Computational protein structure modeling and analysis of UV-B stress protein in Synechocystis PCC 6803.
ABSTRACT: This study focuses on Ultra Violet stress (UVS) gene product which is a UV stress induced protein from cyanobacteria, Synechocystis PCC 6803. Three dimensional structural modeling of target UVS protein was carried out by homology modeling method. 3F2I pdb from Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 was selected as a suitable template protein structure. Ultimately, the detection of active binding regions was carried out for characterization of functional sites in modeled UV-B stress protein. The top five probable ligand binding sites were predicted and the common binding residues between target and template protein was analyzed. It has been validated for the first time that modeled UVS protein structure from Synechocystis PCC 6803 was structurally and functionally similar to well characterized UVS protein of another cyanobacterial species, Nostoc sp PCC 7120 because of having same structural motif and fold with similar protein topology and function. Investigations revealed that UVS protein from Synechocystis sp. might play significant role during ultraviolet resistance. Thus, it could be a potential biological source for remediation for UV induced stress.
Project description:To elucidate the biosynthetic pathways of carotenoids, especially myxol 2'-glycosides, in cyanobacteria, Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 (also known as Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120) and Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 deletion mutants lacking selected proposed carotenoid biosynthesis enzymes and GDP-fucose synthase (WcaG), which is required for myxol 2'-fucoside production, were analyzed. The carotenoids in these mutants were identified using high-performance liquid chromatography, field desorption mass spectrometry, and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance. The wcaG (all4826) deletion mutant of Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 produced myxol 2'-rhamnoside and 4-ketomyxol 2'-rhamnoside as polar carotenoids instead of the myxol 2'-fucoside and 4-ketomyxol 2'-fucoside produced by the wild type. Deletion of the corresponding gene in Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 (sll1213; 79% amino acid sequence identity with the Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 gene product) produced free myxol instead of the myxol 2'-dimethyl-fucoside produced by the wild type. Free myxol might correspond to the unknown component observed previously in the same mutant (H. E. Mohamed, A. M. L. van de Meene, R. W. Roberson, and W. F. J. Vermaas, J. Bacteriol. 187:6883-6892, 2005). These results indicate that in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, but not in Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803, rhamnose can be substituted for fucose in myxol glycoside. The beta-carotene hydroxylase orthologue (CrtR, Alr4009) of Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 catalyzed the transformation of deoxymyxol and deoxymyxol 2'-fucoside to myxol and myxol 2'-fucoside, respectively, but not the beta-carotene-to-zeaxanthin reaction, whereas CrtR from Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 catalyzed both reactions. Thus, the substrate specificities or substrate availabilities of both fucosyltransferase and CrtR were different in these species. The biosynthetic pathways of carotenoids in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 are discussed.
Project description:The ntcA gene from Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942 encodes a regulatory protein which is required for the expression of all of the genes known to be subject to repression by ammonium in that cyanobacterium. Homologs to ntcA have now been cloned by hybridization from the cyanobacteria Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 and Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. Sequence analysis has shown that these ntcA genes would encode polypeptides strongly similar (77 to 79% identity) to the Synechococcus NtcA protein. Sequences hybridizing to ntcA have been detected in the genomes of nine other cyanobacteria that were tested, including strains of the genera Anabaena, Calothrix, Fischerella, Nostoc, Pseudoanabaena, Synechococcus, and Synechocystis.
Project description:NADP+-isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP+-IDH) activity and protein levels in crude extracts from the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 and the filamentous, dinitrogen-fixing Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 were determined under different nitrogen conditions. The highest NADP+-IDH activity and protein accumulation were found under dinitrogen-fixing conditions for the Anabaena strain and under nitrogen starvation for Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. The icd gene that encodes the NADP+-IDH from Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 was cloned by heterologous hybridization with the previously isolated icd gene from Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. The two cyanobacterial icd genes show 81% sequence identity and share a typical 44-amino-acid region different from all the other icd genes sequenced so far. The icd gene seems to be essential for Synechocystis growth since attempts to generate a completely segregated icd mutant were unsuccessful. Transcripts of 2.0 and 1.6 kb were detected by Northern (RNA) blot analysis, for the Anabaena and Synecho-cystis icd genes, respectively. Maximal icd mRNA accumulation was reached after 5 It of nitrogen starvation in Synechocystis cells and under dinitrogen-fixing conditions in Anabaena cells. Primer extension analysis showed that the structure of the Synechocystis icd gene promoter resembles those of the NtcA-regulated promoters. In addition, mobility shift assays demonstrated that purified Synechocystis NtcA protein binds to the promoter of the icd gene. All these data suggest that the expression of the icd gene from Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 may be subjected to nitrogen control mediated by the positively acting regulatory protein NtcA.
