Ofatumumab in combination with ICE or DHAP chemotherapy in relapsed or refractory intermediate grade B-cell lymphoma.
ABSTRACT: Standard treatment of transplant-eligible patients with relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) consists of rituximab and platinum-based chemotherapy, either ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide (ICE) or dexamethasone, cytarabine, and cisplatin (DHAP), with autologous transplant consolidation for those with chemosensitive disease. Nonetheless, outcomes are suboptimal for patients failing rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP). We performed a multi-center phase II trial investigating the safety and efficacy of ofatumumab, a monoclonal antibody against CD20, combined with ICE or DHAP second-line therapy in patients with relapsed or refractory DLBCL, grade 3b follicular lymphoma, or transformed follicular lymphoma. Sixty-one patients were treated with either ofatumumab-ICE (35) or ofatumumab-DHAP (26). The overall response rate (ORR) was 61%, and the complete response (CR) rate was 37%. In patients with 2 or 3 adverse risk factors according to the second-line, age-adjusted, international prognostic index, the ORR was 59% and CR 31%, and in patients with early-relapsing or primary refractory disease, the ORR was 55% and CR 30%. Toxicity was largely hematologic, and stem cell mobilization was successful in 43 of 45 patients. Substitution of ofatumumab for rituximab in standard second-line regimens following failure of R-CHOP is a promising approach. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00823719.
Project description:The influence of Fc gamma receptor IIIA (FCGR3A) 158V/F polymorphisms on the response to rituximab (R) plus CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone; R-CHOP) therapy in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is uncertain. Thus, a retrospective study and a meta-analysis were performed to examine the possible correlation between FCGR3A 158V/F polymorphism and the response rate of R-CHOP regimen in patients with newly diagnosed DLBCL. The genotypes of FCGR3A 158V/F in 164 newly diagnosed DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP were determined in this retrospective study. Additionally, a meta-analysis of current and previously published studies was conducted. Overall response rate (complete and partial response, ORR) and complete response rate (CR) were evaluated. The results of our retrospective study showed lack of correlation between FCGR3A 158V/F polymorphism and ORR (p=0.78) or CR (p=0.76) with R-CHOP therapy. A meta-analysis of 731 cases also showed lack of significant association of ORR and CR in all genetic models with FCGR3A 158V/F polymorphism. In survival analysis, the homozygous F genotype correlated with a shorter progression-free survival than that of non-F/F genotype (p=0.05), this was significant for the non-GC subset of DLBCL (p=0.04), but no association was found between overall survival and FCGR3A 158V/F polymorphism. Further analysis with nonsuperiority test (p<0.0001) suggested that FCGR3A 158V/F polymorphism was not associated with better ORR or CR in newly diagnosed DLBCL patient treated with R-CHOP. No clear relationship was found between FCGR3A 158V/F polymorphism and response to frontline R-CHOP therapy in patients with DLBCL.
Project description:Transformation of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL) to diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) (Richter's syndrome (RS)) is a rare (2-15% of patients) but catastrophic complication of B-CLL. Dose-intense chemotherapy regimens investigated in small single institution trials, but with the exception of bone marrow transplantation for a minority of patients, little has improved the median overall survival of patients with RS beyond eight months. Patients are often elderly, immunosuppressed, possess co-morbidities and have a deteriorating performance status. TP53 disruption is a common molecular abnormality noted in RS and contributes to the tumour's chemotherapy resistance. Ofatumumab is a fully human anti-CD20 monoclonal IgG1? antibody that targets a unique epitope on B lymphocytes. It has displayed increased binding affinity and a longer dissociation time when compared to rituximab resulting in improved complement dependent cellular cytotoxicity (CDCC); a mechanism with the potential to overcome apoptosis-resistance in TP53 disruption. Given the prevalence of TP53 disruption in RS, Ofatumumab was considered a relatively non-toxic agent with a sound rationale to test in a prospective multicentre trial as an adjunct to CHOP induction and subsequent ofatumumab maintenance therapy in responding patients.The CHOP-OR study is a prospective phase II study to evaluate the safety, feasibility and activity of a CHOP chemotherapy in combination with ofatumumab in induction and subsequent maintenance for patients with newly diagnosed RS. The primary objective will be the overall response rate (ORR) in patients with RS after six cycles of CHOP-O. The secondary objectives include feasibility of recruitment, progression free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and toxicity. The study will be accompanied by exploratory analysis of the genomic landscape of RS in newly diagnosed patients.The CHOP-OR trial evaluates the safety, feasibility and activity of CHOP plus Ofatumumab induction and Ofatumumab maintenance in new RS patients. The study is currently recruiting and has met the interim analysis criteria, with more than 7 of the first 25 participants achieving a CR or PR after six cycles of CHOP-O. The study has the potential to identify predictive biomarkers for this treatment modality.NCT01171378.
