Significance of monoclonal antibodies against the conserved epitopes within non-structural protein 3 helicase of hepatitis C virus.
ABSTRACT: Nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) of hepatitis C virus (HCV), codes for protease and helicase carrying NTPase enzymatic activities, plays a crucial role in viral replication and an ideal target for diagnosis, antiviral therapy and vaccine development. In this study, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to NS3 helicase were characterized by epitope mapping and biological function test. A total of 29 monoclonal antibodies were produced to the truncated NS3 helicase of HCV-1b (T1b-rNS3, aa1192-1459). Six mAbs recognized 8/29 16mer peptides, which contributed to identify 5 linear and 1 discontinuous putative epitope sequences. Seven mAbs reacted with HCV-2a JFH-1 infected Huh-7.5.1 cells by immunofluorescent staining, of which 2E12 and 3E5 strongly bound to the exposed linear epitope (1231)PTGSGKSTK(1239) (EP05) or core motif (1373)IPFYGKAI(1380) (EP21), respectively. Five other mAbs recognized semi-conformational or conformational epitopes of HCV helicase. MAb 2E12 binds to epitope EP05 at the ATP binding site of motif I in domain 1, while mAb 3E5 reacts with epitope EP21 close to helicase nucleotide binding region of domain 2. Epitope EP05 is totally conserved and EP21 highly conserved across HCV genotypes. These two epitope peptides reacted strongly with 59-79% chronic and weakly with 30-58% resolved HCV infected blood donors, suggesting that these epitopes were dominant in HCV infection. MAb 2E12 inhibited 50% of unwinding activity of NS3 helicase in vitro. Novel monoclonal antibodies recognize highly conserved epitopes at crucial functional sites within NS3 helicase, which may become important antibodies for diagnosis and antiviral therapy in chronic HCV infection.
Project description:The non-structural protein 3 (NS3) of bluetongue virus (BTV) is the second smaller non-structural protein produced in host cells, playing an important role in BTV trafficking and release.In this study, we generated five BTV NS3-reactive monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), named 3D8, 2G9, 1B5, 4H8, and 2B12. A panel of overlapping NS3-derived peptides representing the entirety of the BTV15 NS3 protein was screened to identify linear peptide epitopes recognized by each mAb. Based on the initial screen, a series of progressively truncated peptides were produced to identify the minimal linear peptide sequence required to maintain mAb binding. We found that mAb 3D8 reacted with the motif (36)PPRYA(40), 2G9 reacted with the motif (82)AEAFRDDVRLRQIK(95), 1B5 reacted with the motif (205)YNDAVRMSF(213), 2B12 and 4H8 reacted with the motif (204)SYNDAVRMSF(213). Sequence alignments demonstrated that these linear epitopes are highly conserved among all BTV serotypes, consistent with the observation that each mAb was able to recognize cells infected with BTV1-24 serotypes tested and each identified B cell epitope was able to be recognized by BTV-infect sheep serum.This collection of mAbs along with defined linear epitopes may provide useful reagents for investigations of NS3 protein function and the development of BTV group-specific diagnostics.
Project description:Brucellosis is a severe zoonotic disease worldwide. Detection and identification of Brucella species are essential to prevent or treat brucellosis in humans and animals. The outer membrane protein-31 (Omp31) is a major protein of Brucellae except for B. abortus, while the Omp31 antigenic epitopes have not been extensively characterized yet.A total of 22 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were produced against Omp31 of Brucella (B.) melitensis, of which 13 recognized five linear epitopes, 7 reacted with semi-conformational epitopes and 2 reacted with conformational epitopes, respectively. The mAb isotypes were 11 (50%) IgG2a, 5 (23%) IgG1 and 6 (27%) IgM. On the basis of epitope recognition and reactivity levels, 8 mAbs including 3 IgM and 5 IgG clones were considered as highly reactive and potentially diagnostic antibodies. Among these mAbs, 7A3 (IgG1), 5B1 (IgG2a), 2C1 (IgG2a) and 5B3 (IgG2a) reacted with differently conserved linear epitopes of B. melitensis, B. ovis, B. suis and B. canis strains, while 5H3 (IgG2a) highly reacted with a conformational epitope of Omp31 when tested with several immunoassays.These potent monoclonal antibodies can be used for identifying Omp31 antigens or detecting B. melitensis and other Brucella species beyond B. abortus in vitro or in vivo.
