Structural biology of the writers, readers, and erasers in mono- and poly(ADP-ribose) mediated signaling.
ABSTRACT: ADP-ribosylation of proteins regulates protein activities in various processes including transcription control, chromatin organization, organelle assembly, protein degradation, and DNA repair. Modulating the proteins involved in the metabolism of ADP-ribosylation can have therapeutic benefits in various disease states. Protein crystal structures can help understand the biological functions, facilitate detailed analysis of single residues, as well as provide a basis for development of small molecule effectors. Here we review recent advances in our understanding of the structural biology of the writers, readers, and erasers of ADP-ribosylation.
Project description:DNA and histone lysine methylation are dynamic chemical modifications that play a crucial role in the establishment of gene expression patterns during development. Both types of genomic methylation patterns are enzymatically regulated by the opposing activities of enzymes that introduce and remove these marks, known as methylation 'writers' and 'erasers', respectively. The appropriate localization and activity of these enzymes on chromatin is, in part, regulated by chromatin 'readers', protein modules that recognize histone and DNA modifications. Such reading modules are either encoded within the same polypeptide as the catalytic domains of writers and erasers, or present in protein partners that associate with them. Here, we review recent structural, biochemical and biological studies that demonstrate that there are multiple mechanisms by which reader domains can regulate the writers and erasers of histone and DNA methylation.
Project description:ADP-ribosylation is a key post-translational modification that regulates a wide variety of cellular stress responses. The ADP-ribosylation cycle is maintained by writers and erasers. For example, poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation cycles consist of two predominant enzymes, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) and poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG). However, historically, mechanisms of erasers of ADP-ribosylations have been understudied, primarily due to the lack of quantitative tools to selectively monitor specific activities of different ADP-ribosylation reversal enzymes. Here, we developed a new NUDT5-coupled AMP-Glo (NCAG) assay to specifically monitor the protein-free ADP-ribose released by ADP-ribosylation reversal enzymes. We found that NUDT5 selectively cleaves protein-free ADP-ribose, but not protein-bound poly- and mono-ADP-ribosylations, protein-free poly(ADP-ribose) chains, or NAD+. As a proof-of-concept, we successfully measured the kinetic parameters for the exo-glycohydrolase activity of PARG, which releases monomeric ADP-ribose, and monitored activities of site-specific mono-ADP-ribosyl-acceptor hydrolases, such as ARH3 and TARG1. This NCAG assay can be used as a general platform to study the mechanisms of diverse ADP-ribosylation reversal enzymes that release protein-free ADP-ribose as a product. Furthermore, this assay provides a useful tool to identify small-molecule probes targeting ADP-ribosylation metabolism and to quantify ADP-ribose concentrations in cells.
Project description:ADP-ribosylation is a posttranslational modification that exists in monomeric and polymeric forms. Whereas the writers (e.g. ARTD1/PARP1) and erasers (e.g. PARG, ARH3) of poly-ADP-ribosylation (PARylation) are relatively well described, the enzymes involved in mono-ADP-ribosylation (MARylation) have been less well investigated. While erasers for the MARylation of glutamate/aspartate and arginine have been identified, the respective enzymes with specificity for serine were missing. Here we report that, in vitro, ARH3 specifically binds and demodifies proteins and peptides that are MARylated. Molecular modeling and site-directed mutagenesis of ARH3 revealed that numerous residues are critical for both the mono- and the poly-ADP-ribosylhydrolase activity of ARH3. Notably, a mass spectrometric approach showed that ARH3-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts are characterized by a specific increase in serine-ADP-ribosylation in vivo under untreated conditions as well as following hydrogen peroxide stress. Together, our results establish ARH3 as a serine mono-ADP-ribosylhydrolase and as an important regulator of the basal and stress-induced ADP-ribosylome.
