The new species Enterobacter oryziphilus sp. nov. and Enterobacter oryzendophyticus sp. nov. are key inhabitants of the endosphere of rice.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Six independent Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, non-spore-forming, nitrogen-fixing rod-shaped isolates were obtained from the root endosphere of rice grown at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) and investigated in a polyphasic taxonomic study. RESULTS: The strains produced fatty acid patterns typical for members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Comparative sequence analyses of the 16S rRNA as well as rpoB genes allocated the strains to two well-defined groups within the genus Enterobacter, family Enterobacteriaceae. The analyses indicated Enterobacter radicincitans, Enterobacter arachidis and Enterobacter oryzae to be the closest related species. An RpoB (translated) protein comparison supported the placement in the genus Enterobacter and the relatedness of our isolates to the aforementioned species. Genomic DNA:DNA hybridization analyses and biochemical analyses provided further evidence that the novel strains belong to two new species within the genus Enterobacter. The two species can be differentiated from each other and from existing enteric species by acid production from L-rhamnose and D-melibiose, decarboxylation of ornithine and utilization of D-alanine, D-raffinose L-proline and L-aspartic acid, among other characteristics. Members of both species revealed capacities to colonise rice roots, including plant-growth-promoting capabilities such as an active supply of fixed nitrogen to the plant and solubilisation of inorganic phosphorus, next to traits allowing adaptation to the plant. CONCLUSIONS: Two novel proposed enterobacterial species, denominated Enterobacter oryziphilus sp. nov. (type strain REICA_142(T)=LMG 26429(T)=NCCB 100393(T)) and Enterobacter oryzendophyticus sp. nov. (type strain REICA_082(T)=LMG 26432(T) =NCCB 100390(T)) were isolated from rice roots. Both species are capable of promoting rice growth by supplying nitrogen and phosphorus.
Project description:A novel oligotrophic bacterium, designated strain CCA6, was isolated from leaf soil collected in Japan. Cells of the strain were found to be a Gram-negative, non-sporulating, motile, rod-shaped bacterium. Strain CCA6 grew at 10-45°C (optimum 20°C) and pH 4.5-10.0 (optimum pH 5.0). The strain was capable of growth in poor-nutrient (oligotrophic) medium, and growth was unaffected by high-nutrient medium. The major fatty acid and predominant quinone system were C16:0 and ubiquinone-8. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated strain CCA6 presented as a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) based on fragments of the atpD, gyrB, infB, and rpoB gene sequences was performed to further identify strain CCA6. The MLSA showed clear branching of strain CCA6 with respect to Enterobacter type strains. The complete genome of strain CCA6 consisted of 4,476,585 bp with a G+C content of 54.3% and comprising 4,372 predicted coding sequences. The genome average nucleotide identity values between strain CCA6 and the closest related Enterobacter type strain were <88.02%. Based on its phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic features, strain CCA6 (=HUT 8142T =KCTC 62525T ) can be considered as a novel species within the genus Enterobacter with the proposed name Enterobacter oligotrophica.
Project description:The genus Enterobacter comprises common pathogens and has a complicated taxonomy. Precise taxonomic assignation lays a foundation for microbiology. In this study, we updated the Enterobacter taxonomy based on robust genome analyses. We found that all Enterobacter subspecies assignments were incorrect. Enterobacter cloacae subsp. dissolvens and Enterobacter hormaechei subsp. hoffmannii are species (Enterobacter dissolvens and Enterobacter hoffmannii, respectively) rather than subspecies. Enterobacter xiangfangensis, Enterobacter hormaechei subsp. oharae, and Enterobacter hormaechei subsp. steigerwaltii are not Enterobacter hormaechei subspecies but belong to the same species (Enterobacter xiangfangensis). Enterobacter timonensis should be removed to Pseudenterobacter, a novel genus. We then reported two novel species, Enterobacter quasiroggenkampii and Enterobacter quasimori, by genome- and phenotype-based characterization. We also applied the updated taxonomy to curate 1,997 Enterobacter genomes in GenBank. Species identification was changed following our updated taxonomy for the majority of publicly available strains (1,542, 77.2%). The most common Enterobacter species was E. xiangfangensis We identified 14 novel tentative Enterobacter genomospecies. This study highlights that updated and curated taxonomic assignments are the premise of correct identification.IMPORTANCE Enterobacter species are major human pathogens. Precise species identification lays a foundation for microbiology, but the taxonomy of Enterobacter is complicated and confusing. In this study, first, we significantly updated the taxonomy of Enterobacter by rigorous genome analyses and found that all subspecies assignments of Enterobacter were incorrect. Second, we characterized and reported two novel Enterobacter species with clinical significance. Third, we curated 1,997 Enterobacter genome sequences deposited in GenBank and found that the species identification of most Enterobacter strains needed to be corrected. Fourth, we found that the most common Enterobacter species seen in clinical samples is Enterobacter xiangfangensis rather than Enterobacter cloacae Fifth, we identified 14 tentative novel Enterobacter and 18 tentative novel non-Enterobacter species. This study highlights that updated and curated taxonomic assignments are the premise of correct species identification. We recommend that future Enterobacter studies need to use the updated taxonomy to avoid misleading information.
