P16 Stimulates CDC42-dependent migration of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Tumor dissemination to the extra-hepatic region of the portal vein, lymph nodes, lungs or bones contributes to the high mortality seen in HCC; yet, the molecular mechanisms responsible for HCC metastasis remain unclear. Prior studies have suggested a potential link between accumulated cytoplasm-localized p16 and tumor progression. Here we report that p16 enhances metastasis-associated phenotypes in HCC cells - ectopic p16 expression increased cell migration in vitro, and lung colonization after intravenous injection, whereas knockdown of endogenous p16 reduced cell migration. Interestingly, analysis of p16 mutants indicated that the Cdk4 interaction domain is required for stimulation of HCC cell migration; however, knockdown of Cdk4 and Cdk6 showed that these proteins are dispensable for this phenomenon. Intriguingly, we found that in p16-positive HCC samples, p16 protein is predominantly localized in the cytoplasm. In addition, we identified a potential role for nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling in p16-stimulated migration, consistent with the predominantly cytoplasmic localization of p16 in IHC-positive HCC samples. Finally, we determined that p16-stimulated cell migration requires the Cdc42 GTPase. Our results demonstrate for the first time a pro-migratory role for p16, and suggest a potential mechanism for the observed association between cytoplasmic p16 and tumor progression in diverse tumor types.
Project description:Cyclin D1 (Ccnd1) together with its binding partner Cdk4 act as a transcriptional regulator to control cell proliferation and migration, and abnormal Ccnd1·Cdk4 expression promotes tumour growth and metastasis. While different nuclear Ccnd1·Cdk4 targets participating in cell proliferation and tissue development have been identified, little is known about how Ccnd1·Cdk4 controls cell adherence and invasion. Here, we show that the focal adhesion component paxillin is a cytoplasmic substrate of Ccnd1·Cdk4. This complex phosphorylates a fraction of paxillin specifically associated to the cell membrane, and promotes Rac1 activation, thereby triggering membrane ruffling and cell invasion in both normal fibroblasts and tumour cells. Our results demonstrate that localization of Ccnd1·Cdk4 to the cytoplasm does not simply act to restrain cell proliferation, but constitutes a functionally relevant mechanism operating under normal and pathological conditions to control cell adhesion, migration and metastasis through activation of a Ccnd1·Cdk4-paxillin-Rac1 axis.
Project description:The tumor suppressor p16INK4A (p16) inhibits cell cycle progression through the CDK4/Rb pathway. We have previously shown that p16 regulates cellular oxidative stress, independent of its role in cell cycle control. We investigated whether loss of p16 had a direct impact on the mitochondria. We found that p16-null primary mouse fibroblasts (PMFs) displayed increased mitochondrial mass and expression of mitochondrial respiratory subunit proteins compared to wild-type (WT) PMFs. These findings in p16-null PMFs were associated with increased expression of the mitochondrial biogenesis transcription factors PRC and TFAM. On the other hand, p16-deficient PMFs demonstrated reduced mitochondrial respiration capacity consistent with electron microscopy findings showing that mitochondria in p16-deficient PMFs have abnormal morphology. Consistent with increased mitochondrial mass and reduced respiratory capacity, p16-deficient PMFs generated increased mitochondrial superoxide. One biological consequence of elevated ROS in p16-deficient PMFs was enhanced migration, which was reduced by the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine. Finally, p16-deficient PMFs displayed increased mitochondrial membrane potential, which was also required for their enhanced migration. The mitochondrial and migration phenotype was restored in p16-deficient PMFs by forced expression of p16. Similarly, over-expression of p16 in human melanocytes and A375 melanoma cells led to decreased expression of some mitochondrial respiratory proteins, enhanced respiration, and decreased migration. Inhibition of Rb phosphorylation in melanocytes and melanoma cells, either by addition of chemical CDK4 inhibitors or RNAi-mediated knockdown of CDK4, did not mimic the effects of p16 loss. These results suggest that p16 regulates mitochondrial biogenesis and function, which is independent of the canonical CDK4/Rb pathway.