Project description:There is growing scientific evidence for the crucial role of post-transcriptional RNA modifications in carcinogenesis, progression, metastasis, and drug resistance across various cancer entities. N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most abundant type of RNA modification. m6A is coordinated by a dynamic interplay of 'writers' (METTL3, METTL4, METTL14, WTAP, KIAA1429), 'erasers' (FTO, ALKBH5), and 'readers' (HNRNPA2B1, HNRNPC, YTHDC1, YTHDC1, YTHDF1-3). In this study, we comprehensively examined protein and mRNA expression levels of m6A writers, readers, and erasers in two cervical cancer (CC) cohorts (UHB CC cohort, <i>N</i> = 118; TCGA CC cohort, <i>N</i> = 307) with regard to clinical outcomes. In the UHB CC cohort, high protein expression levels of METTL14 (<i>p</i> = 0.016), WTAP (<i>p</i> = 0.007), KIAA1439 (<i>p</i> < 0.001), ALKBH5 (<i>p</i> < 0.001), HNRNPC (<i>p</i> = 0.012), YTHDC1 (<i>p</i> < 0.001), and YTHDF3 (<i>p</i> = 0.004) were significantly associated with a shorter overall survival (OS). In the TCGA CC cohort, mRNA expression levels of <i>METTL14</i> (<i>p</i> = 0.012), <i>WTAP</i> (<i>p</i> = 0.041), <i>KIAA1429</i> (<i>p</i> = 0.016), and <i>YTHDC1</i> (<i>p</i> = 0.026) showed prognostic values. However, after correction for multiple testing, statistical significance remained only for m6A protein expression levels (<i>q</i> < 0.1). Our study points towards dysregulated m6A modification in CC. Hence, m6A might serve as a promising prognostic biomarker and therapeutical target in CC.
Project description:Post-translational modifications can affect gene expression in a long-term manner without changes in the primary nucleotide sequence of the DNA. These epigenetic alterations involve dynamic processes that occur in histones, chromatin-associated proteins and DNA. In response to environmental stimuli, abnormal epigenetic alterations cause disorders in the cell cycle, apoptosis and other cellular processes and thus contribute to the incidence of diverse diseases, including cancers. In this review, we will summarize recent studies focusing on certain epigenetic readers, writers, and erasers associated with cancer development and how newly discovered natural compounds and their derivatives could interact with these targets. These advances provide insights into epigenetic alterations in cancers and the potential utility of these alterations as therapeutic targets for the future development of chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic drugs.
Project description:The importance of RNA methylation in biological processes is an emerging focus of investigation. We report that altering m6A levels by silencing either N 6-adenosine methyltransferase METTL14 (methyltransferase-like 14) or demethylase ALKBH5 (ALKB homolog 5) inhibits cancer growth and invasion. METTL14/ALKBH5 mediate their protumorigenic function by regulating m6A levels of key epithelial-mesenchymal transition and angiogenesis-associated transcripts, including transforming growth factor-? signaling pathway genes. Using MeRIP-seq (methylated RNA immunoprecipitation sequencing) analysis and functional studies, we find that these target genes are particularly sensitive to changes in m6A modifications, as altered m6A status leads to aberrant expression of these genes, resulting in inappropriate cell cycle progression and evasion of apoptosis. Our results reveal that METTL14 and ALKBH5 determine the m6A status of target genes by controlling each other's expression and by inhibiting m6A reader YTHDF3 (YTH N 6-methyladenosine RNA binding protein 3), which blocks RNA demethylase activity. Furthermore, we show that ALKBH5/METTL14 constitute a positive feedback loop with RNA stability factor HuR to regulate the stability of target transcripts. We discover that hypoxia alters the level/activity of writers, erasers, and readers, leading to decreased m6A and consequently increased expression of target transcripts in cancer cells. This study unveils a previously undefined role for m6A in cancer and shows that the collaboration among writers-erasers-readers sets up the m6A threshold to ensure the stability of progrowth/proliferation-specific genes, and protumorigenic stimulus, such as hypoxia, perturbs that m6A threshold, leading to uncontrolled expression/activity of those genes, resulting in tumor growth, angiogenesis, and progression.
