Use of tissue culture techniques for producing virus-free plant in garlic and their identification through real-time PCR.
ABSTRACT: This study was performed for comparison of meristem culture technique with shoot tip culture technique for obtaining virus-free plant, comparison of micropropagation success of two different nutrient media, and determination of effectiveness of real-time PCR assay for the detection of viruses. Two different garlic species (Allium sativum and Allium tuncelianum) and two different nutrient media were used in this experiment. Results showed that Medium 2 was more successful compared to Medium 1 for both A. tuncelianum and A. sativum (Kastamonu garlic clone). In vitro plants obtained via meristem and shoot tip cultures were tested for determination of onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV) and leek yellow stripe virus (LYSV) through real-time PCR assay. In garlic plants propagated via meristem culture, we could not detect any virus. OYDV and LYSV viruses were detected in plants obtained via shoot tip culture. OYDV virus was observed in amount of 80% and 73% of tested plants for A. tuncelianum and A. sativum, respectively. LYSV virus was found in amount of 67% of tested plants of A. tuncelianum and in amount of 87% of tested plants of A. sativum in this study.
Project description:Accumulation of viruses in vegetatively propagated plants causes heavy yield losses. Therefore, supply of virus-free planting materials is pivotal to sustainable crop production. In previous studies, Raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV) was difficult to eradicate from raspberry (Rubus idaeus) using the conventional means of meristem tip culture. As shown in the present study, it was probably because this pollen-transmitted virus efficiently invades leaf primordia and all meristematic tissues except the least differentiated cells of the apical dome. Subjecting plants to thermotherapy prior to meristem tip culture heavily reduced viral RNA2, RNA3 and the coat protein in the shoot tips, but no virus-free plants were obtained. Therefore, a novel method including thermotherapy followed by cryotherapy was developed for efficient virus eradication. Heat treatment caused subcellular alterations such as enlargement of vacuoles in the more developed, virus-infected cells, which were largely eliminated following subsequent cryotherapy. Using this protocol, 20-36% of the treated shoot tips survived, 30-40% regenerated and up to 35% of the regenerated plants were virus-free, as tested by ELISA and reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification. Novel cellular and molecular insights into RBDV-host interactions and the factors influencing virus eradication were obtained, including invasion of shoot tips and meristematic tissues by RBDV, enhanced viral RNA degradation and increased sensitivity to freezing caused by thermotherapy, and subcellular changes and subsequent death of cells caused by cryotherapy. This novel procedure should be helpful with many virus-host combinations in which virus eradication by conventional means has proven difficult.
Project description:In some plant-virus interactions plants show a sign of healing from virus infection, a phenomenon called symptom recovery. It is assumed that the meristem exclusion of the virus is essential to this process. The discovery of RNA silencing provided a possible mechanism to explain meristem exclusion and recovery. Here we show evidence that silencing is not the reason for meristem exclusion in Nicotiana benthamiana plants infected with Cymbidium ringspot virus (CymRSV). Transcriptome analysis followed by in situ hybridization shed light on the changes in gene expression in the shoot apical meristem (SAM) on virus infection. We observed the down-regulation of meristem-specific genes, including WUSCHEL (WUS). However, WUS was not down-regulated in the SAM of plants infected with meristem-invading viruses such as turnip vein-clearing virus (TVCV) and cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). Moreover, there is no connection between loss of meristem function and fast shoot necrosis since TVCV necrotized the shoot while CMV did not. Our findings suggest that the observed transcriptional changes on virus infection in the shoot are key factors in tip necrosis and symptom recovery. We observed a lack of GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE (GAPDH) expression in tissues around the meristem, which likely stops virus replication and spread into the meristem.
