MicroRNA-627 mediates the epigenetic mechanisms of vitamin D to suppress proliferation of human colorectal cancer cells and growth of xenograft tumors in mice.
ABSTRACT: Vitamin D protects against colorectal cancer through unclear mechanisms. We investigated the effects of calcitriol (1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3; the active form of vitamin D) on levels of different microRNAs (miRNAs) in colorectal cancer cells from humans and xenograft tumors in mice.Expression of miRNAs in colorectal cancer cell lines was examined using the Ambion mirVana miRNA Bioarray. The effects of calcitriol on expression of miR-627 and cell proliferation were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction and WST-1 assay, respectively; growth of colorectal xenograft tumors was examined in nude mice. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to analyze levels of miR-627 in human colon adenocarcinoma samples and nontumor colon mucosa tissues (controls).In HT-29 cells, miR-627 was the only miRNA significantly up-regulated by calcitriol. Jumonji domain containing 1A (JMJD1A), which encodes a histone demethylase, was found to be a target of miR-627. By down-regulating JMJD1A, miR-627 increased methylation of histone H3K9 and suppressed expression of proliferative factors, such as growth and differentiation factor 15. Calcitriol induced expression of miR-627, which down-regulated JMJD1A and suppressed growth of xenograft tumors from HCT-116 cells in nude mice. Overexpression of miR-627 prevented proliferation of colorectal cancer cell lines in culture and growth of xenograft tumors in mice. Conversely, blocking the activity of miR-627 inhibited the tumor suppressive effects of calcitriol in cultured colorectal cancer cells and in mice. Levels of miR-627 were decreased in human colon adenocarcinoma samples compared with controls.miR-627 mediates tumor-suppressive epigenetic activities of vitamin D on colorectal cancer cells and xenograft tumors in mice. The messenger RNA that encodes the histone demethylase JMJD1A is a direct target of miR-627. Reagents designed to target JMJD1A or its messenger RNA, or increase the function of miR-627, might have the same antitumor activities of vitamin D without the hypercalcemic side effects.
Project description:Colon and rectal tumors, often referred to as colorectal cancer, show different gene expression patterns in studies that analyze whole tissue biopsies containing a mix of tumor and non-tumor cells. To better characterize colon and rectal tumors, we investigated the gene expression profile of organoids generated from endoscopic biopsies of rectal tumors and adjacent normal colon and rectum mucosa from therapy-naive rectal cancer patients. We also studied the effect of vitamin D on these organoid types. Gene profiling was performed by RNA-sequencing. Organoids from a normal colon and rectum had a shared gene expression profile that profoundly differed from that of rectal tumor organoids. We identified a group of genes of the biosynthetic machinery as rectal tumor organoid-specific, including those encoding the RNA polymerase II subunits POLR2H and POLR2J. The active vitamin D metabolite 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3/calcitriol upregulated stemness-related genes (LGR5, LRIG1, SMOC2, and MSI1) in normal rectum organoids, while it downregulated differentiation marker genes (TFF2 and MUC2). Normal colon and rectum organoids share similar gene expression patterns and respond similarly to calcitriol. Rectal tumor organoids display distinct and heterogeneous gene expression profiles, with differences with respect to those of colon tumor organoids, and respond differently to calcitriol than normal rectum organoids.
Project description:Intestine is a major target of vitamin D and several studies indicate an association between vitamin D deficiency and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), but also increased colorectal cancer (CRC) risk and mortality. However, the putative effects of 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol), the active vitamin D metabolite, on human colonic stem cells are unknown. Here we show by immunohistochemistry and RNAscope in situ hybridization that vitamin D receptor (VDR) is unexpectedly expressed in LGR5+ colon stem cells in human tissue and in normal and tumor organoid cultures generated from patient biopsies. Interestingly, normal and tumor organoids respond differentially to calcitriol with profound and contrasting changes in their transcriptomic profiles. In normal organoids, calcitriol upregulates stemness-related genes, such as LGR5, SMOC2, LRIG1, MSI1, PTK7, and MEX3A, and inhibits cell proliferation. In contrast, in tumor organoids calcitriol has little effect on stemness-related genes while it induces a differentiated phenotype, and variably reduces cell proliferation. Concordantly, electron microscopy showed that calcitriol does not affect the blastic undifferentiated cell phenotype in normal organoids but it induces a series of differentiated features in tumor organoids. Our results constitute the first demonstration of a regulatory role of vitamin D on human colon stem cells, indicating a homeostatic effect on colon epithelium with relevant implications in IBD and CRC.