Project description:The genetic heterogeneity of the nomenspecies Enterobacter cloacae is well known. Enterobacter asburiae, Enterobacter cancerogenus, Enterobacter dissolvens, Enterobacter hormaechei, Enterobacter kobei, and Enterobacter nimipressuralis are closely related to it and are subsumed in the so-called E. cloacae complex. DNA-DNA hybridization studies performed previously identified at least five DNA-relatedness groups of this complex. In order to analyze the genetic structure and the phylogenetic relationships between the clusters of the nomenspecies E. cloacae, 206 strains collected from 22 hospitals, a veterinarian, and an agricultural center in 11 countries plus all 13 type strains of the genus and reference strain CDC 1347-71(R) were examined with a combination of sequence and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analyses of the three housekeeping genes hsp60, rpoB, and hemB as well as ampC, the gene of a class C beta-lactamase. Based on the neighbor-joining tree of the hsp60 sequences, 12 genetic clusters (I to XII) and an unstable sequence crowd (xiii) were identified. The robustness of the genetic clusters was confirmed by analyses of rpoB and hemB sequences and ampC PCR-RFLPs. Sequence crowd xiii split into two groups after rpoB analysis. Only three strains formed a cluster with the type strain of E. cloacae, indicating that the minority of isolates identified as E. cloacae truly belong to the species; 13% of strains grouped with other type strains of the genus, suggesting that the phenotypes of these species seem to be more heterogeneous than so far believed. Three clusters represented 70% of strains, but none of them included a type or reference strain. The genetic clustering presented in this study might serve as a framework for future studies dealing with taxonomic, evolutionary, epidemiological, or pathogenetic characteristics of bacteria belonging to the E. cloacae complex.
Project description:Background: The predominant species in clinical Enterobacter isolates is E. hormaechei. Many articles, clinicians, and GenBank submissions misname these strains as E. cloacae. The lack of sequenced type strains or named species/subspecies for some clades in the E. cloacae complex complicate the issue. Methods: The genomes of the type strains for Enterobacter hormaechei subsp. oharae, E. hormaechei subsp. steigerwaltii, and E. xiangfangensis, and two strains from Hoffmann clusters III and IV of the E. cloacae complex were sequenced. These genomes, the E. hormaechei subsp. hormaechei type strain, and other available Enterobacter type strains were analysed in conjunction with all extant Enterobacter genomes in NCBI's RefSeq using Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI). Results: There were five recognizable subspecies of E. hormaechei: E. hormaechei subsp. hoffmannii subsp. nov., E. hormaechei subsp. xiangfangensis comb. nov., and the three previously known subspecies. One of the strains sequenced from the E. cloacae complex was not a novel E. hormaechei subspecies but rather a member of a clade of a novel species: E. roggenkampii sp. nov.. E. muelleri was determined to be a later heterotypic synonym of E. asburiae which should take precedence. Conclusion: The phylogeny of the Enterobacter genus, particularly the cloacae complex, was re-evaluated based on the type strain genome sequences and all other available Enterobacter genomes in RefSeq.
Project description:A highly chitinolytic facultative anaerobic, chemoheterotrophic, endospore-forming, Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped bacterial strain N10T was isolated from the feces of a river otter in the Castril Natural Park (Granada, Spain). It is a slightly halophilic, motile, catalase-, oxidase-, ACC deaminase- and C4 and C8 lipase-positive strain. It is aerobic, respiratory and has a fermentative metabolism using oxygen as an electron acceptor, produces acids from glucose and can fix nitrogen. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence, multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of 16S rRNA, gyrB, recA and rpoB, as well as phylogenomic analyses indicate that strain N10T is a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, with the highest 16S rRNA sequence similarity (95.4%) to P. chitinolyticus LMG 18047T and <95% similarity to other species of the genus Paenibacillus. Digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) and average nucleotide identity (ANIb) were 21.1% and <75%, respectively. Its major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0, C16:0, and iso-C15:0. G + C content ranged between 45%-50%. Using 16S rRNA phylogenetic and in silico phylogenomic analyses, together with chemotaxonomic and phenotypic data, we demonstrate that type strain N10T (= CECT 9541T =LMG 30535T) is a novel species of genus Paenibacillus and the name Paenibacillus lutrae sp. nov. is proposed.
