemblies can be isolated using a blue native gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE). Their protein components can be separated by a subsequent sodium dodecyl sulfate PAGE (SDS-PAGE). However, proteins with similar molecular weights co-migrate, what can hinder protein identification by mass spectrometry. Combining BN-PAGE with two different denaturing gel electrophoresis steps, namely Tris-Tricine-urea and SDS-PAGE, enables the additional separation of proteins according to their hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity and thus increases resolution and the success of protein identification. It even allows distinguishing proteins that only differ in their posttranslational modifications. In addition, blue native northern blotting can be applied to identify the RNA components in macromolecular complexes. We show that our protocol is suitable to unravel the protein and RNA components of native protein:protein and ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes occurring in phloem samples. Combining a blue native PAGE with two different denaturing PAGE steps can help to separate different kinds of large protein complexes, and also enables an increased identification rate of their components by mass spectrometry. Furthermore, the protocol is robust enough to simultaneously detect potentially bound nucleic acids within single protein complexes.
Project description:Homologous apolipoproteins of MICOS complex, MIC26 and MIC27, show an antagonistic regulation of their protein levels, making it difficult to deduce their individual functions using a single gene deletion. We obtained single and double knockout (DKO) human cells of MIC26 and MIC27 and found that DKO show more concentric onion-like cristae with loss of CJs than any single deletion indicating overlapping roles in formation of CJs. Using a combination of complexome profiling, STED nanoscopy, and blue-native gel electrophoresis, we found that MIC26 and MIC27 are dispensable for the stability and integration of the remaining MICOS subunits into the complex suggesting that they assemble late into the MICOS complex. MIC26 and MIC27 are cooperatively required for the integrity of respiratory chain (super) complexes (RCs/SC) and the F1Fo-ATP synthase complex and integration of F1 subunits into the monomeric F1Fo-ATP synthase. While cardiolipin was reduced in DKO cells, overexpression of cardiolipin synthase in DKO restores the stability of RCs/SC. Overall, we propose that MIC26 and MIC27 are cooperatively required for global integrity and stability of multimeric OXPHOS complexes by modulating cardiolipin levels.
Project description:Placental malfunction induces pregnancy disorders which contribute to life-threatening complications for both the mother and the fetus. Identification and characterization of placental multi-protein complexes is an important step to integratedly understand the protein-protein interaction networks in placenta which determine placental function. In this study, blue native/sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN/SDS-PAGE) and Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were used to screen the multi-protein complexes in placenta. 733 unique proteins and 34 known and novel heterooligomeric multi-protein complexes including mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes, integrin complexes, proteasome complexes, histone complex, and heat shock protein complexes were identified. A novel protein complex, which involves clathrin and small conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channel protein 2, was identified and validated by antibody based gel shift assay, co-immunoprecipitation and immuno?uorescence staining. These results suggest that BN/SDS-PAGE, when integrated with LC-MS/MS, is a very powerful and versatile tool for the investigation of placental protein complexes. This work paves the way for deeper functional characterization of the placental protein complexes associated with pregnancy disorders.
Project description:Blue native (BN) gel electrophoresis is a powerful method for protein separation. Combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), it enables large scale identification of protein complexes and their subunits. Current BN-MS approaches, however, are limited in size resolution, comprehensiveness, and quantification. Here, we present a new methodology combining defined sub-millimeter slicing of BN gels by a cryo-microtome with high performance LC-MS/MS and label-free quantification of protein amounts. Application of this cryo-slicing BN-MS approach to mitochondria from rat brain demonstrated a high degree of comprehensiveness, accuracy, and size resolution. The technique provided abundance-mass profiles for 774 mitochondrial proteins, including all canonical subunits of the oxidative respiratory chain assembled into 13 distinct (super-)complexes. Moreover, the data revealed COX7R as a constitutive subunit of distinct super-complexes and identified novel assemblies of voltage-dependent anion channels/porins and TOM proteins. Together, cryo-slicing BN-MS enables quantitative profiling of complexomes with resolution close to the limits of native gel electrophoresis.
Project description:Legumes (Fabaceae, Leguminosae) are unique in their ability to carry out an elaborate endosymbiotic nitrogen fixation process with rhizobia proteobacteria. The symbiotic nitrogen fixation enables the host plants to grow almost independently of any other nitrogen source. Establishment of symbiosis requires adaptations of the host cellular metabolism, here foremost of the energy metabolism mainly taking place in mitochondria. Since the early 1990s, the galegoid legume Medicago truncatula Gaertn. is a well-established model for studying legume biology, but little is known about the protein complement of mitochondria from this species. An initial characterization of the mitochondrial proteome of M. truncatula (Jemalong A17) was published recently. In the frame of this study, mitochondrial protein complexes were characterized using Two-dimensional (2D) Blue native (BN)/SDS-PAGE. From 139 detected spots, the "first hit" (=most abundant) proteins of 59 spots were identified by mass spectrometry. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of the mitochondrial "complexome" (the "protein complex proteome") of M. truncatula via 2D BN/SDS-PAGE in combination with highly sensitive MS protein identification. In total, 1,485 proteins were identified within 158 gel spots, representing 467 unique proteins. Data evaluation by the novel GelMap annotation tool allowed recognition of protein complexes of low abundance. Overall, at least 36 mitochondrial protein complexes were found. To our knowledge several of these complexes were described for the first time in Medicago. The data set is accessible under http://www.gelmap.de/medicago/. The mitochondrial protein complex proteomes of Arabidopsis available at http://www.gelmap.de/arabidopsis/ and Medicago are compared.