Ly9 (CD229) Cell-Surface Receptor is Crucial for the Development of Spontaneous Autoantibody Production to Nuclear Antigens.
ABSTRACT: The Signaling Lymphocyte Activation Molecule Family (SLAMF) genes, which encode cell-surface receptors that modulate innate and adaptive immune responses, lay within a genomic region of human and mouse chromosome 1 that confers a predisposition for the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Herein, we demonstrate that the SLAMF member Ly9 arises as a novel receptor contributing to the reinforcement of tolerance. Specifically, Ly9-deficient mice spontaneously developed features of systemic autoimmunity such as the production of anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA), -dsDNA, and -nucleosome autoantibodies, independently of genetic background [(B6.129) or (BALB/c.129)]. In aged (10- to 12-month-old) Ly9 (-/-) mice key cell subsets implicated in autoimmunity were expanded, e.g., T follicular helper (Tfh) as well as germinal center (GC) B cells. More importantly, in vitro functional experiments showed that Ly9 acts as an inhibitory receptor of IFN-? producing CD4(+) T cells. Taken together, our findings reveal that the Ly9 receptor triggers cell intrinsic safeguarding mechanisms to prevent a breach of tolerance, emerging as a new non-redundant inhibitory cell-surface receptor capable of disabling autoantibody responses.
Project description:Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells develop into three subsets (NKT1, NKT2, and NKT17) expressing a distinct transcription factor profile, which regulates cytokine secretion upon activation. iNKT cell development in the thymus is modulated by signaling lymphocytic activation molecule family (SLAMF) receptors. In contrast to other SLAMF members, Ly9 (SLAMF3) is a non-redundant negative regulator of iNKT cell development. Here, we show that Ly9 influences iNKT cell lineage differentiation. Ly9-deficient mice on a BALB/c background contained a significantly expanded population of thymic NKT2 cells, while NKT1 cells were nearly absent in BALB/c.Ly9-/- thymus. Conversely, the number of peripheral NKT1 cells in BALB/c.Ly9-/- mice was comparable to that in wild-type mice, indicating that the homeostasis of the different iNKT cell subsets may have distinct requirements depending on their tissue localization. Importantly, Ly9 absence also promoted NKT2 cell differentiation in the NKT1-skewed C57BL/6 background. Furthermore, treatment of wild-type mice with an agonistic monoclonal antibody directed against Ly9 impaired IL-4 and IFN-? production and reduced by half the number of spleen iNKT cells, with a significant decrease in the proportion of NKT2 cells. Thus, anti-Ly9 targeting could represent a novel therapeutic approach to modulate iNKT cell numbers and activation.
Project description:Marginal zone (MZ) and B1 B cells have the capacity to respond to foreign Ags more rapidly than conventional B cells, providing early immune responses to blood-borne pathogens. Ly9 (CD229, SLAMF3), a member of the signaling lymphocytic activation molecule family receptors, has been implicated in the development and function of innate T lymphocytes. In this article, we provide evidence that in Ly9-deficient mice splenic transitional 1, MZ, and B1a B cells are markedly expanded, whereas development of B lymphocytes in bone marrow is unaltered. Consistent with an increased number of these B cell subsets, we detected elevated levels of IgG3 natural Abs and a striking increase of T-independent type II Abs after immunization with 2,4,6-trinitrophenyl-Ficoll in the serum of Ly9-deficient mice. The notion that Ly9 could be a negative regulator of innate-like B cell responses was supported by the observation that administering an mAb directed against Ly9 to wild-type mice selectively eliminated splenic MZ B cells and significantly reduced the numbers of B1 and transitional 1 B cells. In addition, Ly9 mAb dramatically diminished in vivo humoral responses and caused a selective downregulation of the CD19/CD21/CD81 complex on B cells and concomitantly an impaired B cell survival and activation in an Fc-independent manner. We conclude that altered signaling caused by the absence of Ly9 or induced by anti-Ly9 may negatively regulate development and function of innate-like B cells by modulating B cell activation thresholds. The results suggest that Ly9 could serve as a novel target for the treatment of B cell-related diseases.
