Transient combination therapy targeting the immune synapse abrogates T cell responses and prolongs allograft survival in mice.
ABSTRACT: T cells play a major role in allograft rejection, which occurs after T cell activation by the engagement of several functional molecules to form an immune synapse with alloantigen presenting cells. In this study, the immune synapse was targeted using mAbs directed to the TCR beta-chain (TCR?) and lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA1) to induce long-term allograft survival. Evaluation of antigen-specific T cell responses was performed by adoptively transferring CFSE labeled transgenic OT-II cells into wild-type mice and providing OVA peptide by intravenous injection. Graft survival studies were performed in mice by transplanting BALB/c ear skins onto the flanks of C57BL/6 recipients. The anti-TCR? plus anti-LFA1 mAb combination (but not either mAb alone) abrogated antigen-specific T cell responses invitro and invivo. Transient combination therapy with these agents resulted in significantly prolonged skin allograft survival in mice (51±10 days; p<0.01) when compared to treatment with either anti-TCR? mAb (24±5 days) or anti-LFA1 mAb (19±3 days) alone or no treatment (10±1 days). When lymphoid tissues from these mice were analyzed at different times post-transplant, only those receiving the combination of anti-TCR? and anti-LFA1 mAbs demonstrated long-lasting reductions in total T cell numbers, cellular and humoral anti-donor responses, and expression of CD3 on the surface of T cells. These results demonstrate that transient anti-TCR? and anti-LFA1 mAb combination therapy abrogates antigen-reactive T cell responses with long-lasting effects that significantly prolong allograft survival.
Project description:TCR specific antibodies may modulate the TCR engagement with antigen-MHC complexes, and in turn regulate in vivo T cell responses to alloantigens. Herein, we found that in vivo administration of mAbs specific for mouse TCR? (H57-597), TCR? or CD3 promptly reduced the number of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in normal mice, but H57-597 mAb most potently increased the frequency of CD4(+) Foxp3(+) Treg cells. When mice were injected with staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) superantigen and H57-597 mAb, the expansion of SEB-reactive V?8(+) T cells was completely abrogated while SEB-nonreactive V?2(+) T cells remained unaffected. More importantly, transient H57-597 mAb treatment exerted long-lasting effect in preventing T cell responses to alloantigens, and produced long-term cardiac allograft survival (>100 days) in 10 out of 11 recipients. While Treg cells were involved in maintaining donor-specific long-term graft survival, T cell homeostasis recovered over time and immunity was retained against third party allografts. Moreover, transient H57-597 mAb treatment significantly prolonged survival of skin allografts in naïve recipients as well as heart allografts in skin-sensitized recipients. Thus, transient modulation of the TCR? chain by H57-597 mAb exhibits potent, long-lasting therapeutic effects to control alloimmune responses.
Project description:The lack of a reliable immunosuppressive regimen that effectively suppresses both renal and islet allograft rejection without islet toxicity hampers a wider clinical application of simultaneous islet-kidney transplantation (SIK). Seven MHC-mismatched SIKs were performed in diabetic cynomolgus monkeys. Two recipients received rabbit antithymocyte globulin (ATG) induction followed by daily tacrolimus and rapamycin (ATG/Tac/Rapa), and five recipients were treated with anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody (mAb) and rapamycin (aCD40/Rapa). Anti-inflammatory therapy, including anti-interleukin-6 receptor mAb and anti-tumor necrosis factor-? mAb, was given in both groups. The ATG/Tac/Rapa recipients failed to achieve long-term islet allograft survival (19 and 26 days) due to poor islet engraftment and cytomegalovirus pneumonia. In contrast, the aCD40/Rapa regimen provided long-term islet and kidney allograft survival (90, 94, >120, >120, and >120 days), with only one recipient developing evidence of allograft rejection. The aCD40/Rapa regimen was also tested in four kidney-alone transplant recipients. All four recipients achieved long-term renal allograft survival (100% at day 120), which was superior to renal allograft survival (62.9% at day 120) with triple immunosuppressive regimen (tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroids). The combination of anti-CD40 mAb and rapamycin is an effective and nontoxic immunosuppressive regimen that uses only clinically available agents for kidney and islet recipients.