Project description:The tumor-suppressor protein p16 is paradoxically overexpressed in cervical cancer (CC). Despite its potential as a biomarker, its clinical value and the reasons for its failure in tumor suppression remain unclear. Our purpose was to determine p16 clinical and biological significance in CC. p16 expression pattern was examined by immunohistochemistry in 78 CC cases (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) and squamous cell carcinomas of the cervix -SCCCs). CC cell proliferation and invasion were monitored by real-time cell analysis and Transwell® invasion assay, respectively. Cytoplasmic p16 interactors were identified from immunoprecipitated extracts by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and colocalization was confirmed by double-immunofluorescence. We observed that SCCCs showed significantly more cytoplasmic than nuclear p16 expression than HSILs. Importantly, nuclear p16 absence significantly predicted poor outcome in SCCC patients irrespective of other clinical parameters. Moreover, we demonstrated that cytoplasmic p16 interacted with CDK4 and other unreported proteins, such as BANF1, AKAP8 and AGTRAP, which could sequester p16 to avoid nuclear translocation, and then, impair its anti-tumor function. Our results suggest that the absence of nuclear p16 could be a diagnostic biomarker between HSIL and SCCC, and an independent prognostic biomarker in SCCC; and explain why p16 overexpression fails to stop CC growth.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The ?-catenin is an important effector in WNT/?-catenin signaling pathway, which exerts a crucial role in the development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Some researchers have suggested that the overexpression of ?-catenin in cytoplasm and/or nucleus was closely correlated to metastasis, poor differentiation and malignant phenotype of HCC while some other researchers hold opposite point. So far, no consensus was obtained on the prognostic and clinicopathological significance of cytoplasmic/nuclear ?-catenin overexpression for HCCs.<h4>Methods</h4>Systematic strategies were applied to search eligible studies in all available databases. Subgroup analyses, sensitivity analyses and multivariate analysis were performed. In this meta-analysis, we utilized either fixed- or random-effects model to calculate the pooled odds ratios (OR) and its 95% confidence intervals (CI).<h4>Results</h4>A total of 22 studies containing 2334 cases were enrolled in this meta-analysis. Pooled data suggested that accumulation of ?-catenin in cytoplasm and/or nucleus significantly correlated with poor 1-, 3- and 5-year OS and RFS. Moreover, nuclear accumulation combined with cytoplasmic accumulation of ?-catenin tended to be associated with dismal metastasis and vascular invasion while cytoplasmic or nuclear expression alone showed no significant effect. Besides, no significant association was observed between cytoplasmic and/or nuclear ?-catenin expression and poor differentiation grade, advanced TNM stage, liver cirrhosis, tumor size, tumor encapsulation, AFP and etiologies. Additional subgroup analysis by origin suggested that the prognostic value and clinicopathological significance of cytoplasmic and/or nuclear ?-catenin expression was more validated in Asian population. Multivariate analyses of factors showed that cytoplasmic and/or nuclear ?-catenin expression, as well as TNM stage, metastasis and tumor size, was an independent risk factors for OS and RFS.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Cytoplasmic and/or nuclear accumulation of ?-catenin, as an independent prognostic factor, significantly associated with poor prognosis and deeper invasion of HCC, and could serve as a valuable prognostic predictor for HCC.
Project description:Gankyrin is an important oncoprotein that is overexpressed in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the gradual alteration of Gankyrin in successive stages during human HCC development and the mechanism of Gankyrin-mediated hepatocarcinogenesis remain largely unknown. In this study, we evaluated the pattern and level of Gankyrin protein expression using immunohistochemistry in various liver tissues, including normal liver, chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, adenomatous hyperplasia (AH), and HCC tissues, to analyze its clinicopathological significance. Furthermore, we stably transfected the shRNA-Gan vector, which targets human Gankyrin, into HepG2 cells to assess the role of Gankyrin in cell proliferation and tumorigenicity. The expression level of Gankyrin in the cytoplasm, nucleus, and whole cell was gradually elevated during consecutive stages of hepatocarcinogenesis. The nuclear Gankyrin level in AH was significantly higher than that in normal liver, chronic hepatitis, and cirrhotic tissues. The cytoplasmic, nuclear, and total cellular Gankyrin expression levels in HCC were significantly correlated with capsular invasion and intrahepatic metastasis. Silencing Gankyrin expression using shRNA-Gan repressed tumor cell proliferation, tumorigenicity, migration, and invasion in vitro. Our findings demonstrate that Gankyrin is aberrantly expressed beginning at the initiation stage and plays an important role in the initiation, promotion, and progression of hepatocarcinogenesis.