Project description:Salvage chemotherapy followed by high-dose therapy and autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) is the standard treatment for relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Salvage regimens have never been compared; their efficacy in the rituximab era is unknown.Patients with CD20(+) DLBCL in first relapse or who were refractory after first-line therapy were randomly assigned to either rituximab, ifosfamide, etoposide, and carboplatin (R-ICE) or rituximab, dexamethasone, high-dose cytarabine, and cisplatin (R-DHAP). Responding patients received high-dose chemotherapy and ASCT.The median age of the 396 patients enrolled (R-ICE, n = 202; R-DHAP, n = 194) was 55 years. Similar response rates were observed after three cycles of R-ICE (63.5%; 95% CI, 56% to 70%) and R-DHAP (62.8%; 95 CI, 55% to 69%). Factors affecting response rates (P < .001) were refractory disease/relapse less than versus more than 12 months after diagnosis (46% v 88%, respectively), International Prognostic Index (IPI) of more than 1 versus 0 to 1 (52% v 71%, respectively), and prior rituximab treatment versus no prior rituximab (51% v 83%, respectively). There was no significant difference between R-ICE and R-DHAP for 3-year event-free survival (EFS) or overall survival. Three-year EFS was affected by prior rituximab treatment versus no rituximab (21% v 47%, respectively), relapse less than versus more than 12 months after diagnosis (20% v 45%, respectively), and IPI of 2 to 3 versus 0 to 1 (18% v 40%, respectively). In the Cox model, these parameters were significant (P < .001).In patients who experience relapse more than 12 months after diagnosis, prior rituximab treatment does not affect EFS. Patients with early relapses after rituximab-containing first-line therapy have a poor prognosis, with no difference between the effects of R-ICE and R-DHAP.
Project description:The current standard treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large cell B-Cell lymphoma (DLBCL) primarily consists of intensified salvage therapy and, if the disease is chemo-sensitive, high dose therapy followed with autologous stem cell transplantation. In the rituximab era however, this treatment approach has shown only limited benefit. In particular, patients relapsing after rituximab-containing primary treatment have an adverse prognosis, especially if this occurs within the first year after therapy or if the disease is primarily refractory. Therefore there is an ultimate need for improved salvage treatment approaches.The STORM study is a prospective, multicentre phase I/II study to evaluate the safety, feasibility and activity of salvage therapy consisting of the mTOR inhibitor temsirolimus added to the standard therapy rituximab and DHAP for the treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory DLBCL. The primary objective of the phase I of the trial is to establish the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of temsirolimus in combination with rituximab and DHAP. The secondary objective is to demonstrate that stem cells can be mobilized during this regimen in patients scheduled to proceed to high dose therapy. In phase II, the previously established maximum tolerated dose of temsirolimus will be used. The primary objective is to evaluate the overall response rate (ORR) in patients with relapsed DLBCL. The secondary objective is to evaluate progression free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and toxicity. The study will be accompanied by an analysis of lymphoma subtypes determined by gene expression analysis (GEP).The STORM trial evaluates the safety, feasibility and activity of salvage therapy consisting of the mTOR inhibitor temsirolimus added to standard therapy of rituximab and DHAP for the treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory DLBCL. It also might identify predictive markers for this treatment modality.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01653067.