Project description:Alloreactive memory T cells mediate accelerated allograft rejection and transplant tolerance resistance. Recent studies have shown that B cell deficient-?MT mice fail to mount donor-specific memory T cell responses after transplantation. At the same time, other studies showed that pretransplant B cell depletion using rituximab (IgG1 anti-CD20 mAb) combined with cyclosporine A promoted the survival of islet allografts in monkeys. In this study, we investigated the effect of anti-CD20 antibody-mediated B cell depletion on the memory T cell alloresponse in mice. Wild-type and anti-OVA TCR transgenic mice were treated with an IgG2a anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, which depleted nearly all B cells in the peripheral blood and secondary lymphoid organs but spared some B cells in the bone marrow. B cell depletion did not affect the direct alloresponse but resulted in a marked increase of indirect alloresponse after skin transplantation of naïve mice. Furthermore, in allosensitized mice, anti-CD20 mAb treatment enhanced the reactivation of allospecific memory T cells and accelerated second set rejection of skin allografts. This suggests that the effect of anti-CD20 antibodies on alloimmunity and allograft rejection might vary upon the nature of the antibodies as well as the circumstances under which they are delivered.
Project description:The co-inhibitory receptor Programmed Death-1 (PD-1) curtails immune responses and prevent autoimmunity, however, tumors exploit this pathway to escape from immune destruction. The co-stimulatory receptor OX40 is upregulated on T cells following activation and increases their clonal expansion, survival and cytokine production when engaged. Although antagonistic anti-PD-1 or agonistic anti-OX40 antibodies can promote the rejection of several murine tumors, some poorly immunogenic tumors were refractory to this treatment. In the present study, we evaluated the antitumor effects and mechanisms of combinatorial PD-1 blockade and OX40 triggering in a murine ID8 ovarian cancer model. Although individual anti-PD-1 or OX40 mAb treatment was ineffective in tumor protection against 10-day established ID8 tumor, combined anti-PD-1/OX40 mAb treatment markedly inhibited tumor outgrowth with 60% of mice tumor free 90 days after tumor inoculation. Tumor protection was associated with a systemic immune response with memory and antigen specificity and required CD4(+) cells and CD8(+) T cells. The anti-PD-1/OX40 mAb treatment increased CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells and decreased immunosuppressive CD4(+)FoxP3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells and CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) myeloid suppressor cells (MDSC), giving rise to significantly higher ratios of both effector CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells to Treg and MDSC in peritoneal cavity; Quantitative RT-PCR data further demonstrated the induction of a local immunostimulatory milieu by anti-PD-1/OX40 mAb treatment. The splenic CD8(+) T cells from combined mAb treated mice produced high levels of IFN-? upon tumor antigen stimulation and exhibited antigen-specific cytolytic activity. To our knowledge, this is the first study testing the antitumor effects of combined anti-PD-1/OX40 mAb in a murine ovarian cancer model, and our results provide a rationale for clinical trials evaluating ovarian cancer immunotherapy using this combination of mAb.
Project description:There is an urgent need for improved therapy for advanced ovarian carcinoma, which may be met by administering immune-modulatory monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to generate a tumor-destructive immune response. Using the ID8 mouse ovarian cancer model, we investigated the therapeutic efficacy of various mAb combinations in mice with intraperitoneal (i.p.) tumor established by transplanting 3 × 10(6) ID8 cells 10 days previously. While most of the tested mAbs were ineffective when given individually or together, the data confirm our previous finding that 2 i.p. injections of a combination of anti-CD137 with anti-PD-1 mAbs doubles overall survival. Mice treated with this mAb combination have a significantly increased frequency and total number of CD8(+) T cells both in the peritoneal lavage and spleens, and these cells are functional as demonstrated by antigen-specific cytolytic activity and IFN-? production. While administration of anti-CD137 mAb as a single agent similarly increases CD8(+) T cells, these have no functional activity, which may be attributed to up-regulation of co-inhibitory PD-1 and TIM-3 molecules induced by CD137. Addition of the anti-cancer drug cisplatin to the 2 mAb combination increased overall survival >90 days (and was probably curative) by a mechanism which included a systemic CD8(+) T cell response with tumor specificity and immunological memory. Strikingly, combined treatment of cisplatin and CD137/PD-1 mAb also gave rise to the long-term survival of mice with established TC1 lung tumors. A similar combination of the 2 mAbs and cisplatin should be considered for clinical 'translation'.