Project description:The porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) spike (S) protein is the major target of neutralizing antibodies against PEDV. Here immunodominant neutralizing epitopes of PEDV were identified using a panel of S-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Ten of eleven S-specific mAbs successfully neutralized PEDV infectivity in vitro. Notably, epitope mapping by peptide ELISAs revealed that nine of these mAbs recognized linear neutralizing epitopes located in the N-terminus of the S2 glycoprotein subunit (amino acids [aa] 744-759, 747-774 and/or 756-771). Additionally, one mAb recognized a neutralizing epitope located in the C-terminus of S2 (aa 1371-1377), while only one neutralizing mAb reacted against a region of the S1 glycoprotein subunit (aa 499-600). Notably, mAbs that recognized epitopes within the S2 subunit presented the highest neutralizing activity against PEDV. Together these results indicate that the S2 glycoprotein subunit contains major antigenic determinants and, perhaps, the immunodominant neutralizing epitopes of PEDV.
Project description:The hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), encoded by nonstructural protein 5B (NS5B), is absolutely essential for the viral replication. Here we describe the development, characterization, and functional properties of the panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and specifically describe the mechanism of action of two mAbs inhibiting the NS5B RdRp activity. These mAbs recognize and bind to distinct linear epitopes in the fingers subdomain of NS5B. The mAb 8B2 binds the N-terminal epitope of the NS5B and inhibits both primer-dependent and de novo RNA synthesis. mAb 8B2 selectively inhibits elongation of RNA chains and enhances the RNA template binding by NS5B. In contrast, mAb 7G8 binds the epitope that contains motif G conserved in viral RdRps and inhibits only primer-dependent RNA synthesis by specifically targeting the initiation of RNA synthesis, while not interfering with the binding of template RNA by NS5B. To reveal the importance of the residues of mAb 7G8 epitope for the initiation of RNA synthesis, we performed site-directed mutagenesis and extensively characterized the functionality of the HCV RdRp motif G. Comparison of the mutation effects in both in vitro primer-dependent RdRp assay and cellular transient replication assay suggested that mAb 7G8 epitope amino acid residues are involved in the interaction of template-primer or template with HCV RdRp. The data presented here allowed us to describe the functionality of the epitopes of mAbs 8B2 and 7G8 in the HCV RdRp activity and suggest that the epitopes recognized by these mAbs may be useful targets for antiviral drugs.
Project description:Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting the hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope have been raised mainly against envelope protein 2 (E2), while the antigenic epitopes of envelope protein 1 (E1) are not fully identified. Here we describe the detailed characterization of a human mAb, designated A6, generated from an HCV genotype 1b infected patient. ELISA results showed reactivity of mAb A6 to full-length HCV E1E2 of genotypes 1a, 1b and 2a. Epitope mapping identified a region spanning amino acids 230-239 within the N-terminal region of E1 as critical for binding. Antibody binding to this epitope was not conformation dependent. Neutralization assays showed that mAb A6 lacks neutralizing capacity and does not interfere with the activity of known neutralizing antibodies. In summary, mAb A6 is an important tool to study the structure and function of E1 within the viral envelope, a crucial step in the development of an effective prophylactic HCV vaccine.
Project description:Ebola virus consists of four genetically distinguishable subtypes. We developed monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to the nucleoprotein (NP) of Ebola virus Zaire subtype and analyzed their cross-reactivities to the Reston and Sudan subtypes. We further determined the epitopes recognized by these MAbs. Three MAbs reacted with the three major subtypes and recognized a fragment containing 110 amino acids (aa) at the C-terminal extremity. They did not show specific reactivities to any 10-aa short peptides in Pepscan analyses, suggesting that these MAbs recognize conformational epitope(s) located within this region. Six MAbs recognized a fragment corresponding to aa 361 to 461 of the NP. Five of these six MAbs showed specific reactivities in Pepscan analyses, and the epitopes were identified in two regions, aa 424 to 430 and aa 451 to 455. Three MAbs that recognized the former epitope region cross-reacted with all three subtypes, and one that recognized the same epitope region was Zaire specific. One MAb, which recognized the latter epitope region, was reactive with Zaire and Sudan subtypes but not with the Reston subtype. These results suggest that Ebola virus NP has at least two linear epitope regions and that the recognition of the epitope by MAbs can vary even within the same epitope region. These MAbs showing different subtype specificities might be useful reagents for developing an immunological system to identify Ebola virus subtypes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Nucleoprotein (NP) of influenza viruses is utilized to differentiate between the A, B, and C viral serotypes. The availability of influenza genome sequence data has allowed us to identify specific amino acids at particular positions in viral proteins, including NP, known as "signature residues," which can be used to discriminate human influenza A viruses from H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza in human cases (HPAI) and pandemic H1N1(2009) (H1N1/2009) viruses. METHODS:Screening and epitope mapping of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against NP of influenza A, which reacted differently with NP from human influenza A virus from HPAI and H1N1/2009 A virus. To identify the epitope(s) responsible for the discrimination of viral NP by mAbs, we prepared mutant NP proteins in the 293 cell expression system because some of the mAbs reacted with non-linear epitopes. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS:In the present study, we identified 3 mAbs. The results of epitope mapping showed that the epitopes were located at the signature residues. These results indicated that signature residues of NP could discriminate influenza A viruses from different origin.
