Xyolide, a bioactive nonenolide from an Amazonian endophytic fungus, Xylaria feejeensis.
ABSTRACT: Endophytes isolated from tropical plants represent a largely untapped reservoir of bioactive secondary metabolites. We screened a library of fungal endophyte extracts for inhibition of the plant pathogen, Pythium ultimum, and purified an active compound using bioassay-guided fractionation. A new nonenolide, (4S,7S,8S,9R)-4-O-succinyl-7,8-dihydroxy-9-heptyl-nonen-9-olide, was isolated and named xyolide. The structure was elucidated by a combination of 1D and 2D NMR methods and the absolute configuration was determined by exciton-coupled circular dichroism. The MIC of xyolide against P. ultimum was 425 µM.
Project description:THE TITLE COMPOUND [SYSTEMATIC NAME: (1S,4S,5R,7S,8S,9R,10R,11S,13S,14S,16S,17R)-N-methyl-8,14-dihy-droxy-1,16-tri-meth-oxy-4-(meth-oxy-methyl-ene)aconitane], C(24)H(39)NO(5), was isolated from the roots of Aconitum carmichaelii Debx., which is known as 'Chuanwu' in Chinese traditional herbal medicine. The mol-ecule has an aconitane carbon skeleton with four six-membered rings and two five-membered rings, including a six-membered N-containing heterocyclic ring. Both five-membered rings adopt envelope conformations. The four six-membered adopt chair conformations. Two intra-molecular O-H?O hydrogen bonds occur.
Project description:Chemical examination of a South China Sea soft coral Lobophytum sp. led to the isolation of three new ?-methylene-?-lactone-containing cembranoids, (1R*,3R*, 4R*,14R*,7E,11E)-3,4-epoxycembra-7,11,15(17)-trien-16,14-olide (1), (1R*,7S*,14S*,3E, 11E)-7-hydroperoxycembra-3,8(19),11,15(17)-tetraen-16,14-olide (2), and (1R*,7S*,14S*, 3E,11E)-18-acetoxy-7-hydroperoxycembra-3,8(19),11,15(17)-tetraen-16,14-olide (3), along with eleven known analogues 4-14. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated through extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR data. Compounds 1-3 exhibited moderate cytotoxic activity against the selected tumor cell lines. Moreover, 2 and 3 were found to be moderate inhibitors against the bacteria S. aureus and S. pneumoniae.
Project description:Carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) are involved in the metabolism of glycoconjugates, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides and, in the case of plant pathogens, in the degradation of the host cell wall and storage compounds. We performed an in silico analysis of CAZymes predicted from the genomes of seven Pythium species (Py. aphanidermatum, Py. arrhenomanes, Py. irregulare, Py. iwayamai, Py. ultimum var. ultimum, Py. ultimum var. sporangiiferum and Py. vexans) using the "CAZymes Analysis Toolkit" and "Database for Automated Carbohydrate-active Enzyme Annotation" and compared them to previously published oomycete genomes. Growth of Pythium spp. was assessed in a minimal medium containing selected carbon sources that are usually present in plants. The in silico analyses, coupled with our in vitro growth assays, suggest that most of the predicted CAZymes are involved in the metabolism of the oomycete cell wall with starch and sucrose serving as the main carbohydrate sources for growth of these plant pathogens. The genomes of Pythium spp. also encode pectinases and cellulases that facilitate degradation of the plant cell wall and are important in hyphal penetration; however, the species examined in this study lack the requisite genes for the complete saccharification of these carbohydrates for use as a carbon source. Genes encoding for xylan, xyloglucan, (galacto)(gluco)mannan and cutin degradation were absent or infrequent in Pythium spp.. Comparative analyses of predicted CAZymes in oomycetes indicated distinct evolutionary histories. Furthermore, CAZyme gene families among Pythium spp. were not uniformly distributed in the genomes, suggesting independent gene loss events, reflective of the polyphyletic relationships among some of the species.