Project description:Cyanobacteriochromes (CBCRs), which are exclusive to and widespread among cyanobacteria, are photoproteins that sense the entire range of near-UV and visible light. CBCRs are related to the red/far-red phytochromes that utilize linear tetrapyrrole (bilin) chromophores. Best characterized from the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and the multicellular heterocyst forming filamentous cyanobacteria Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133 and Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, CBCRs have been poorly investigated in mat-forming, nonheterocystous cyanobacteria. In this study, we sequenced the genome of one of such species, Microcoleus IPPAS B353 (Microcoleus B353), and identified two phytochromes and seven CBCRs with one or more bilin-binding cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase, adenylyl cyclase and FhlA (GAF) domains. Biochemical and spectroscopic measurements of 23 purified GAF proteins from phycocyanobilin (PCB) producing recombinant Escherichia coli indicated that 13 of these proteins formed near-UV and visible light-absorbing covalent adducts: 10 GAFs contained PCB chromophores, whereas three contained the PCB isomer, phycoviolobilin (PVB). Furthermore, the complement of Microcoleus B353 CBCRs is enriched in near-UV and violet sensors, but lacks red/green and green/red CBCRs that are widely distributed in other cyanobacteria. We hypothesize that enrichment in short wavelength-absorbing CBCRs is critical for acclimation to high-light environments where this organism is found.
Project description:Replication of the circular bacterial chromosome is initiated at a unique origin (oriC) in a DnaA-dependent manner in which replication proceeds bidirectionally from oriC to ter. The nucleotide compositions of most bacteria differ between the leading and lagging DNA strands. Thus, the chromosomal DNA sequence typically exhibits an asymmetric GC skew profile. Further, free-living bacteria without genomes encoding dnaA were unknown. Thus, a DnaA-oriC-dependent replication initiation mechanism may be essential for most bacteria. However, most cyanobacterial genomes exhibit irregular GC skew profiles. We previously found that the Synechococcus elongatus chromosome, which exhibits a regular GC skew profile, is replicated in a DnaA-oriC-dependent manner, whereas chromosomes of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and Nostoc sp. PCC 7120, which exhibit an irregular GC skew profile, are replicated from multiple origins in a DnaA-independent manner. Here we investigate the variation in the mechanisms of cyanobacterial chromosome replication. We found that the genomes of certain free-living species do not encode dnaA and such species, including Cyanobacterium aponinum PCC 10605 and Geminocystis sp. NIES-3708, replicate their chromosomes from multiple origins. Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002, which is phylogenetically closely related to dnaA-lacking free-living species as well as to dnaA-encoding but DnaA-oriC-independent Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, possesses dnaA. In Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002, dnaA was not essential and its chromosomes were replicated from a unique origin in a DnaA-oriC independent manner. Our results also suggest that loss of DnaA-oriC-dependency independently occurred multiple times during cyanobacterial evolution and raises a possibility that the loss of dnaA or loss of DnaA-oriC dependency correlated with an increase in ploidy level.
Project description:Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) is an important enzyme for CO<sub>2</sub> fixation and primary metabolism in photosynthetic organisms including cyanobacteria. The kinetics and allosteric regulation of PEPCs have been studied in many organisms, but the biochemical properties of PEPC in the unicellular, non-nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 have not been clarified. In this study, biochemical analysis revealed that the optimum pH and temperature of Synechocystis 6803 PEPC proteins were 7.3 and 30?°C, respectively. Synechocystis 6803 PEPC was found to be tolerant to allosteric inhibition by several metabolic effectors such as malate, aspartate, and fumarate compared with other cyanobacterial PEPCs. Comparative sequence and biochemical analysis showed that substitution of the glutamate residue at position 954 with lysine altered the enzyme so that it was inhibited by malate, aspartate, and fumarate. PEPC of the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 was purified, and its activity was inhibited in the presence of malate. Substitution of the lysine at position 946 (equivalent to position 954 in Synechocystis 6803) with glutamate made Anabaena 7120 PEPC tolerant to malate. These results demonstrate that the allosteric regulation of PEPC in cyanobacteria is determined by a single amino acid residue, a characteristic that is conserved in different orders.