Project description:ETS variant 1 (ETV1) is an oncogenic transcription factor. However, its role in colorectal cancer has remained understudied. The present study demonstrated that ETV1 downregulation led to reduced HCT116 colorectal cancer cell growth and clonogenic activity. Furthermore, the ETV1 mRNA levels were enhanced in colorectal tumors and were associated with disease severity. In addition, ETV1 directly bound to Jumonji C domain?containing (JMJD) 1A, a histone demethylase known to promote colon cancer. ETV1 and JMJD1A, but not a catalytically inactive mutant thereof, cooperated in inducing the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)1 gene promoter that was similar to the cooperation between ETV1 and another histone demethylase, JMJD2A. RNA?sequencing revealed multiple potential ETV1 target genes in HCT116 cells, including the FOXQ1 and TBX6 transcription factor genes. Moreover, JMJD1A co?regulated FOXQ1 and other ETV1 target genes, but not TBX6, whereas JMJD2A downregulation had no impact on FOXQ1 as well as TBX6 transcription. Accordingly, the FOXQ1 gene promoter was stimulated by ETV1 and JMJD1A in a cooperative manner, and both ETV1 and JMJD1A bound to the FOXQ1 promoter. Notably, the overexpression of FOXQ1 partially reversed the growth inhibitory effects of ETV1 ablation on HCT116 cells, whereas TBX6 impaired HCT116 cell growth and may thereby dampen the oncogenic activity of ETV1. The latter also revealed for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, a potential tumor suppressive function of TBX6. Taken together, the present study uncovered a ETV1/JMJD1A?FOXQ1 axis that may drive colorectal tumorigenesis.
Project description:Jumonji C domain-containing 1A (JMJD1A) is a histone demethylase and epigenetic regulator that has been implicated in cancer development. In the current study, its mRNA and protein expression was analyzed in human colorectal tumors. It was demonstrated that JMJD1A levels were increased and correlated with a more aggressive phenotype. Downregulation of JMJD1A in human HCT116 colorectal cancer cells caused negligible growth defects, but robustly decreased clonogenic activity. Transcriptome analysis revealed that JMJD1A downregulation led to multiple changes in HCT116 cells, including inhibition of MYC- and MYCN-regulated pathways and stimulation of the TP53 tumor suppressor response. One gene identified to be stimulated by JMJD1A was α-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX), which encodes for a chromatin remodeler. The JMJD1A protein, but not a catalytically inactive mutant, activated the ATRX gene promoter and JMJD1A also affected levels of dimethylation on lysine 9 of histone H3. Similar to JMJD1A, ATRX was significantly overexpressed in human colorectal tumors and correlated with increased disease recurrence and lethality. Furthermore, ATRX downregulation in HCT116 cells reduced their growth and clonogenic activity. Accordingly, upregulation of ATRX may represent one mechanism by which JMJD1A promotes colorectal cancer. In addition, the data presented in this study suggest that the current notion of ATRX as a tumor suppressor is incomplete and that ATRX might context dependently also function as a tumor promoter.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step in converting tryptophan to kynurenine. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells are T cells with recombinant receptors targeting tumor-associated antigens. The Food and Drug Administration has approved CAR T cells that target CD19 for treatment of advanced B cell leukemia and lymphoma. However, CAR T cell therapy in solid tumors has been hampered by multiple obstacles. Preclinical and clinical studies suggest that combinatorial immune checkpoint blockade and IDO1 inhibition provide durable therapeutic efficacy against cancer. Yet, the combination of IDO1 inhibition and CAR T has not been attempted. METHODS:We analyze IDO1 downregulation by miR-153 in colon cancer cells and the association of IDO1 and miR-153 expression with colorectal patient survival. We generate CAR T cells targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor variant III and measure their tumor killing effects against colon cancer cells with or without miR-153 overexpression by killing assays and in xenografts. RESULTS:IDO1 is highly expressed in colorectal tumors and is inversely associated with patient survival. miR-153 directly inhibits IDO1 expression by targeting its 3' untranslated region in colon cancer cells; yet, miR-153 overexpression does not affect cancer cell survival, apoptosis, and colony formation. When colon cancer cells are targeted by CAR T cells, miR-153 overexpression within tumor cells significantly enhances T cell killing in vitro and suppresses xenograft tumor growth in mice. CONCLUSIONS:These findings indicate that miR-153 inhibits IDO1 expression in colon cancer cells and is a tumor-suppressive miRNA that enhances CAR T cell immunotherapy. This study supports the combinatorial use of IDO1 inhibitors and CAR T cells in treating solid tumors.