Project description:Overexpression of metadherin (MTDH) has been documented in many solid tumors and is implicated in metastasis and chemoresistance. MTDH has been detected at the plasma membrane as well as in the cytoplasm and nucleus, and the function of MTDH in these locales remains under investigation. In the nucleus, MTDH acts as a transcription co-factor to induce expression of chemoresistance-associated genes. However, MTDH is predominantly cytoplasmic in prostate tumors, and this localization correlates with poor prognosis. Herein, we used endometrial cancer cells as a model system to define a new role for MTDH in the cytoplasm. First, MTDH was primarily localized to the cytoplasm in endometrial cancer cells, and the N-terminal region of MTDH was required to maintain cytoplasmic localization. Next, we identified novel binding partners for cytoplasmic MTDH, including RNA-binding proteins and components of the RNA-induced silencing complex. Nucleic acids were required for the association of MTDH with these cytoplasmic proteins. Furthermore, MTDH interacted with and regulated protein expression of multiple mRNAs, such as PDCD10 and KDM6A. Depletion of cytoplasmic MTDH was associated with increased stress granule formation, reduced survival in response to chemotherapy and the tyrosine kinase inhibitor BIBF1120, Rad51 nuclear accumulation, and cell cycle arrest at G(2)/M. Finally, in vivo tumor formation was abrogated with knockdown of cytoplasmic MTDH. Taken together, our data identify a novel function for cytoplasmic MTDH as an RNA-binding protein. Our findings implicate cytoplasmic MTDH in cell survival and broad drug resistance via association with RNA and RNA-binding proteins.
Project description:Progesterone-Receptor (PR) positivity is related with an enhanced response to breast cancer therapy, conversely cyclin D1 (CD1) is a retained marker of poor outcome. Herein, we demonstrate that hydroxyprogesterone (OHPg) through progesterone receptor B (PR-B) reduces breast cancer cell aggressiveness, by targeting the cytoplasmic CD1. Specifically, OHPg diminishes CD1 expression by a transcriptional regulation due to the recruitment of PR-B at a canonical half-PRE site of the CD1 promoter, together with HDAC1, determining a chromatin conformation less prone for gene transcription. CD1, together with its kinase partner Cdk4, regulates cell migration and metastasis, through the association with key components of focal adhesion, such as Paxillin (Pxn). Kaplan-Meier analysis shows that low Pxn expression was associated with increased distant metastasis-free survival in luminal A PR+ breast carcinomas. Interestingly, OHPg treatment reduced Pxn content in T47-D and MCF-7 cells; besides, the interaction between endogenous cytoplasmic CD1/Cdk4 with Pxn was reduced. This was consistent with the reduction of p-Ser83Pxn levels, crucially causing the delay in cell migration and a concomitant inhibition of Rac1 activity and p-PAK. Collectively, these findings support the role of PR-B in breast epithelial cell integrity and reinforce the importance in targeting PR-B as a potential strategy to restrict breast tumor cell invasion and metastasis.