Project description:Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule family receptors and the specific adapter signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein modulate the development of innate-like lymphocytes. In this study, we show that the thymus of Ly9-deficient mice contains an expanded population of CD8 single-positive cells with the characteristic phenotype of innate memory-like CD8(+) T cells. Moreover, the proportion of these innate CD8(+) T cells increased dramatically postinfection with mouse CMV. Gene expression profiling of Ly9-deficient mice thymi showed a significant upregulation of IL-4 and promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger. Analyses of Ly9(-/-)IL4ra(-/-) double-deficient mice revealed that IL-4 was needed to generate the thymic innate CD8(+) T cell subset. Furthermore, increased numbers of invariant NKT cells were detected in Ly9-deficient thymi. In wild-type mice, IL-4 levels induced by ?-galactosylceramide injection could be inhibited by a mAb against Ly9. Thus, Ly9 plays a unique role as an inhibitory cell surface receptor regulating the size of the thymic innate CD8(+) T cell pool and the development of invariant NKT cells.
Project description:Sjögren's Syndrome (SjS) is a common chronic autoimmune disease characterized by the B cell hyperactivation, lymphocyte infiltration, and tissue damage of exocrine glands. It can also present life-threatening extraglandular manifestations, such as pulmonary and hepatic involvement, renal inflammation and marginal zone (MZ) B cell lymphoma. Several biologic agents have been tested in SjS but none has shown significant efficacy. Here, we report the effects of Ly9 (CD229) antibody targeting, a cell surface molecule that belongs to the SLAM family of immunomodulatory receptors, using NOD.H-2<sup>h4</sup> mice as a model of SjS-like disease. Female mice were treated with anti-Ly9 antibody or isotype control at week 24, when all mice present SjS related autoantibodies, salivary gland infiltrates, and marginal zone (MZ) B cell pool enlargement. Antibody injection depleted key lymphocyte subsets involved in SjS pathology such as MZ, B1, and germinal center B cells in spleen and draining lymph nodes without inducing a general immunosuppression. Importantly, mice receiving anti-Ly9 mAb showed a reduced lymphocyte infiltrate within salivary glands. This reduction may be, in part, explained by the down-regulation of L-selectin and alfa4/beta7 integrin induced by the anti-Ly9 antibody. Furthermore, levels of anti-nuclear autoantibodies were reduced after anti-Ly9 treatment. These data indicate that Ly9 is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of SjS.
Project description:Signalling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) family members regulate activation and inhibition in the innate and adaptive immune systems. Genome-wide association studies identified their genetic locus (1q23) as highly polymorphic and associated with susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Here we show that the Val602 variant of the non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs509749 in the SLAM family member CD229 (Ly9, SLAMF3) has a two-fold lower affinity compared with the SLE-associated Met602 variant for the small adaptor protein SAP. Comparison of the two variants in T-cell lines revealed the Val602 variant to be significantly more highly expressed than CD229 Met602 . Activation was diminished in cells expressing CD229 Val602 compared with CD229 Met602 as measured by up-regulation of CD69. There was no correlation between homozygosity at rs509749 and activation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors. These findings identify potential mechanisms by which a single SNP can perturb fine-tuning in the immune system with significant functional consequences.
Project description:Several genes within a syntenic region of human and mouse chromosome 1 are associated with predisposition to systemic lupus erythematosus. Analyses of lupus-prone congenic mice have pointed to an important role for the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule family (slamf)6 surface receptor in lupus pathogenesis. In this article, we demonstrate that a second member of the Slamf gene family, Slamf4 (Cd244), contributes to lupus-related autoimmunity. B6.Slamf4(-/-) mice spontaneously develop activated CD4 T cells and B cells and increased numbers of T follicular helper cells and a proportion develop autoantibodies to nuclear Ags. B6.Slamf4(-/-) mice also exhibit markedly increased autoantibody production in the B6.C-H-2bm12/KhEg ? B6 transfer model of lupus. Although slamf4 function is best characterized in NK cells, the enhanced humoral autoimmunity of B6.Slamf4(-/-) mice is NK cell independent, as judged by depletion studies. Taken together, our findings reveal that slamf4 has an NK cell-independent negative regulatory role in the pathogenesis of lupus a normally non-autoimmune prone genetic background.