Project description:The oldest prokaryotic photoautotrophic organisms, cyanobacteria, produce many different metabolites. Among them is the water-soluble neurotoxic non-protein amino acid beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), whose biological functions in cyanobacterial metabolism are of fundamental scientific and practical interest. An early BMAA inhibitory effect on nitrogen fixation and heterocyst differentiation was shown in strains of diazotrophic cyanobacteria Nostoc sp. PCC 7120, Nostoc punctiforme PCC 73102 (ATCC 29133), and Nostoc sp. strain 8963 under conditions of nitrogen starvation. Herein, we present a comprehensive proteomic study of Nostoc (also called Anabaena) sp. PCC 7120 in the heterocyst formation stage affecting by BMAA treatment under nitrogen starvation conditions. BMAA disturbs proteins involved in nitrogen and carbon metabolic pathways, which are tightly co-regulated in cyanobacteria cells. The presented evidence shows that exogenous BMAA affects a key nitrogen regulatory protein, PII (GlnB), and some of its protein partners, as well as glutamyl-tRNA synthetase gltX and other proteins that are involved in protein synthesis, heterocyst differentiation, and nitrogen metabolism. By taking into account the important regulatory role of PII, it becomes clear that BMAA has a severe negative impact on the carbon and nitrogen metabolism of starving Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 cells. BMAA disturbs carbon fixation and the carbon dioxide concentrating mechanism, photosynthesis, and amino acid metabolism. Stress response proteins and DNA repair enzymes are upregulated in the presence of BMAA, clearly indicating severe intracellular stress. This is the first proteomic study of the effects of BMAA on diazotrophic starving cyanobacteria cells, allowing a deeper insight into the regulation of the intracellular metabolism of cyanobacteria by this non-protein amino acid.
Project description:Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 is a filamentous cyanobacterium commonly used as a model organism for studying cyanobacterial cell differentiation and nitrogen fixation. For many decades, this cyanobacterium was considered an obligate photo-lithoautotroph. We now discovered that this strain is also capable of mixotrophic, photo-organoheterotrophic, and chemo-organoheterotrophic growth if high concentrations of fructose (at least 50 mM and up to 200 mM) are supplied. Glucose, a substrate used by some facultatively organoheterotrophic cyanobacteria, is not effective in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. The gtr gene from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 encoding a glucose carrier was introduced into Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. Surprisingly, the new strain containing the gtr gene did not grow on glucose but was very sensitive to glucose, with a 5 mM concentration being lethal, whereas the wild-type strain tolerated 200 mM glucose. The Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 strain containing gtr can grow mixotrophically and photo-organoheterotrophically, but not chemo-organoheterotrophically with fructose. Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 contains five respiratory chains ending in five different respiratory terminal oxidases. One of these enzymes is a mitochondrial-type cytochrome c oxidase. As in almost all cyanobacteria, this enzyme is encoded by three adjacent genes called coxBAC1. When this locus was disrupted, the cells lost the capability for chemo-organoheterotrophic growth.
Project description:Regulatory RNAs play versatile roles in bacteria in the coordination of gene expression during various physiological processes, especially during stress adaptation. Photosynthetic bacteria use sunlight as their major energy source. Therefore, they are particularly vulnerable to the damaging effects of excess light or UV irradiation. In addition, like all bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria must adapt to limiting nutrient concentrations and abiotic and biotic stress factors. Transcriptome analyses have identified hundreds of potential regulatory small RNAs (sRNAs) in model cyanobacteria such as Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 or Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, and in environmentally relevant genera such as Trichodesmium, Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus. Some sRNAs have been shown to actually contain ?ORFs and encode short proteins. Examples include the 40-amino-acid product of the sml0013 gene, which encodes the NdhP subunit of the NDH1 complex. In contrast, the functional characterization of the non-coding sRNA PsrR1 revealed that the 131 nt long sRNA controls photosynthetic functions by targeting multiple mRNAs, providing a paradigm for sRNA functions in photosynthetic bacteria. We suggest that actuatons comprise a new class of genetic elements in which an sRNA gene is inserted upstream of a coding region to modify or enable transcription of that region.
Project description:Cyanobacteria Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942 and Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 show similar changes in the metabolic response to changed CO2 conditions but exhibit significant differences at the transcriptomic level. This study employs a systems biology approach to investigate the difference in metabolic regulation of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942 and Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Presented multi-level kinetic model for Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is a new approach integrating and analysing metabolomic, transcriptomic and fluxomics data obtained under high and ambient CO2 levels. Modelling analysis revealed that higher number of different isozymes in Synechocystis 6803 improves homeostatic stability of several metabolites, especially 3PGA by 275%, against changes in gene expression, compared to Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942. Furthermore, both cyanobacteria have the same amount of phosphoglycerate mutases but Synechocystis 6803 exhibits only ~20% differences in their mRNA levels after shifts from high to ambient CO2 level, in comparison to ~500% differences in the case of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942. These and other data imply that the biochemical control dominates over transcriptional regulation in Synechocystis 6803 to acclimate central carbon metabolism in the environment of variable inorganic carbon availability without extra cost carried by large changes in the proteome.