Project description:Although σA is an important major core protein of duck reovirus (DRV), the B-cell epitopes of this protein remain unknown to reseacrhers. Six monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) (1A7, 3F4, 5D2, 4E2, 3C7, and 2B7) were developed by using prokaryotic-expressed recombinant His-σA protein. Five of six MAbs (1A7, 3F4, 4E2, 3C7, and 2B7) reacted with His-σA protein in a conformation-independent manner, while 5D2 reacted with σA in a conformation-dependent manner. Immunofluorescence assays showed that the MAbs could specifically bind to DRV infected BHK-21 cells. The MAbs were delineated as three groups by a competitive binding assay. By using 12-mer peptide phage display and mutagenesis, MAb 4E2 was identified to recognize minimal epitope 56EAPYPG61 and MAb 1A7 recognize 341WVV/MAGLI/V347, residues 341V/M and 347I/V are replaceable. Dot blotting and sequence analysis confirmed that EAPYPG and WVV/MAGLI/V are cross-reactive epitopes in both DRV and avian reovirus (ARV). An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on two expressed EAPYPG and WVVAGLI as antigen demonstrated its diagnostic potential by specific reacting with serum samples from DRV- or ARV-infected birds. Based on these observations, an epitope-based ELISA could be potentially used for DRV or ARV surveillance. These findings provide insights into the organization of epitopes on σA protein that might be valuable for the development of epitope-based serological diagnostic tests for DRV and ARV infection.
Project description:Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an obligatory intracellular bacterium that causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis. The polymorphic 44-kDa major outer membrane proteins of A. phagocytophilum are dominant antigens recognized by patients and infected animals. However, the ability of anti-P44 antibody to neutralize the infection has been unclear due to a mixture of P44 proteins with diverse hypervariable region amino acid sequences expressed by a given bacterial population and lack of epitope-defined antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) 5C11 and 3E65 are directed to different domains of P44 proteins, the N-terminal conserved region and P44-18 central hypervariable region, respectively. Passive immunization with either MAb 5C11 or 3E65 partially protects mice from infection with A. phagocytophilum. In the present study, we demonstrated that the two monoclonal antibodies recognize bacterial surface-exposed epitopes of naturally folded P44 proteins and mapped these epitopes to specific peptide sequences. The two MAbs almost completely blocked the infection of the A. phagocytophilum population that predominantly expressed P44-18 in HL-60 cells by distinct mechanisms: MAb 5C11 blocked the binding, but MAb 3E65 did not block binding or internalization. Instead, MAb 3E65 inhibited internalized A. phagocytophilum to develop into microcolonies called morulae. Some plasma from experimentally infected horses and mice reacted with these two epitopes. Taken together, these data indicate the presence of at least two distinct bacterial surface-exposed neutralization epitopes in P44 proteins. The results indicate that antibodies directed to certain epitopes of P44 proteins have a critical role in inhibiting A. phagocytophilum infection of host cells.
Project description:Frequent mutations in hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) of the main envelope protein of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major mechanism of persistence by escaping the host immune recognition. HVR1 contains an epitope eliciting neutralizing antibodies. This study was aimed to prepare broadly cross-reacting, high-affinity, monoclonal antibodies (MAb) to the HVR1 C terminus of HCV with potential therapeutic neutralizing capacity. A conserved amino residue group of glycine (G) at position 23 and glutamic acid (Q) at position 26 in HVR1 was confirmed as a key epitope against which two MAbs were selected and characterized. MAbs 2P24 and 15H4 were immunoglobulin G1 kappa chain [IgG1(kappa)], cross-reacted with 32 and 30 of 39 random C-terminal HVR1 peptides, respectively, and did not react with other HCV peptides. The V(H) of 2P24 and 15H4 heavy chains originated from Igh germ line v gene family 1 and 8, respectively. In contrast, the V(L) kappa sequences were highly homologous. The affinity (K(d)) of 2P24 and 15H4 (10(-9) or 10(-8) M with two immunizing peptides and 10(-8) M with two nonimmunizing HVR1 peptides) paralleled the reactivity obtained with peptide enzyme immunoassay. MAbs 2P24 and 15H4 captured 25 of 31 (81%) HCV in unselected patients' plasmas. These antibodies also blocked HCV binding to Molt-4 cells in a dose-dependent fashion. The data presented suggest that broadly cross-reactive MAbs to a conserved epitope within HCV HVR1 can be produced. Clinical application for passive immunization in HCV-related chronic liver disease and after liver transplantation is considered.