Project description:The present study was conducted to compare the antibacterial activity of oven-dried and freeze-dried Allium sativum along with its spray-dried microencapsulated essential oil in the preservation of minced beef meat. Allium sativum extracts were tested against mesophilic aerobic microorganisms, coagulase-positive staphylococci, Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., and the sulfite-reducing anaerobes. A difference between the chemical compositions of powders obtained by the conventional oven-drying and freeze-drying has been verified by HPLC-MS2, freeze-dried fresh garlic powder contains 74% of allicin, and 12% cysteine sulfoxides comparing to the oven-drying garlic powder in which is detected two thiosulfinate isomers: allicin (67%) and allyl-1-propenyl thiosulfinate (21%). CIELAB color analysis was performed to assess the effect of drying temperature on powders. The microflora-inhibiting effect of freeze-dried fresh garlic and the spray-dried microencapsulated essential oil at a concentration of 20% represents a promising way to be used in food systems such as meat and meat products preservation, at 4-8°C.
Project description:Using a live-cell-imaging approach and autofluorescence-spectral imaging, we showed quantitative/qualitative fluctuations of chemical compounds within the meiocyte callose wall, providing insight into the molecular basis of male sterility in plants from the genus Allium. Allium sativum (garlic) is one of the plant species exhibiting male sterility, and the molecular background of this phenomenon has never been thoroughly described. This study presents comparative analyses of meiotically dividing cells, which revealed inhibition at the different microsporogenesis stages in male-sterile A. sativum plants (cultivars Harnas and Arkus) and sterile A. ampeloprasum var. ampeloprasum (GHG-L), which is phylogenetically related to garlic. Fertile species A. ampeloprasum (leek) was used as the control material, because leek is closely related to both garlic and GHG-L. To shed more light on the molecular basis of these disturbances, autofluorescence-spectral imaging of live cells was used for the assessment of the biophysical/biochemical differences in the callose wall, pollen grain sporoderm, and the tapetum in the sterile species, in comparison with the fertile leek. The use of techniques for live-cell imaging (autofluorescence-spectral imaging) allowed the observation of quantitative/qualitative fluctuations of autofluorescent chemical compounds within the meiocyte callose wall. The biophysical characterisation of the metabolic disturbances in the callose wall provides insight into the molecular basis of male sterility in A. sativum. In addition, using this method, it was possible for the first time, to determine precisely (on the basis of fluctuations of autofluorescence compounds) the meiosis stage in which normal microsporogenesis is disturbed, which was not visible using light microscopy.
Project description:Streptomyces sp. strain Wigar10 was isolated from a surface-sterilized garlic bulb (Allium sativum var. Purple Stripe). Its genome encodes several novel secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters and provides a genetic basis for further investigation of this strain's chemical biology and potential for interaction with its garlic host.
Project description:Quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) has been frequently used for detecting gene expression. To obtain reliable results, selection of suitable reference genes is a fundamental and necessary step. Garlic (Allium sativum), a member from Alliaceae family, has been used both as a food flavoring and as a traditional medicine. In the present study, garlic plants were exposed to salt stress (200 mM NaCl) for 0, 1, 4 and 12 h, and garlic roots, bulbs, and leaves were harvested for subsequent analysis. The expression stability of eight candidate reference genes, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4? (eIF-4?), actin (ACTIN), tubulin ?-7 (TUB7), TAP42-interacting protein of 41 kDa (TIP41), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), SAND family protein (SAND), elongation factor 1 alpha (EF-1?), and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) were evaluated by geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper. All genes tested displayed variable expression profiles under salt stress. In the leaf and root group, ACTIN was the best reference gene for normalizing gene expression. In garlic clove, ACTIN and SAND were the least variable, and were suitable for gene expression studies under salt stress; these two genes also performed well in all samples tested. Based on our results, we recommend that it is essential to use specific reference genes in different situations to obtain accurate results. Using a combination of multiple stable reference genes, such as ACTIN and SAND, to normalize gene expression is encouraged. The results from the study will be beneficial for accurate determination of gene expression in garlic and other plants.
Project description:Medicinal plants have been used from ancient times for human healthcare as in the form of traditional medicines, spices, and other food components. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is an aromatic herbaceous plant that is consumed worldwide as food and traditional remedy for various diseases. It has been reported to possess several biological properties including anticarcinogenic, antioxidant, antidiabetic, renoprotective, anti-atherosclerotic, antibacterial, antifungal, and antihypertensive activities in traditional medicines. A. sativum is rich in several sulfur-containing phytoconstituents such as alliin, allicin, ajoenes, vinyldithiins, and flavonoids such as quercetin. Extracts and isolated compounds of A. sativum have been evaluated for various biological activities including antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities among others. This review examines the phytochemical composition, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacological activities of A. sativum extracts as well as its main active constituent, allicin.