Project description:Interactions between plant-associated microorganisms play important roles in suppressing plant diseases and enhancing plant growth and development. While competition between plant-associated bacteria and plant pathogens has long been thought to be an important means of suppressing plant diseases microbiologically, unequivocal evidence supporting such a mechanism has been lacking. We present evidence here that competition for plant-derived unsaturated long-chain fatty acids between the biological control bacterium Enterobacter cloacae and the seed-rotting oomycete, Pythium ultimum, results in disease suppression. Since fatty acids from seeds and roots are required to elicit germination responses of P. ultimum, we generated mutants of E. cloacae to evaluate the role of E. cloacae fatty acid metabolism on the suppression of Pythium sporangium germination and subsequent plant infection. Two mutants of E. cloacae EcCT-501R3, Ec31 (fadB) and EcL1 (fadL), were reduced in beta-oxidation and fatty acid uptake, respectively. Both strains failed to metabolize linoleic acid, to inactivate the germination-stimulating activity of cottonseed exudate and linoleic acid, and to suppress Pythium seed rot in cotton seedling bioassays. Subclones containing fadBA or fadL complemented each of these phenotypes in Ec31 and EcL1, respectively. These data provide strong evidence for a competitive exclusion mechanism for the biological control of P. ultimum-incited seed infections by E. cloacae where E. cloacae prevents the germination of P. ultimum sporangia by the efficient metabolism of fatty acid components of seed exudate and thus prevents seed infections.
Project description:Pythium ultimum is a ubiquitous oomycete plant pathogen responsible for a variety of diseases on a broad range of crop and ornamental species.The P. ultimum genome (42.8 Mb) encodes 15,290 genes and has extensive sequence similarity and synteny with related Phytophthora species, including the potato blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Whole transcriptome sequencing revealed expression of 86% of genes, with detectable differential expression of suites of genes under abiotic stress and in the presence of a host. The predicted proteome includes a large repertoire of proteins involved in plant pathogen interactions, although, surprisingly, the P. ultimum genome does not encode any classical RXLR effectors and relatively few Crinkler genes in comparison to related phytopathogenic oomycetes. A lower number of enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were present compared to Phytophthora species, with the notable absence of cutinases, suggesting a significant difference in virulence mechanisms between P. ultimum and more host-specific oomycete species. Although we observed a high degree of orthology with Phytophthora genomes, there were novel features of the P. ultimum proteome, including an expansion of genes involved in proteolysis and genes unique to Pythium. We identified a small gene family of cadherins, proteins involved in cell adhesion, the first report of these in a genome outside the metazoans.Access to the P. ultimum genome has revealed not only core pathogenic mechanisms within the oomycetes but also lineage-specific genes associated with the alternative virulence and lifestyles found within the pythiaceous lineages compared to the Peronosporaceae.
Project description:The kingdom Stramenopile includes diatoms, brown algae, and oomycetes. Plant pathogenic oomycetes, including Phytophthora, Pythium and downy mildew species, cause devastating diseases on a wide range of host species and have a significant impact on agriculture. Here, we report comparative analyses on the genomes of thirteen straminipilous species, including eleven plant pathogenic oomycetes, to explore common features linked to their pathogenic lifestyle. We report the sequencing, assembly, and annotation of six Pythium genomes and comparison with other stramenopiles including photosynthetic diatoms, and other plant pathogenic oomycetes such as Phytophthora species, Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis, and Pythium ultimum var. ultimum. Novel features of the oomycete genomes include an expansion of genes encoding secreted effectors and plant cell wall degrading enzymes in Phytophthora species and an over-representation of genes involved in proteolytic degradation and signal transduction in Pythium species. A complete lack of classical RxLR effectors was observed in the seven surveyed Pythium genomes along with an overall reduction of pathogenesis-related gene families in H. arabidopsidis. Comparative analyses revealed fewer genes encoding enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism in Pythium species and H. arabidopsidis as compared to Phytophthora species, suggesting variation in virulence mechanisms within plant pathogenic oomycete species. Shared features between the oomycetes and diatoms revealed common mechanisms of intracellular signaling and transportation. Our analyses demonstrate the value of comparative genome analyses for exploring the evolution of pathogenesis and survival mechanisms in the oomycetes. The comparative analyses of seven Pythium species with the closely related oomycetes, Phytophthora species and H. arabidopsidis, and distantly related diatoms provide insight into genes that underlie virulence.