Project description:The signalling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) family receptors play important roles in modulating immune responses. Previous studies in murine models and patients have suggested an association of the SLAM family (SLAMF) members with the development of autoimmunity, particularly systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Since previous investigations on CD244 expression have focussed on NK and T cells, the aim of this study was to evaluate the surface expression of major SLAMF members across monocytes and polymorphonuclear cells in an Asian SLE cohort and explore their potential associations with SLE-related disease activity and autoantibodies. Thirty-nine SLE patients and twenty-nine healthy controls (HC) were evaluated for the expression of CD150, CD84, CD229, CD48, CD244, CD352 and CD319. We determined a significantly lower expression of CD244 on monocytes in SLE patients compared to HC. Furthermore, monocyte CD244 expression was negatively associated with several serum autoantibody titres. Our findings suggest that this molecule plays an important role in immune tolerance mechanisms and should be investigated further.
Project description:Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy and most patients eventually succumb to the disease. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells targeting B-Cell Maturation Antigen (BCMA) on MM cells have shown high-response rates, but limited durability. CD229/LY9 is a cell surface receptor present on B and T lymphocytes that is universally and strongly expressed on MM plasma cells. Here, we develop CD229 CAR T cells that are highly active in vitro and in vivo against MM plasma cells, memory B cells, and MM-propagating cells. We do not observe fratricide during CD229 CAR T cell production, as CD229 is downregulated in T cells during activation. In addition, while CD229 CAR T cells target normal CD229high T cells, they spare functional CD229neg/low T cells. These findings indicate that CD229 CAR T cells may be an effective treatment for patients with MM.
Project description:The inhibitory IgG Fc receptor (Fc?RIIB) deficiency and 129 strain-derived signaling lymphocyte activation molecules (129-SLAMs) are proposed to contribute to the lupus phenotype in Fc?RIIB-deficient mice generated using 129 ES cells and backcrossed to C57BL/6 mice (B6.129.RIIBKO). In this study, we examine the individual contributions and the cellular mechanisms by which Fc?RIIB deficiency and 129-derived SLAM family genes promote dysregulated spontaneous germinal center (Spt-GC) B cell and follicular helper T cell (Tfh) responses in B6.129.RIIBKO mice. We find that B6 mice congenic for the 129-derived SLAM locus (B6.129-SLAM) and B6 mice deficient in Fc?RIIB (B6.RIIBKO) have increased Spt-GC B cell responses compared to B6 controls but significantly lower than B6.129.RIIBKO mice. These data indicate that both Fc?RIIB deficiency and 129-SLAMs contribute to elevated Spt-GC B cell responses in B6.129.RIIBKO mice. However, only 129-SLAMs contribute significantly to augmented Tfh responses in B6.129.RIIBKO mice, and do so by a combination of T cell-dependent effects and enhanced B cell and DC-dependent antigen presentation to T cells. Elevated Spt-GC B cell responses in mice with Fc?RIIB deficiency and polymorphic 129-SLAMs were associated with elevated metabolic activity, improved GC B cell survival and increased differentiation of naïve B cells into GC B cell phenotype. Our data suggest that the interplay between 129-SLAM expression on B cells, T cells and DCs is central to the alteration of the GC tolerance checkpoint, and that deficiency of Fc?RIIB on B cells is necessary to augment Spt-GC responses, pathogenic autoantibodies, and lupus disease.
Project description:The nine SLAM family (Slamf) receptors are positive or negative regulators of adaptive and innate immune responses, and of several autoimmune diseases. Here we report that the transfer of Slamf6-/- B6 CD4+ T cells into co-isogenic bm12 mice causes SLE-like autoimmunity with elevated levels of autoantibodies. In addition, significantly higher percentages of Tfh cells and IFN-?-producing CD4+ cells, as well as GC B cells were observed. Interestingly, the expression of the Slamf6-H1 isoform in Slamf6-/- CD4+ T cells did not induce this lupus-like phenotype. By contrast, Slamf1-/- or Slamf5-/- CD4+ T cells caused the same pathology as WT CD4+ T cells. As the transfer of Slamf [1+6]-/- or Slamf [1+5+6]-/- CD4+ T cells induced WT levels of autoantibodies, the presence of Slamf1 was requisite for the induction of increased levels of autoantibodies by Slamf6-/- CD4+ T cells. We conclude that Slamf6 functions as an inhibitory receptor that controls autoimmune responses.