Project description:The genetic improvement of garlic plants (Allium sativum L.) with agronomical beneficial traits is rarely achieved due to the lack of an applicable transformation system. Here, we developed an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation procedure with Danyang, an elite Korean garlic cultivar. Examination of sGFP (synthetic green fluorescence protein) expression revealed that treatment with 2-(N-morpholino) ethanesulfonic acid (MES), L-cysteine and/or dithiothreitol (DTT) gives the highest efficiency in transient gene transfer during Agrobacterium co-cultivation with calli derived from the roots of in vitro plantlets. To increase stable transformation efficiency, a two-step selection was employed on the basis of hygromycin resistance and sGFP expression. Of the hygromycin-resistant calli initially produced, only sGFP-expressing calli were subcultured for selection of transgenic calli. Transgenic plantlets produced from these calli were grown to maturity. The transformation efficiency increased up to 10.6% via our optimized procedure. DNA and RNA gel-blot analysis indicated that transgenic garlic plants stably integrated and expressed the phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) gene. A herbicide spraying assay demonstrated that transgenic plants of garlic conferred herbicide resistance, whilst nontransgenic plants and weeds died. These results indicate that our transformation system can be efficiently utilized to produce transgenic garlic plants with agronomic benefits.
Project description:Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd) can infect Argyranthemum and cause serious economic loss. Low temperature treatment combined with meristem culture has been applied to eradicate viroids from their hosts, but without success in eliminating CSVd from diseased Argyranthemum. The objectives of this work were to investigate (1) the effect of low temperature treatment combined with meristem culture on elimination of CSVd, (2) the effect of low temperature treatment on CSVd distribution pattern in shoot apical meristem (SAM), and (3) CSVd distribution in flowers and stems of two infected Argyranthemum cultivars. After treatment with low temperature combined with meristem tip culture, two CSVd-free plants were found in 'Border Dark Red', but none in 'Yellow Empire'. With the help of in situ hybridization, we found that CSVd distribution patterns in the SAM showed no changes in diseased 'Yellow Empire' following 5°C treatment, compared with non-treated plants. However, the CSVd-free area in SAM was enlarged in diseased 'Border Dark Red' following prolonged 5°C treatment. Localization of CSVd in the flowers and stems of infected 'Border Dark Red' and 'Yellow Empire' indicated that seeds could not transmit CSVd in these two cultivars, and CSVd existed in phloem. Results obtained in the study contributed to better understanding of the distribution of CSVd in systemically infected plants and the combination of low temperature treatment and meristem tip culture for production of viroid-free plants.
Project description:The shoot apical meristem produces all of the leaves, stems and flowers of a flowering plant from a reservoir of stem cells at its growing tip. In Arabidopsis, the small polypeptide signaling molecule CLAVATA3 (CLV3), a member of the CLV3/EMBRYO SURROUNDING REGION-RELATED (CLE) gene family, is a key component of a negative feedback loop that maintains stem cell activity in shoot and floral meristems throughout development. Because in some plant species multiple CLE genes are involved in regulating shoot apical meristem activity, we tested the hypothesis that CLE genes other than CLV3 might function in stem cell homeostasis in Arabidopsis. We identified three Arabidopsis CLE genes expressed in the post-embryonic shoot apical meristem, generated loss-of-function alleles using genome editing, and analyzed the meristem phenotypes of the resulting mutant plants. We found that null mutations in CLE16, CLE17 or CLE27 affected neither vegetative nor reproductive shoot meristem activity under normal growth conditions, although CLE27 appears to slightly prolong vegetative growth. Our results indicate that the CLE16, CLE17 and CLE27 genes have largely redundant roles in the Arabidopsis shoot apical meristem and/or regulate meristem activity only under specific environmental conditions.