Project description:Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a heterogeneous subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. In addition to clinical and immunophenotypic characteristics, recurrent gene mutations have recently been identified in patients with DLBCL using next-generation sequencing technologies. The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical relevance of B-cell function gene mutations in DLBCL. Clinical analysis was performed on 680 Chinese DLBCL patients (146 non-CR and 534 CR cases) treated with six cycles of 21-day R-CHOP (Rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone), alone or followed by two additional doses of rituximab consolidation on patients' own intention. Somatic mutations of B-cell function genes were further screened on 275 (71 non-CR and 204 CR) cases with available tumor samples by targeted sequencing, including genes involved in B-cell receptors (BCRs) pathway (CARD11, LYN, CD79A, and CD79B), Toll-like receptors (TLRs) pathway (MYD88), and tumor necrotic factor receptor (TNFR) pathway (TRAF2 and TNFAIP3). B-cell function gene mutations occurred in 44.0% (121/275) of DLBCL patients. The TLRs and TNFR related gene mutations were more frequently observed in non-CR patients (p=0.019 and p=0.032, respectively). BCRs related gene mutations, as well as revised IPI (R-IPI) and double BCL-2/MYC expression, were independently related to short progression-free survival in DLBCL after CR. The adverse prognostic effect of BCRs related gene mutations could be overcome by two additional doses of rituximab consolidation. These results highlight the molecular heterogeneity of DLBCL and identify a significant role of B-cell function gene mutations on lymphoma progression and response to rituximab in DLBCL.
Project description:Because of high relapse rates with rituximab combinations, there is an unmet need for new therapeutic agents for treatment of indolent B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (iNHL) or follicular lymphoma (FL). In previous trials, ofatumumab in combination with chemotherapy showed good results in relapsed/refractory FL pretreated with rituximab. This phase 3 trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of single-agent ofatumumab vs single-agent rituximab in rituximab-sensitive relapsed FL that relapsed at least 6 months after completing the last prior treatment with single-agent rituximab or a rituximab-containing regimen. Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive either ofatumumab (1000 mg) or rituximab (375 mg/m2) every week for 4 weeks for the induction phase, followed by once every 2 months for 4 additional doses. The primary endpoint, progression-free survival (PFS) and secondary endpoints, overall response rate (ORR) and overall survival (OS), were evaluated. Overall, 438 patients were assigned to receive ofatumumab (n = 219) and rituximab (n = 219). Baseline characteristics were similar in both arms. The independent review committee assessed whether median PFS was shorter in the ofatumumab arm than in the rituximab arm (16.33 vs 21.29 months), with no significant difference (hazard ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval, 0.89-1.49; P = .29) and also showed a lower ORR (50%) compared with the rituximab arm (66%). At the time of analysis, data were not matured for OS results. The number of grade >3 adverse events was higher in the ofatumumab arm (37%) than the rituximab arm (28%). Ofatumumab showed no superiority over rituximab in patients with FL who had relapsed after a rituximab-containing therapy. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01200589.
Project description:Four cycles of rituximab plus CHOP chemotherapy is as effective as 6 cycles in low-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Here we report a post-hoc analysis of a prospective clinical trial in patients with HIV-associated DLBCL and high-grade lymphoma treated with 4-6 cycles of EPOCH plus rituximab based a response-adapted treatment strategy. 106 evaluable patients with HIV-associated DLBCL or high-grade CD20-positive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were randomized to receive rituximab (375 mg/m2) given either concurrently prior to each infusional EPOCH cycle, or sequentially (weekly for 6 weeks) following completion of EPOCH. EPOCH consisted of a 96-hour IV infusion of etoposide, doxorubicin, and vincristine plus oral prednisone followed by IV bolus cyclophosphamide every 21 days for 4 to 6 cycles. Patients received 2 additional cycles of therapy after documentation of a complete response (CR) by computerized tomography after cycles 2 and 4. 64 of 106 evaluable patients (60%, 95% CI 50%, 70%) had a CR in both treatment arms. The 2-year event-free survival (EFS) rates were similar in the 24 patients with CR who received 4 or fewer EPOCH cycles (78%, 95% confidence intervals [55%, 90%]) due to achieving a CR after 2 cycles, compared with those who received 5-6 cycles of EPOCH (85%, 95% CI 70%, 93%) because a CR was first documented after cycle 4. A response-adapted strategy may permit a shorter treatment duration without compromising therapeutic efficacy in patients with HIV-associated lymphoma treated with EPOCH plus rituximab, which merits further evaluation in additional prospective trials. Clinical Trials.gov identifier NCT00049036.