Project description:Transforming growth factor-beta-induced (TGFBI) serves as a linker protein and plays a role in the activation of morphogenesis, cell proliferation, adhesion, migration, differentiation and inflammation. High expression levels of the human TGFBI gene are correlated with numerous human malignancies. In order to explore the roles of TGFBI in the tumor progression of colorectal cancer, colorectal cancer specimens from 115 patients with strict follow-up were selected for the analysis of TGFBI by immunohistochemistry. The correlations between TGFBI expression and the clinicopathological features of colorectal cancers were evaluated. In the colorectal cancer tissues, TGFBI was mainly localized in the cytoplasm and stroma and scarcely in the nucleus. TGFBI expression in the cytoplasm and stroma was not found to be associated with age, gender, tumor histopathological grading, PT category and tumor location (P > 0.05 for each). However, high TGFBI expression in the cytoplasm and stroma correlated with lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis and Dukes stage (P < 0.05 for each). The survival rate was significantly lower in patients with high TGFBI expression than in those with low TGFBI expression. Furthermore, we found that tumor node metastasis (TNM) staging (HR: 2.963; 95% CI: 1.573-1.664; P = 0.000), differentiation (HR: 1.574; 95% CI: 1.001-2.476; P = 0.049) and high TGFBI cytoplasmic expression (HR: 3.332; 95% CI: 1.410-7.873; P = 0.000) proved to be independent prognostic factors for survival in colorectal cancer. In conclusion, TGFBI plays an important role in the progression of colorectal cancers and it is an independent poor prognostic factor for colorectal cancer patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have been reported to participate in tumor progression by regulating gene expression. Previous studies showed that protein phosphatase Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent 1F (PPM1F) acts a dual role in cancer growth and metastasis. But, the underlying mechanisms by which ncRNAs regulate PPM1F expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are poorly understood. METHODS:The association between PPM1F or miR-490-3p expression and clinicopathological features and prognosis in patients with HCC was analyzed by TCGA RNA-sequencing data. CircSLC3A2 was identified to bind with miR-490-3p by bioinformatic analysis, and the binding sites between miR-490-3p and PPM1F or circSLC3A2 were confirmed by dual luciferase report and RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) assays. The localization and clinical significance of miR-490-3p and circSLC3A2 in patients with HCC were investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). MTT, Agar, and Transwell assays were conducted to evaluate the effects of miR-490-3p or circSLC3A2 on cell proliferation and invasive potential. RESULTS:The expression of PPM1F or miR-490-3p was associated with poor survival and tumor recurrence, and acted as an independent prognostic factor in patients with HCC. Re-expression of miR-490-3p inhibited HCC cell proliferation and invasion by targeting PPM1F, but its inhibitor reversed these effects. Moreover, circSLC3A2, predominantly localized in the cytoplasm, exhibited an oncogenic role by sponging miR-490-3p and regulating PPM1F expression, and harbored a positive correlation with poor survival in patients with HCC. CONCLUSION:CircSLC3A2 acts as an oncogenic factor in HCC by sponging miR-490-3p and regulating PPM1F expression.
Project description:The INK4A locus codes for two independent tumor suppressors, p14ARF and p16/CDKN2A, and is frequently mutated in many cancers. Here we report a novel deletion/substitution from CC to T in the shared exon 2 of p14ARF/p16 in a melanoma cell line. This mutation aligns the reading frames of p14ARF and p16 mid-transcript, producing one protein which is half p14ARF and half p16, chimera ARF (chARF), and another which is half p16 and half non-p14ARF/non-p16 amino acids, p16-Alternate Carboxyl Terminal (p16-ACT). In an effort to understand the cellular impact of this novel mutation and others like it, we expressed the two protein products in a tumor cell line and analyzed common p14ARF and p16 pathways, including the p53/p21 and CDK4/cyclin D1 pathways, as well as the influence of the two proteins on growth and the cell cycle. We report that chARF mimicked wild-type p14ARF by inducing the p53/p21 pathway, inhibiting cell growth through G2/M arrest and maintaining a certain percentage of cells in G1 during nocodazole-induced G2 arrest. chARF also demonstrated p16 activity by binding CDK4. However, rather than preventing cyclin D1 from binding CDK4, chARF stabilized this interaction through p21 which bound CDK4. p16-ACT had no p16-related function as it was unable to inhibit cyclin D1/CDK4 complex formation and was unable to arrest the cell cycle, though it did inhibit colony formation. We conclude that these novel chimeric proteins, which are very similar to predicted p16/p14ARF chimeric proteins found in other primary cancers, result in maintained p14ARF-p53-p21 signaling while p16-dependent CDK4 inhibition is lost.