Project description:Selectively depleting the pathogenic T cells is a fundamental strategy for the treatment of allograft rejection and autoimmune disease since it retains the overall immune function of host. The concept of killer artificial antigen-presenting cells (KaAPCs) has been developed by co-coupling peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) multimer and anti-Fas monoclonal antibody (mAb) onto the polymeric microparticles (MPs) to induce the apoptosis of antigen-specific T cells. But little information is available about its in vivo therapeutic potential and mechanism. In this study, polyethylenimine (PEI)-coated poly lactic-co-glycolic acid microparticle (PLGA MP) was fabricated as a cell-sized scaffold to covalently co-couple H-2Kb-Ig dimer and anti-Fas mAb for the generation of alloantigen-presenting and apoptosis-inducing MPs. Intravenous infusions of the biodegradable KaAPCs prolonged the alloskin graft survival for 43?days in a single MHC-mismatched murine model, depleted the most of H-2Kb-alloreactive CD8+ T cells in peripheral blood, spleen, and alloskin graft in an antigen-specific manner and anti-Fas-dependent fashion. The cell-sized KaAPCs circulated throughout vasculature into liver, kidney, spleen, lymph nodes, lung, and heart, but few ones into local allograft at early stage, with a retention time up to 36?h in vivo. They colocalized with CD8+ T cells in secondary lymphoid organs while few ones contacted with CD4+ T cells, B cells, macrophage, and dendritic cells, or internalized by phagocytes. Importantly, the KaAPC treatment did not significantly impair the native T cell repertoire or non-pathogenic immune cells, did not obviously suppress the overall immune function of host, and did not lead to visible organ toxicity. Our results strongly document the high potential of PLGA MP-based KaAPCs as a novel antigen-specific immunotherapy for allograft rejection and autoimmune disorder. The in vivo mechanism of alloinhibition, tissue distribution, and biosafety were also initially characterized, which will facilitate its translational studies from bench to bedside.
Project description:T cell depletion is commonly used in organ transplantation for immunosuppression; however, a restoration of T cell homeostasis following depletion leads to increased memory T cells, which may promote transplant rejection. The cytokine IL-7 is important for controlling lymphopoiesis under both normal and lymphopenic conditions. Here, we investigated whether blocking IL-7 signaling with a mAb that targets IL-7 receptor ? (IL-7R?) alone or following T cell depletion confers an advantage for allograft survival in murine transplant models. We found that IL-7R blockade alone induced indefinite pancreatic islet allograft survival if anti-IL-7R treatment was started 3 weeks before graft. IL-7R blockade following anti-CD4- and anti-CD8-mediated T cell depletion markedly prolonged skin allograft survival. Furthermore, IL-7 inhibition in combination with T cell depletion synergized with either CTLA-4Ig administration or suboptimal doses of tacrolimus to induce long-term skin graft acceptance in this stringent transplant model. Together, these therapies inhibited T cell reconstitution, decreased memory T cell numbers, increased the relative frequency of Tregs, and abrogated both cellular and humoral alloimmune responses. Our data suggest that IL-7R blockade following T cell depletion has potential as a robust, immunosuppressive therapy in transplantation.