Project description:MyoD family inhibitor (MDFI) and MDFI domain-containing (MDFIC) are homologous proteins known to regulate myogenic transcription factors. Hitherto, their role in cancer is unknown. We discovered that MDFI is up- and MDFIC downregulated in colorectal tumors. Mirroring these different expression patterns, MDFI stimulated and MDFIC inhibited growth of HCT116 colorectal cancer cells. Further, MDFI and MDFIC interacted with Jumonji C domain-containing (JMJD) 1?A, a histone demethylase and epigenetic regulator involved in colorectal cancer. JMJD1A influenced transcription of several genes that were also regulated by MDFI or MDFIC. Notably, the HIC1 tumor suppressor gene was stimulated by JMJD1A and MDFIC, but not by MDFI, and HIC1 overexpression phenocopied the growth suppressive effects of MDFIC in HCT116 cells. Similar to colorectal cancer, MDFI was up- and MDFIC downregulated in breast, ovarian and prostate cancer, but both were overexpressed in brain, gastric and pancreatic tumors that implies MDFIC to also promote tumorigenesis in certain tissues. Altogether, our data suggest a tumor modulating function for MDFI and MDFIC in colorectal and other cancers that may involve their interaction with JMJD1A and a MDFIC?HIC1 axis.
Project description:Ovarian cancer is the most deadly gynecologic cancer among women worldwide. Poor response to current treatment makes it necessary to discover new diagnostic biomarkers to detect the cancer early and develop new and effective prevention strategies. Calcitriol, the active metabolite of vitamin D, protects against multiple cancers through unelucidated mechanisms. The oncogenic long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) CCAT2 (colon cancer associated transcript 2) is overexpressed in ovarian cancer. Here, we foundd that calcitriol inhibited CCAT2 expression in ovarian cancer cell lines. Treatment with calcitriol inhibited ovarian cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. As a result of CCAT2 inhibition, calcitriol decreased the binding of transcription factor TCF7L2 (TCF4) to the MYC promoter, resulting in the repression of c-Myc protein expression. Our results suggest a novel anti-cancer mechanism of vitamin D by targeting CCAT2 in ovarian cancer. The findings may help develop vitamin D as a practical and inexpensive nutraceutical for ovarian cancer prevention.
Project description:MicorRNA-137 is silenced in human colorectal cancer tissues and colon polyps. Our study showed that the decreased expression of miR-137 is significantly different in various types of polyp which maintain different potentials to lead to CRC development. The expression of miR-137 gradually decreases during the process of colorectal carcinogenesis. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis indicates that the loss of miR-137 expression in colon polyps can serve as a biomarker to predict the predisposition of colorectal carcinogenesis. By cell model and xenograft animal model, the enforced expression of miR-137 in colorectal cancer cells can inhibit cell proliferation and tumor formation, induce G2/M arrest, and lead to apoptosis. The expression pattern of miR-137 and Aurora-A or PTGS2 is negatively correlated in human colorectal cancer tissues and colon polyps. Those effects induced by overexpressed miR-137 can be rescued by the overexpression of Aurora-A. In summary, our study suggests that the loss of miR-137 expression in colon polyps can serve as a biomarker to predict the tendency toward to CRC formation through the impaired inhibitory effect of Aurora-A. The investigation of the regulatory mechanism of miR-137-mediated Aurora-A inhibition may shed new light on the early prognosis of cancer therapy for CRC in the future.
Project description:The active metabolite of vitamin D3, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol) has antiproliferative effects in non-aggressive prostate cancer, however, its effects in more aggressive model systems are still unclear. In these studies, effects of calcitriol and a less-calcemic vitamin D analog, QW-1624F2-2 (QW), were tested in vivo, using the aggressive autochthonous transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) model. To study prevention of androgen-stimulated prostate cancer, vehicle, calcitriol (20 µg/kg), or QW (50 µg/kg) were administered to 4 week-old TRAMP mice intraperitoneal (i.p.) 3×/week on a MWF schedule for 14 weeks. Calcitriol and QW slowed progression of prostate cancer as indicated by reduced urogenital tract (p?=?0.0022, calcitriol; p?=?0.0009, QW) and prostate weights (p?=?0.0178, calcitriol; p?=?0.0086, QW). However, only calcitriol increased expression of the pro-differentiation marker, cadherin 1 (p?=?0.0086), and reduced tumor proliferation (p?=?0.0467). By contrast, neither vitamin D analog had any effect on castration resistant prostate cancer in mice treated pre- or post-castration. Interestingly, although vitamin D showed inhibitory activity against primary tumors in hormone-intact mice, distant organ metastases seemed to be enhanced following treatment (p?=?0.0823). Therefore, TRAMP mice were treated long-term with calcitriol to further examine effects on metastasis. Calcitriol significantly increased the number of distant organ metastases when mice were treated from 4 weeks-of-age until development of palpable tumors (20-25 weeks-of-age)(p?=?0.0003). Overall, data suggest that early intervention with vitamin D in TRAMP slowed androgen-stimulated tumor progression, but prolonged treatment resulted in development of a resistant and more aggressive disease associated with increased distant organ metastasis.