Project description:Sixteen strains of symbiotic bacteria from root nodules of Glycine max grown in Ottawa, Canada, were previously characterized and placed in a novel group within the genus Bradyrhizobium. To verify their taxonomic status, these strains were further characterized using a polyphasic approach. All strains possessed identical 16S rRNA gene sequences that were 99.79 % similar to the closest relative, Bradyrhizobium liaoningense LMG 18230(T). Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated atpD, glnII, recA, gyrB, rpoB and dnaK genes divided the 16 strains into three multilocus sequence types that were placed in a highly supported lineage distinct from named species of the genus Bradyrhizobium consistent with results of DNA-DNA hybridization. Based on analysis of symbiosis gene sequences (nodC and nifH), all novel strains were placed in a phylogenetic group with five species of the genus Bradyrhizobium that nodulate soybeans. The combination of phenotypic characteristics from several tests including carbon and nitrogen source utilization and antibiotic resistance could be used to differentiate representative strains from recognized species of the genus Bradyrhizobium. Novel strain OO99(T) elicits effective nodules on Glycine max, Glycine soja and Macroptilium atropurpureum, partially effective nodules on Desmodium canadense and Vigna unguiculata, and ineffective nodules on Amphicarpaea bracteata and Phaseolus vulgaris. Based on the data presented, we conclude that our strains represent a novel species for which the name Bradyrhizobium ottawaense sp. nov. is proposed, with OO99(T) ( = LMG 26739(T) = HAMBI 3284(T)) as the type strain. The DNA G+C content is 62.6 mol%.
Project description:Enterobacter sp. DMKU-RP206 was isolated from rice leaves in Thailand and identified by the 16S rRNA gene and multilocus sequence (gyrB, rpoB, atpD, and infB genes) analysis. The bacterium was assessed on plant growth-promoting traits including indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production. Phosphate solubilization, ammonia production, and antagonism to fungal plant pathogens, as well as siderophore production, were shown by this bacterium. However, only IAA production was focused on. The production of IAA by Enterobacter sp. DMKU-RP206 was optimized by statistical methods. A Box-Behnken design was used for the investigation of interactions among the basic influencing factors and for the optimization of IAA production. The results showed that l-tryptophan had a significant importance in terms of IAA production. Enterobacter sp. DMKU-RP206 produced a higher amount of IAA than previously reported for the genus Enterobacter. 0.85% of lactose as a carbon source, 1.3% of yeast extract as a nitrogen source, 1.1% of l-tryptophan as a precursor, 0.4% of NaCl, an initial pH of 5.8, an incubation temperature at 30 °C, and a shaking speed of 200 rpm were found to be the optimum conditions for IAA production. In addition, IAA production was performed to scale up IAA production, and the highest amount, 5561.7 mg l-1, was obtained. This study reported a 13.4-fold improvement in IAA production by Enterobacter sp. DMKU-RP206.
Project description:Enterobacter mori is a plant-pathogenic enterobacterium responsible for the bacterial wilt of Morus alba L. Here we present the draft genome sequence of the type strain, LMG 25706. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first genome sequence of a plant-pathogenic bacterium in the genus Enterobacter.
Project description:Bacteria associated with corn roots inoculated with soils collected from the Canadian woodlands were isolated and characterized. Genus-level identification based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis classified the 161 isolates in 19 genera. The majority (64%) of the isolates were affiliated with the genus Pseudomonas. Further analysis of the Pseudomonas isolates based on BLASTn and rpoD-rpoB-gyrB concatenated gene phylogeny revealed three unique clusters that could not be assigned to known species. This study reports the taxonomic description of one of the distinct lineages represented by two strains (S1E40T and S1E44) with P. lurida LMG 21995T, P. costantinii LMG 22119T, P. palleroniana LMG 23076T, P. simiae CCUG 50988T and P. extremorientalis LMG 19695T as the closest taxa. Both strains showed low ANIm (<90%) and genome-based DNA-DNA hybridization (<50%) values, which unequivocally delineated the new strains from the closest relatives. These findings were supported by multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) and DNA fingerprinting. In addition, growth characteristics and biochemical tests revealed patterns that differed from the related species. Strains S1E40T and S1E44 are Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped and motile by at least one flagellum; and grew optimally at 30 °C. The predominant polar lipid is phosphatidylethanolamine while the major respiratory quinone is ubiquinone-9. Based on phenotypic and genotypic data presented here, strains S1E40T and S1E44 represent a novel species for which the name Pseudomonas aylmerense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is S1E40T (= LMG 30784T = DOAB 703T = HAMI 3696T) with a G + C content of 61.6%.
Project description:Enterobacter sp. strain Bisph2 was isolated from a sandy soil from Biskra, Algeria and exhibits glyphosate-degrading activity. Multilocus sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA, rpoB, hsp60, gyrB and dnaJ genes demonstrated that Bisph2 might be a member of a new species of the genus Enterobacter. Genomic sequencing of Bisph2 was used to better clarify the relationships among Enterobacter species. Annotation and analysis of the genome sequence showed that the 5.535.656 bp genome of Enterobacter sp. Bisph2 consists in one chromosome and no detectable plasmid, has a 53.19% GC content and 78% of genes were assigned a putative function. The genome contains four prophages of which 3 regions are intact and no CRISPER was detected. The nucleotide sequence of this genome was deposited into DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession JXAF00000000.