Project description:BACKGROUND: CD8 alpha enhances the responses of antigen-specific CTL activated through TCR through binding MHC class I, favoring lipid raft partitioning of TCR, and inducing intracellular signaling. CD8 alpha is also found on dendritic cells and rat macrophages, but whether CD8 alpha enhances responses of a partner receptor, like TCR, to activate these cells is not known. TCR and FcR, use analogous or occasionally interchangeable signaling mechanisms suggesting the possibility that CD8 alpha co-activates FcR responses. Interestingly, CD8 alpha+ monocytes are often associated with rat models of disease involving immune-complex deposition and FcR-mediated pathology, such as arthritis, glomerulonephritis, ischaemia, and tumors. While rat macrophages have been shown to express CD8 alpha evidence for CD8 alpha expression by mouse or human monocytes or macrophages was incomplete. RESULTS: We detected CD8 alpha, but not CD8 beta on human monocytes and the monocytic cell line THP-1 by flow cytometry. Reactivity of anti-CD8 alpha mAb with monocytes is at least partly independent of FcR as anti-CD8 alpha mAb detect CD8 alpha by western blot and inhibit binding of MHC class I tetramers. CD8 alpha mRNA is also found in monocytes and THP-1 suggesting CD8 alpha is synthesized by monocytes and not acquired from other CD8 alpha+ cell types. Interestingly, CD8 alpha from monocytes and blood T cells presented distinguishable patterns by 2-D electrophoresis. Anti-CD8 alpha mAb alone did not activate monocyte TNF release. In comparison, TNF release by human monocytes stimulated in a FcR-dependent manner with immune-complexes was enhanced by inclusion of anti-CD8 alpha mAb in immune-complexes. CONCLUSION: Human monocytes express CD8 alpha. Co-engagement of CD8 alpha and FcR enhances monocyte TNF release, suggesting FcR may be a novel partner receptor for CD8 alpha on innate immune cells.
Project description:In a rat heart allograft model, preventing T cell costimulation with CD40Ig leads to indefinite allograft survival, which is mediated by the induction of CD8+CD45RClo regulatory T cells (CD8+CD40Ig Tregs) interacting with plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). The role of TCR-MHC-peptide interaction in regulating Treg activity remains a topic of debate. Here, we identified a donor MHC class II-derived peptide (Du51) that is recognized by TCR-biased CD8+CD40Ig Tregs and activating CD8+CD40Ig Tregs in both its phenotype and suppression of antidonor alloreactive T cell responses. We generated a labeled tetramer (MHC-I RT1.Aa/Du51) to localize and quantify Du51-specific T cells within rat cardiac allografts and spleen. RT1.Aa/Du51-specific CD8+CD40Ig Tregs were the most suppressive subset of the total Treg population, were essential for in vivo tolerance induction, and expressed a biased, restricted V?11-TCR repertoire in the spleen and the graft. Finally, we demonstrated that treatment of transplant recipients with the Du51 peptide resulted in indefinite prolongation of allograft survival. These results show that CD8+CD40Ig Tregs recognize a dominant donor antigen, resulting in TCR repertoire alterations in the graft and periphery. Furthermore, this allopeptide has strong therapeutic activity and highlights the importance of TCR-peptide-MHC interaction for Treg generation and function.
Project description:Immunomodulating monoclonal antibodies (mAb) can evoke antitumor T-cell responses, which are attenuated by regulatory T cells (Treg) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC). Treatment with cyclophosphamide (CP) and gemcitabine (GEM) can mitigate the immunosuppression by Treg and MDSC, respectively. In the current study, we examined the antitumor effects of a combination of local injection with anti-CD137 mAb and intermittent low-dose chemotherapy using CP and GEM in subcutaneously established CT26 colon carcinoma. Although a significant antitumor effect was observed when local anti-CD137 mAb therapy (5 ?g) was started early in the tumor-bearing stage (day 10), no therapeutic efficacy was observed when the mAb therapy was started at a later tumor-bearing stage (day 17). Analyses of the tumor-infiltrating immune cells revealed that the number of Gr-1(high/low) CD11b(+) MDSC started to increase 13 days after tumor inoculation, whereas injection with low-dose (50 mg/kg) CP and GEM mitigated this increase. In addition, although intermittent injections with low-dose CP and GEM on days 10 and 18 suppressed tumor growth significantly, additional local injections of anti-CD137 mAb on days 19, 21, and 23 further augmented the therapeutic efficacy. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes reactive to CT26 and a tumor antigen peptide were induced successfully from the spleen cells of tumor-cured or tumor-stable mice. In a bilateral tumor inoculation model, this combination therapy achieved systemic therapeutic effects and suppressed the growth of mAb-untreated tumors. These results suggest that intermittent immunochemotherapy using CP and GEM could retain the therapeutic potential of anti-CD137 mAb that is normally impaired during the late tumor-bearing stage.