Project description:Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a key glycolytic enzyme, which is crucial for the breakdown of glucose to provide cellular energy. Over the past decade, GAPDH has been reported to be one of the most prominent cellular targets of post-translational modifications (PTMs), which divert GAPDH toward different non-glycolytic functions. Hence, it is termed a moonlighting protein. During metabolic and oxidative stress, GAPDH is a target of different oxidative PTMs (oxPTM), e.g., sulfenylation, <i>S</i>-thiolation, nitrosylation, and sulfhydration. These modifications alter the enzyme's conformation, subcellular localization, and regulatory interactions with downstream partners, which impact its glycolytic and non-glycolytic functions. In this review, we discuss the redox regulation of GAPDH by different redox writers, which introduce the oxPTM code on GAPDH to instruct a redox response; the GAPDH readers, which decipher the oxPTM code through regulatory interactions and coordinate cellular response via the formation of multi-enzyme signaling complexes; and the redox erasers, which are the reducing systems that regenerate the GAPDH catalytic activity. Human pathologies associated with the oxidation-induced dysregulation of GAPDH are also discussed, featuring the importance of the redox regulation of GAPDH in neurodegeneration and metabolic disorders.
Project description:Currently, although many successful bioinformatics efforts have been reported in the epitranscriptomics field for N 6-methyladenosine (m6A) site identification, none is focused on the substrate specificity of different m6A-related enzymes, ie, the methyltransferases (writers) and demethylases (erasers). In this work, to untangle the target specificity and the regulatory functions of different RNA m6A writers (METTL3-METT14 and METTL16) and erasers (ALKBH5 and FTO), we extracted 49 genomic features along with the conventional sequence features and used the machine learning approach of random forest to predict their epitranscriptome substrates. Our method achieved reasonable performance on both the writer target prediction (as high as 0.918) and the eraser target prediction (as high as 0.888) in a 5-fold cross-validation, and results of the gene ontology analysis of their preferential targets further revealed the functional relevance of different RNA methylation writers and erasers.
Project description:Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a new world alphavirus which can be involved in several central nervous system disorders such as encephalitis and meningitis. The VEEV genome codes for 4 non-structural proteins (nsP), of which nsP3 contains a Macro domain. Macro domains (MD) can be found as stand-alone proteins or embedded within larger proteins in viruses, bacteria and eukaryotes. Their most common feature is the binding of ADP-ribose (ADPr), while several macro domains act as ribosylation writers, erasers or readers. Alphavirus MD erase ribosylation but their precise contribution in viral replication is still under investigation. NMR-driven titration experiments of ADPr in solution with the VEEV macro domain (in apo- and complex state) show that it adopts a suitable conformation for ADPr binding. Specific experiments indicate that the flexibility of the loops ?5-?3 and ?3-?6 is critical for formation of the complex and assists a wrapping mechanism for ADPr binding. Furthermore, along with this sequence of events, the VEEV MD undergoes a conformational exchange process between the apo state and a low-populated "dark" conformational state.
Project description:ADP-ribosylation is a posttranslational modification that exists in monomeric and polymeric forms. Whereas the writers (e.g. ARTD1/PARP1) and erasers (e.g. PARG, ARH3) of poly-ADP-ribosylation (PARylation) are relatively well described, the enzymes involved in mono-ADP-ribosylation (MARylation) have been less well investigated. While erasers for the MARylation of glutamate/aspartate and arginine have been identified, the respective enzymes with specificity for serine are still missing. Here, we report that in vitro, ARH3 specifically binds and demodifies proteins and peptides that are MARylated. Molecular modeling and site-directed mutagenesis of ARH3 revealed that numerous residues are critical for both the mono- and the poly-ADP-ribosylhydrolase activity of ARH3. Notably, a mass spectrometry approach showed that ARH3-deficient MEFs are characterized by a specific increase in serine-ADP-ribosylation in vivo under untreated conditions as well as following hydrogen-peroxide stress. Together, our results establish ARH3 as a serine mono-ADP-ribosylhydrolase and as an important regulator of the basal and stress induced ADP-ribosylome.