Project description:A new C11-norisoprenoid derivative, sargassumone (1), has been isolated from Sargassum naozhouense together with six known norisoprenoids and a highly oxygenated cyclopentene: (2R,6S,8S,9S)-hexahydro-2,9-dihydroxy-4,4,8-trimethyl-6-acetyloxy-3(2H)-benzofuranone (2), (6S,8S,9R)-hexahydro-6,9-dihydroxy-4,4,8-trimethyl-2(2H)-benzofuranone (3), (6S,8S,9R)-hexahydro-6,9-dihydroxy-4,4,8-trimethyl-2(2H)-benzofuranone (4), loliolide (5), (+)-epiloliolide (6), spheciospongones A (7), and (+)-kjellmanianone (8). Compound 1 was identified on the basis of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS) analysis, and the absolute stereochemistry was defined by NOESY spectroscopy, minimizing energy calculation, and circular dichroism (CD) spectra. The known compounds 2-8, isolated from S. naozhouense for the first time, were identified by comparison of their physical and spectroscopic data with those reported in the literature. Compound 6 was tested for its inhibitory activity against protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), antioxidant activity with 1,1-diphyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals, and antimicrobial activity against resistant clinical isolates of Candida albicans, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and Escherichia coli.
Project description:Nogalamycin is an anthracycline antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nogalater. Its aglycone has a unique stereochemistry (7S, 9S, 10R) compared to that of most other anthracyclines (7S, 9R, 10R). The gene snoaL, encoding a nogalonic acid methyl ester cyclase for nogalamycin, was used to generate nogalamycinone, demonstrating that the single cyclase dictates the C-9 stereochemistry of anthracyclines.
Project description:Novel natural products 7R, 8R, 7'R, 9'S-verniciasin A (1a), 7S, 8S, 7'S, 9'R- verniciasin A (1b), 7R, 8R, 7'R, 9'S-7'-methoxylverniciasin A (2a) and 7S, 8S, 7'S, 9'R-7'-methoxylverniciasin A (2b) were characterized from the seed capsule of Vernicia fordii. And the unique 9-O-9'-7, 9'-cyclo-8, 1'-neolignan skeleton with a seven-membered ring, was identified by extensive spectroscopic analysis. Further the possible biosynthetic pathway was briefly discussed. Interestingly, 1a, 2a, 1b and 2b all exhibited significant stereoselective inhibitory effects on NO production in LPS-induced BV2 microglia cell. Then the primary mechanism of the bioactivities and stereoselectivity was explored by means of bioassay and molecular docking.
Project description:The synthesis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the first events following pathogenic interactions in eukaryotic cells, and NADPH oxidases are involved in the formation of such ROS. The nox1 gene of Trichoderma harzianum was cloned, and its role in antagonism against phytopathogens was analyzed in nox1-overexpressed transformants. The increased levels of nox1 expression in these transformants were accompanied by an increase in ROS production during their direct confrontation with Pythium ultimum. The transformants displayed an increased hydrolytic pattern, as determined by comparing protease, cellulase, and chitinase activities with those for the wild type. In confrontation assays against P. ultimum the nox1-overexpressed transformants were more effective than the wild type, but not in assays against Botrytis cinerea or Rhizoctonia solani. A transcriptomic analysis using a Trichoderma high-density oligonucleotide (HDO) microarray also showed that, compared to gene expression for the interaction of wild-type T. harzianum and P. ultimum, genes related to protease, cellulase, and chitinase activities were differentially upregulated in the interaction of a nox1-overexpressed transformant with this pathogen. Our results show that nox1 is involved in T. harzianum ROS production and antagonism against P. ultimum.