Project description:Cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone plus rituximab (R-CHOP) is the standard treatment for patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). However, rituximab cannot be popularly applied in a considerable number of patients with DLBCL because of economic reasons. To develop a new regimen to improve the outcome of these patients is extremely important. In our study, sixty five patients with DLBCL were randomly assigned to thalidomide plus CHOP group (n=32) or to CHOP alone group (n=33). Objective response rates (ORR) and complete remission rates (CRR) were 96.7% and 80.6% in T-CHOP group versus 78.9 % and 57.8 % in CHOP group, respectively (P <0.05). At a median follow-up of 96 months, median PFS for T-CHOP group was still not reached yet, and in CHOP group it was 22.9 months (95% CI [0-50.4]). (P=0.163). Median overall survival (OS) for T-CHOP group was also not reached, and the estimated median OS for CHOP group was 83.5 months, the difference of OS between the two groups is not significant (p=0.263). But, in patients with Bcl-2 positive and Bcl-6 negative, the median PFS in T-CHOP group was longer than that in CHOP group (111.0 vs 8.5 months (P=0.017). In addition, thalidomide did not significantly increase the grade 3/4 toxicity of CHOP. We concluded that the addition of thalidomide to the CHOP regimen significantly improved the CRR and showed a trend of improving clinical outcome in patients with DLBCL, especially for patients with Bcl-2 positive and Bcl-6 negative B-cell phenotype, without increased toxicity.
Project description:LESSONS LEARNED:The combination of ofatumumab and bendamustine in elderly patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma demonstrated modest efficacy compared with standard of care.The poor response may have been due to patient age and the high rate of treatment discontinuation. BACKGROUND:This phase II trial evaluated the efficacy of bendamustine and ofatumumab in elderly patients with newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) who were not candidates for rituximab cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP). METHODS:Patients received IV 90 mg/m2 bendamustine on days 1 and 2 of cycles 1 through 6 and IV 1,000 mg ofatumumab on days 1 and 8 of cycle 1 and on day 1 of cycles 2 through 6. Both drugs were administered at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved dose for combination therapy. All patients received premedications before each infusion of ofatumumab and hematopoietic growth factors. Treatment was administered in 21-day cycles, with restaging after cycle 3 and cycle 6. The primary endpoint was complete response rate (CRR). RESULTS:Twelve of 21 enrolled patients completed treatment; median age was 83 years. The most common reasons for treatment discontinuation were disease progression (three patients), intercurrent illness (two patients), and death (one patient due to drug-related sepsis and bowel necrosis and one patient due to unknown cause). Thrombocytopenia (14%), neutropenia (10%), diarrhea (10%), vomiting (10%), and dehydration (10%) were the most common grade ?3 treatment-related adverse events. The overall response rate was 90.5% and the CRR was 33.3%. Median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 8.6 and 12.0 months, respectively. CONCLUSION:The combination of ofatumumab and bendamustine is feasible in elderly patients with DLBCL.
Project description:We sought to develop a safe and effective outpatient salvage regimen by replacing ifosfamide within the (R)ICE (rituximab, ifosfomide, carboplatin, etoposide) regimen with bendamustine (T(R)EC) via a multicentre phase I/II study for patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and classic Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Therapy consisted of 60-120 mg/m2 per day bendamustine on days 1 and 2 in combination with carboplatin, etoposide and rituximab (only for CD20+ lymphoma) used in the (R)ICE regimen for up to 2 cycles. The objectives were to define a maximally tolerated dose (MTD) of bendamustine, determine safety and toxicity, assess efficacy, and evaluate impact on stem cell collection. Forty-eight patients were treated of which 71% had refractory disease. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed. The recommended phase II dose of bendamustine was 120 mg/m2 per day on days 1 and 2. Response rates were 85% (70% complete response, CR) in HL, and 65% (40% CR) in DLBCL. Stem cell collection was successful in 30 of 32 patients. The most common non-haematological toxicities ?grade 3 were febrile neutropenia (8%) and dehydration (8%). The T(R)EC regimen safely yields high response rates, successfully mobilizes peripheral blood stem cells and compares favourably to RICE, offering an effective outpatient treatment option for patients with relapsed or refractory DLBCL and HL.